Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things


Author: George Lakoff
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226471012
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 632
View: 489

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"Its publication should be a major event for cognitive linguistics and should pose a major challenge for cognitive science. In addition, it should have repercussions in a variety of disciplines, ranging from anthropology and psychology to epistemology and the philosophy of science. . . . Lakoff asks: What do categories of language and thought reveal about the human mind? Offering both general theory and minute details, Lakoff shows that categories reveal a great deal."—David E. Leary, American Scientist

Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things


Author: George Lakoff
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226468044
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 614
View: 6841

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Focusing on studies of how humans categorize objects and ideas, this book examines the new understanding of human thought which proposes that human reason is imaginative, metaphorical, and intrinsically linked with the human body

Philosophy in the Flesh

The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought
Author: George Lakoff,Mark Johnson
Publisher: Basic Books (AZ)
ISBN: N.A
Category: Philosophy
Page: 624
View: 4013

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Reexamines the Western philosophical tradition, looking at the basic concepts of the mind, time, causation, morality, and the self

Metaphors We Live By


Author: George Lakoff,Mark Johnson
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226470997
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 256
View: 9302

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The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure our most basic understandings of our experience, they are "metaphors we live by"—metaphors that can shape our perceptions and actions without our ever noticing them. In this updated edition of Lakoff and Johnson's influential book, the authors supply an afterword surveying how their theory of metaphor has developed within the cognitive sciences to become central to the contemporary understanding of how we think and how we express our thoughts in language.

Louder Than Words

The New Science of how the Mind Makes Meaning
Author: Benjamin K. Bergen
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465028292
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 296
View: 7035

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Describes how meaning is conveyed and processed in the mind, answering questions about how people can understand information about things they have never seen in person and why they move their hands and arms when they speak.

More than Cool Reason

A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor
Author: George Lakoff,Mark Turner
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226470989
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 237
View: 7934

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"The authors restore metaphor to our lives by showing us that it's never gone away. We've merely been taught to talk as if it had: as though weather maps were more 'real' than the breath of autumn; as though, for that matter, Reason was really 'cool.' What we're saying whenever we say is a theme this book illumines for anyone attentive." — Hugh Kenner, Johns Hopkins University "In this bold and powerful book, Lakoff and Turner continue their use of metaphor to show how our minds get hold of the world. They have achieved nothing less than a postmodern Understanding Poetry, a new way of reading and teaching that makes poetry again important." — Norman Holland, University of Florida

Linguistic Categorization


Author: John R. Taylor
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199266646
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 308
View: 5551

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This text provides a readable and clearly articulated introduction to the field of cognitive linguistics. It explores the far-reaching implications of Eleanor Rosch's seminal work on categorization and prototype theory, extending the application of prototype theory from lexical semantics to morphology, syntax and phonology. The third edition is fully revised and updated to include the considerable developments in cognitive linguistics since 1987. It covers contemporary research on polysemy, meaning relatedness and metaphors, as well as expanding the discussion of syntactic categories and the relevance of computer simulations.

Semantic Structures


Author: Ray Jackendoff
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262600200
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 322
View: 571

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Semantic Structures is a large-scale study of conceptual structure and its lexical and syntactic expression in English that builds on the system of Conceptual Semantics described in Ray Jackendoff's earlier books Semantics and Cognition and Consciousness and the Computational Mind.Jackendoff summarizes the relevant arguments in his two previous books, setting out the basic parameters for the formalization of meaning, and comparing his mentalistic approach with Fodor's Language of Thought hypothesis. He then takes up the Problem of Meaning, extending the range of semantic fields encompassed by the Conceptual Semantics formalism, and the Problem of Correspondence, formalizing the relation between semantic and syntactic structure. Both of these problems must be fully addressed in order to develop a general theory of language that is concerned with syntax and semantics and their points of connection.Few books on lexical semantics present such a comprehensive analysis of such a wide range of phenomena from a unified perspective. Besides discussing the conceptual structures of hundreds of words and constructions, Jackendoff extends and deepens the theory to come to grips with such crucial issues as &Θ-roles and &Θ-marking; arguments, modifiers, and adjuncts; binding and control; and the thematic linking hierarchy.Ray Jackendoff is Chairman of the Program in Linguistics and Cognitive Science at Brandeis University.

