World Development Report 2012

Gender Equality and Development
Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821388126
Category: Social Science
Page: 456
View: 9559

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This year's World Development Report looks at facts and trends regarding the various dimensions of gender equality in the context of the development process.

World Development Report 2012

Gender Equality and Development
Author: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World BankThe International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
Publisher: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 456
View: 312

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The lives of women around the world have improved dramatically, at a pace and scope difficult to imagine even 25 years ago. Women have made unprecedented gains in rights, education, health, and access to jobs and livelihoods. More countries than ever guarantee equal rights in property, marriage, and other domains. Gendergaps in primary schooling have closed in many countries, while in a third of all countries girls now outnumber boys in secondary school. And more young women than men attend universities in 60 countries. Women are using their education to participate more in the labor force: they now make up for 40 percent of the global labor force and 43 percent of its farmers. Moreover, women now live longer than men in every region of the world. Despite the progress, gaps remain in many areas. Women are more likely to die—relative to males—in many low- and middle-income countries than their counterparts in rich countries,especially in childhood and during their reproductive years. Primary and secondary school enrollments for girls remain much lower than for boys in many Sub-Saharan African countries and some parts of South Asia, as well as among disadvantaged populations. Women are more likely than men to work as unpaid family laborers or in the informal sector, to farm smaller plots and grow less profitable crops, operate in smaller firms and less profi table sectors, and generally earn less. Women—especially poor women—have less say over decisions and less control over household resources. And in most countries, fewer women participate in formal politics than men and are underrepresented in the upper echelons. The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development argues that closing these persistent gender gaps matters. It matters because gender equality is a core development objective in its own right. But it is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. Building on a growing body of knowledge on the economics of gender equality and development, the Report identifies the areas where gender gaps are most significant—both intrinsically and in terms of their potential development payoff—and where growth alone cannot solve the issues. It then sets forth four priorities for public action: Reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps where they remain Improving access to economic opportunities for women Increasing women’s voice and agency in the household and in society Limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.

Toward Gender Equality in East Asia and the Pacific

A Companion to the World Development Report
Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821396269
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 370
View: 5358

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Toward Gender Equality in East Asia and the Pacific examines the relationship between gender equality and development and outlines an agenda for public action to promote more effective and inclusive development in East Asian and Pacific countries.

World Development Report 2013

Jobs
Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821395769
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 420
View: 2526

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Jobs provide higher earnings and better benefits as countries grow, but they are also a driver of development. Poverty falls as people work their way out of hardship and as jobs empowering women lead to greater investments in children. Efficiency increases as workers get better at what they do, as more productive jobs appear, and less productive ones disappear. Societies flourish as jobs bring together people from different ethnic and social backgrounds and provide alternatives to conflict. Jobs are thus more than a byproduct of economic growth. They are transformational —they are what we earn, what we do, and even who we are. High unemployment and unmet job expectations among youth are the most immediate concerns. But in many developing countries, where farming and self-employment are prevalent and safety nets are modest are best, unemployment rates can be low. In these countries, growth is seldom jobless. Most of their poor work long hours but simply cannot make ends meet. And the violation of basic rights is not uncommon. Therefore, the number of jobs is not all that matters: jobs with high development payoffs are needed. Confronted with these challenges, policy makers ask difficult questions. Should countries build their development strategies around growth, or should they focus on jobs? Can entrepreneurship be fostered, especially among the many microenterprises in developing countries, or are entrepreneurs born? Are greater investments in education and training a prerequisite for employability, or can skills be built through jobs? In times of major crises and structural shifts, should jobs, not just workers, be protected? And is there a risk that policies supporting job creation in one country will come at the expense of jobs in other countries? The World Development Report 2013: Jobs offers answers to these and other difficult questions by looking at jobs as drivers of development—not as derived labor demand—and by considering all types of jobs—not just formal wage employment. The Report provides a framework that cuts across sectors and shows that the best policy responses vary across countries, depending on their levels of development, endowments, demography, and institutions. Policy fundamentals matter in all cases, as they enable a vibrant private sector, the source of most jobs in the world. Labor policies can help as well, even if they are less critical than is often assumed. Development policies, from making smallholder farming viable to fostering functional cities to engaging in global markets, hold the key to success.

Global Monitoring Report 2012

Food Prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals
Author: World Bank,International Monetary Fund
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821395238
Category: Medical
Page: 192
View: 1811

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This year's report summarizes the short- and long-term impact of food prices on several MDGs, explores future trends, and review policy responses, from domestic policies such as social safety nets, nutritional programs and agricultural policies, to regional trade policies to support by the international community.

Africa Human Development Report 2012

Towards a Food Secure Future
Author: United Nations Development Programme
Publisher: United Nations Publications
ISBN: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: 176
View: 7422

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Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of hunger in the world. Until this situation improves, the human development prospects of millions of Africans will remain at risk. UNDP's first Africa Human Development Report shows that food security and human development reinforce each other. If African countries are to realise their long-term potential, the report says, they must boost agricultural productivity to both improve the availability of food and reduce poverty. Policies to enhance nutrition are central to ensuring that access to food translates into human development. The report argues further that local populations must have the resources and decision-making power to produce and consume nutritious food throughout the year, overcoming the risks represented by continuing conflict, climate change and variations in food prices.

Human Development Report 2012

The Rise of the South - Human Progress in a Diverse World
Author: United Nations
Publisher: United Nations Publications
ISBN: 9789211263404
Category: Political Science
Page: 202
View: 3399

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The 2013 Human Development Report analyses the causes and consequences of the continuing "Rise of the South" and identifies policies rooted in this new reality that could promote greater progress throughout the world for decades to come. The Report calls for far better representation of the South in global governance systems and points to potential new sources of financing within the South for essential public goods. With fresh analytical insights and clear proposals for policy reforms, the Report charts a course for people in all regions to face shared human development challenges together, fairly and effectively.

The World Bank Legal Review

Legal Innovation and Empowerment for Development
Author: Hassane Cisse,Sam Muller,Chantal Thomas,Wang Chenguang
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821395076
Category: Law
Page: 384
View: 4798

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The fourth volume of the World Bank Legal Review contains essays that examine how innovations in law, and efforts to empower the poor, can help achieve development objectives.

Economic Growth and Employment in Vietnam


Author: David Lim
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317818598
Category: Social Science
Page: 184
View: 4308

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Vietnam has enjoyed significant economic success since the implementation of its "doi moi" reforms, including rapid growth in GDP, exports and foreign and domestic investment, and a shedding of poorly-performing state-owned enterprises. Despite this, however, the economic situation for many ordinary people in Vietnam is fragile, with income only just above the poverty line, and high unemployment, especially among the young. In addition, inflation is high, and the state-owned sector is still large, much of it still performing badly. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current economic situation in Vietnam. It outlines the state of the economy, paying special attention to employment, discusses government policies including on trade and integration with the global economy, and concludes by assessing the key challenges facing Vietnam’s economy going forward.

The Little Data Book on Gender 2011


Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821388827
Category: Social Science
Page: 246
View: 704

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This handy pocket guide is a quick reference for users interested in the gender statistics. The book presents gender-disaggregated data for more than 200 countries in an easy country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation and the Millennium Development Goals. The book s summary pages cover regional and income group aggregates.