From Molecule to Metaphor

A Neural Theory of Language
Author: Jerome Feldman
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262296888
Category: Psychology
Page: 384
View: 622

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In From Molecule to Metaphor, Jerome Feldman proposes a theory of language and thought that treats language not as an abstract symbol system but as a human biological ability that can be studied as a function of the brain, as vision and motor control are studied. This theory, he writes, is a "bridging theory" that works from extensive knowledge at two ends of a causal chain to explicate the links between. Although the cognitive sciences are revealing much about how our brains produce language and thought, we do not yet know exactly how words are understood or have any methodology for finding out. Feldman develops his theory in computer simulations -- formal models that suggest ways that language and thought may be realized in the brain. Combining key findings and theories from biology, computer science, linguistics, and psychology, Feldman synthesizes a theory by exhibiting programs that demonstrate the required behavior while remaining consistent with the findings from all disciplines.After presenting the essential results on language, learning, neural computation, the biology of neurons and neural circuits, and the mind/brain, Feldman introduces specific demonstrations and formal models of such topics as how children learn their first words, words for abstract and metaphorical concepts, understanding stories, and grammar (including "hot-button" issues surrounding the innateness of human grammar). With this accessible, comprehensive book Feldman offers readers who want to understand how our brains create thought and language a theory of language that is intuitively plausible and also consistent with existing scientific data at all levels.

The Linguistics Wars


Author: Randy Allen Harris
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199839069
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 368
View: 5523

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When it was first published in 1957, Noam Chomsky's Syntactic Structure seemed to be just a logical expansion of the reigning approach to linguistics. Soon, however, there was talk from Chomsky and his associates about plumbing mental structure; then there was a new phonology; and then there was a new set of goals for the field, cutting it off completely from its anthropological roots and hitching it to a new brand of psychology. Rapidly, all of Chomsky's ideas swept the field. While the entrenched linguists were not looking for a messiah, apparently many of their students were. There was a revolution, which colored the field of linguistics for the following decades. Chomsky's assault on Bloomfieldianism (also known as American Structuralism) and his development of Transformational-Generative Grammar was promptly endorsed by new linguistic recruits swelling the discipline in the sixties. Everyone was talking of a scientific revolution in linguistics, and major breakthroughs seemed imminent, but something unexpected happened--Chomsky and his followers had a vehement and public falling out. In The Linguistic Wars, Randy Allen Harris tells how Chomsky began reevaluating the field and rejecting the extensions his students and erstwhile followers were making. Those he rejected (the Generative Semanticists) reacted bitterly, while new students began to pursue Chomsky's updated vision of language. The result was several years of infighting against the backdrop of the notoriously prickly sixties. The outcome of the dispute, Harris shows, was not simply a matter of a good theory beating out a bad one. The debates followed the usual trajectory of most large-scale clashes, scientific or otherwise. Both positions changed dramatically in the course of the dispute--the triumphant Chomskyan position was very different from the initial one; the defeated generative semantics position was even more transformed. Interestingly, important features of generative semantics have since made their way into other linguistic approaches and continue to influence linguistics to this very day. And fairly high up on the list of borrowers is Noam Chomsky himself. The repercussions of the Linguistics Wars are still with us, not only in the bruised feelings and late-night war stories of the combatants, and in the contentious mood in many quarters, but in the way linguists currently look at language and the mind. Full of anecdotes and colorful portraits of key personalities, The Linguistics Wars is a riveting narrative of the course of an important intellectual controversy, and a revealing look into how scientists and scholars contend for theoretical glory.

Whose Freedom?

The Battle over America's Most Important Idea
Author: George Lakoff
Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
ISBN: 9781429989701
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 8417

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Since September 11, 2001, the Bush administration has relentlessly invoked the word "freedom." The United States can strike preemptively because "freedom is on the march." Social security should be privatized in order to protect individual freedoms. In the 2005 presidential inaugural speech, the words "freedom," "free," and "liberty" were used forty-nine times. "Freedom" is one of the most contested words in American political discourse, the keystone to the domestic and foreign policy battles that are racking this polarized nation. For many Democrats, it seems that President Bush's use of the word is meaningless and contradictory—deployed opportunistically to justify American military action abroad and the curtailing of civil liberties at home. But in Whose Freedom?, George Lakoff, an adviser to the Democratic party, shows that in fact the right has effected a devastatingly coherent and ideological redefinition of freedom. The conservative revolution has remade freedom in its own image and deployed it as a central weapon on the front lines of everything from the war on terror to the battles over religion in the classroom and abortion. In a deep and alarming analysis, Lakoff explains the mechanisms behind this hijacking of our most cherished political idea—and shows how progressives have not only failed to counter the right-wing attack on freedom but have failed to recognize its nature. Whose Freedom? argues forcefully what progressives must do to take back ground in this high-stakes war over the most central idea in American life.

Mappings in Thought and Language


Author: Gilles Fauconnier
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521599535
Category: Psychology
Page: 205
View: 693

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Meaning in everyday thought and language is constructed at lightning speed. We are not conscious of the staggering complexity of the cognitive operations that drive our simplest behavior. This 1997 book examines a central component of meaning construction: the mappings that link mental spaces. A deep result of the research is that the same principles operate at the highest levels of scientific, artistic, and literary thought, and at the lower levels of elementary understanding and sentence meaning. Some key cognitive operations are analogical mappings, conceptual integration and blending, discourse management, induction and recursion. The analyses are based on a rich array of attested data in ordinary language, humor, action and design, science, and narratives. Phenomena that receive attention include counterfactuals; time, tense, and mood; opacity; metaphor; fictive motion; grammatical constructions; quantification over cognitive domains.