The International Handbook on Gender, Migration and Transnationalism


Author: Laura Oso,Natalia Ribas-Mateos
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1781951470
Category: Social Science
Page: 512
View: 6743

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The highly unique International Handbook on Gender, Migration and Transnationalism represents a state-of-the-art review of the critical importance of the links between gender and migration in a globalizing world. It draws on original, largely field-based contributions by authors across a range of disciplinary provenances worldwide. This unprecedented and ambitious Handbook addresses core debates on issues of gender, migration, transnationalism and development from a migrationdevelopment nexus. Using an analytical approach, it explores the influence of global changes namely the analysis of transnational migration flows from the perspective of the articulation of production and reproduction chains. Particular attention is paid to so-called global care chains with new models developed around the emerging trends played out by women in contemporary mobility flows. This path-breaking Handbook will provide a thought-provoking read for a multidisciplinary audience of academics, researchers and students of social science disciplines encompassing: economics, sociology, geography, demography, political science and political sociology, migration studies, family and gender studies and labour markets. The Handbook will also be of major interest to and importance for local and national governments, international agencies and their policymakers and administrators.

Entwicklung und die nächste Generation


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783770012664
Category:
Page: 374
View: 5825

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Standardwerk zu entwicklungspolitischen Fragen: In den Entwicklungsländern leben 1,3 Milliarden junge Menschen zwischen 12 und 24 Jahren - mehr als jemals zuvor. Viele können weder lesen noch schreiben, sind arbeitslos oder in Berufen ohne Perspektive. Sie müssen dringend gefördert werden, sonst drohen soziale Spannungen über die Region hinaus. Daher untersucht der Weltentwicklungsbericht, welche Unterstützung die Jugendlichen benötigen. Werden die Bildungssysteme den Anforderungen gerecht? Wie gestaltet sich der Eintritt in den Arbeitsmarkt? Mit welchen Maßnahmen kann Aids, Drogenmissbrauch und anderen Gesundheitsrisiken vorgebeugt werden? Unter welchen Bedingungen ist es möglich, eine Familie zu gründen? Der Weltentwicklungsbericht ist eines der wichtigsten Standardwerke zu den entwicklungspolitischen Fragen unserer Zeit. Auf Basis umfangreichen Datenmaterials bietet er fundierte Analysen zu aktuellen Themen der Weltwirtschaft.

The Evolving Sphere of Food Security


Author: Rosamond L. Naylor
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199398542
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 416
View: 8803

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Hundreds of millions of people still suffer from chronic hunger and food insecurity despite sufficient levels of global food production. The poor's inability to afford adequate diets remains the biggest constraint to solving hunger, but the dynamics of global food insecurity are complex and demand analysis that extends beyond the traditional domains of economics and agriculture. How do the policies used to promote food security in one country affect nutrition, food access, natural resources, and national security in other countries? How do the priorities and challenges of achieving food security change over time as countries develop economically? The Evolving Sphere of Food Security seeks to answer these two important questions and others by exploring the interconnections of food security to security of many kinds: energy, water, health, climate, the environment, and national security. Through personal stories of research in the field and policy advising at local and global scales, a multidisciplinary group of scholars provide readers with a real-world sense of the opportunities and challenges involved in alleviating food insecurity. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, management of HIV/AIDS, the establishment of an equitable system of land property rights, and investment in solar-powered irrigation play an important role in improving food security---particularly in the face of global climate change. Meanwhile, food price spikes associated with the United States' biofuels policy continue to have spillover effects on the world's rural poor with implications for stability and national security. The Evolving Sphere of Food Security traces four key areas of the food security field: 1) the political economy of food and agriculture; 2) challenges for the poorest billion; 3) agriculture's dependence on resources and the environment; and 4) food in a national and international security context. This book connects these areas in a way that tells an integrated story about human lives, resource use, and the policy process.

The Little Data Book on Gender 2013


Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821398210
Category: Social Science
Page: 246
View: 4874

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This handy pocket guide is a quick reference for users interested in gender statistics. It presents gender-disaggregated data for more than 200 countries in an easy country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation and the Millennium Development Goals. The book s summary pages cover regional and income group aggregates.

Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets

Bridging the Gender Gap in Eastern and Southern Africa
Author: Jemimah Njuki,Elizabeth Waithanji,Joyce Lyimo-Macha,Juliet Kariuki,Samuel Mburu
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136186212
Category: Social Science
Page: 148
View: 1135

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This book provides empirical evidence from Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique and from different production systems of the importance of livestock as an asset to women and their participation in livestock and livestock product markets. It explores the issues of intra-household income management and economic benefits of livestock markets to women, focusing on how types of markets, the types of products and women’s participation in markets influence their access to livestock income. The book further analyses the role of livestock ownership, especially women’s ownership of livestock, in influencing household food security though increasing household dietary diversity and food adequacy. Additional issues addressed include access to resources, information and financial services to enable women more effectively to participate in livestock production and marketing, and some of the factors that influence this access. Practical strategies for increasing women’s market participation and access to information and services are discussed. The book ends with recommendations on how to mainstream gender in livestock research and development if livestock are to serve as a pathway out of poverty for the poor and especially for women.

Governing the Nile River Basin

The Search for a New Legal Regime
Author: Mwangi Kimenyi,John Mbaku
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815726562
Category: Political Science
Page: 150
View: 8008

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The effective and efficient management of water is a major problem, not just for economic growth and development in the Nile River basin, but also for the peaceful coexistence of the millions of people who live in the region. Of critical importance to the people of this part of Africa is the reasonable, equitable and sustainable management of the waters of the Nile River and its tributaries. Written by scholars trained in economics and law, and with significant experience in African political economy, this book explores new ways to deal with conflict over the allocation of the waters of the Nile River and its tributaries. The monograph provides policymakers in the Nile River riparian states and other stakeholders with practical and effective policy options for dealing with what has become a very contentious problem—the effective management of the waters of the Nile River. The analysis is quite rigorous but also extremely accessible.

Toxic Aid

Economic Collapse and Recovery in Tanzania
Author: Sebastian Edwards
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191015369
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 232
View: 542

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For many years Tanzania was the darling of international aid agencies. During the 1970s it received more assistance per capita than any other nation in the world. And yet, the economy performed dismally: growth was negative, exports collapsed, and poverty increased massively. In the mid 1980s, however, the international community changed tacks and developed an approach based on conditionality and 'program ownership'. Since 1996 the country has grown steadily, and social conditions have improved significantly. This book provides an economic history of Tanzania, since independence in 1961. It covers the policies of African Socialism and the Arusha Declaration, the collapse of the early 1980s, the rocky relationships with the IMF, and the reforms of the 1990s and 2000s.

Finance & Development, March 2012


Author: International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1463977050
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 60
View: 1241

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Young people, hardest hit by the global economic downturn, are speaking out and demanding change. F&D looks at the need to urgently address the challenges facing youth and create opportunities for them. Harvard professor David Bloom lays out the scope of the problem and emphasizes the importance of listening to young people in "Youth in the Balance." "Making the Grade" looks at how to teach today's young people what they need to get jobs. IMF Deputy Managing Director, Nemat Shafik shares her take on the social and economic consequences of youth unemployment in our "Straight Talk" column. "Scarred Generation" looks at the effects the global economic crisis had on young workers in advanced economies, and we hear directly from young people across the globe in "Voices of Youth." Renminbi's rise, financial system regulation, and boosting GDP by empowering women. Also in the magazine, we examine the rise of the Chinese currency, look at the role of the credit rating agencies, discuss how to boost the empowerment of women, and present our primer on macroprudential regulation, seen as increasingly important to financial stability. People in economics - C. Fred Bergsten, American Globalist. Back to basics - The multi-dimensional role of banks in our financial systems.

On Norms and Agency

Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries
Author: Ana María Muñoz Boudet,Patti Petesch,Carolyn Turk
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 082139892X
Category: Social Science
Page: 232
View: 1347

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Based on focus groups and interviews with nearly 4,000 women, men, girls, and boys from 20 countries, this book explores areas that are less often studied in gender and development: gender norms and agency. It reveals how little gender norms have changed, how similar they are across countries, and how they are being challenged and contested.