A User's Guide to Thought and Meaning


Author: Ray Jackendoff
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191620688
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 288
View: 8712

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A User's Guide to Thought and Meaning presents a profound and arresting integration of the faculties of the mind - of how we think, speak, and see the world. Ray Jackendoff starts out by looking at languages and what the meanings of words and sentences actually do. He shows that meanings are more adaptive and complicated than they're commonly given credit for, and he is led to some basic questions: How do we perceive and act in the world? How do we talk about it? And how can the collection of neurons in the brain give rise to conscious experience? As it turns out, the organization of language, thought, and perception does not look much like the way we experience things, and only a small part of what the brain does is conscious. Jackendoff concludes that thought and meaning must be almost completely unconscious. What we experience as rational conscious thought - which we prize as setting us apart from the animals - in fact rides on a foundation of unconscious intuition. Rationality amounts to intuition enhanced by language. Written with an informality that belies both the originality of its insights and the radical nature of its conclusions, A User's Guide to Thought and Meaning is the author's most important book since the groundbreaking Foundations of Language in 2002.

Cognitive Linguistics


Author: William Croft,D. Alan Cruse
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139445221
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: N.A
View: 341

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Cognitive Linguistics argues that language is governed by general cognitive principles, rather than by a special-purpose language module. This introductory textbook surveys the field of cognitive linguistics as a distinct area of study, presenting its theoretical foundations and the arguments supporting it. Clearly organised and accessibly written, it provides a useful introduction to the relationship between language and cognitive processing in the human brain. It covers the main topics likely to be encountered in a course or seminar, and provides a synthesis of study and research in this fast-growing field of linguistics. The authors begin by explaining the conceptual structures and cognitive processes governing linguistic representation and behaviour, and go on to explore cognitive approaches to lexical semantics, as well as syntactic representation and analysis, focusing on the closely related frameworks of cognitive grammar and construction grammar. This much-needed introduction will be welcomed by students in linguistics and cognitive science.

Where Mathematics Comes from

How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics Into Being
Author: George Lakoff,Rafael E. Núñez
Publisher: Basic Books (AZ)
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: 493
View: 450

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Provides an in-depth analysis of the cognitive science of mathematical ideas that argues that conceptual metaphor plays a definitive role in mathematical ideas, exploring such concepts as arithmetic, algebra, sets, logic, and infinity. 20,000 first printing.

The Political Mind

A Cognitive Scientist's Guide to Your Brain and Its Politics
Author: George Lakoff
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1440637830
Category: Psychology
Page: 320
View: 5253

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A groundbreaking scientific examination of the way our brains understand politics from a New York Times bestselling author One of the world 's best-known linguists and cognitive scientists, George Lakoff has a knack for making science make sense for general readers. In his new book, Lakoff spells out what cognitive science has discovered about reason, and reveals that human reason is far more interesting than we thought it was. Reason is physical, mostly unconscious, metaphorical, emotion-laden, and tied to empathy-and there are biological explanations behind our moral and political thought processes. His call for a New Enlightenment is a bold and striking challenge to the cherished beliefs not only of philosophers, but of pundits, pollsters, and political leaders. The Political Mind is a passionate, erudite, and groundbreaking book that will appeal to anyone interested in how the mind works and how we function socially and politically.

The Language War


Author: Robin Tolmach Lakoff
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520216660
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 322
View: 1661

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The author of "Talking Power" gets to the heart of one of the most fascinating and pressing issues in American society today: who holds power and how they use it, keep it, or lose it. The linguist shows that the struggle for power and status at the end of the century is being played out as a war over language.

On Language

Chomsky's Classic Works Language and Responsibility and Reflections on Language in One Volume
Author: Noam Chomsky,Mitsou Ronat
Publisher: The New Press
ISBN: 1595587616
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 269
View: 745

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Restoring to print two of Chomsky's most famous and popular books in one omnibus volume, On Language features some of the noted linguist and political critic's most informal and highly accessible work, making it an ideal introduction to his thought. In Part I, Language and Responsibility, Chomsky presents a fascinating self-portrait of his political, moral, and linguistic thinking. In Part II, Reflections on Language, Chomsky explores the more general implications of the study of language and offers incisive analyses of the controversies among psychologists, philosophers, and linguists over fundamental questions of language. "Language and Responsibility is a well-organized, clearly written, and comprehensive introduction to Chomsky's thought." —New York Times Book Review "Language and Responsibility brings together in one readable volume Chomsky's positions on issues ranging from politics and philosophy of science to recent advances in linguistic theory... The clarity of presentation at times approaches that of Bertrand Russell in his political and more popular philosophical essays." —Contemporary Psychology "Reflections on Language is profoundly satisfying and impressive. It is the clearest and most developed account of the case of universal grammar and of the relations between his theory of language and the innate faculties of mind responsible for language aquisition and use." —Patrick Flanagan