What Is This Thing Called Philosophy of Language?


Author: Gary Kemp
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415517834
Category: Philosophy
Page: 191
View: 914

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Philosophy of language explores some of the fundamental yet most technical problems in philosophy, such as meaning and reference, semantics, and propositional attitudes. Some of its greatest exponents, such as Gottlob Frege, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell are amongst the major figures in the history of philosophy. In this clear and carefully structured introduction to the subject Gary Kemp explains the following key topics: the basic nature of philosophy of language and its historical development early arguments concerning the role of meaning, including cognitive meaning vs expressivism, context and compositionality Frege's arguments concerning sense and reference; non-existent objects Russell and the theory of definite descriptions modern theories including Kripke and Putnam; arguments concerning necessity, analyticity and natural kind terms indexicality, context and modality. What are indexicals? Davidson's theory of language and the 'principle of charity' propositional attitudes Quine's naturalism and its consequences for philosophy of language. Additional features such as chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary make this an indispensable introduction to those teaching philosophy of language and will be particularly useful for those coming to the subject for the first time.

What is this thing called Philosophy of Language?


Author: Gary Kemp
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135084858
Category: Philosophy
Page: 194
View: 2184

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Philosophy of language explores some of the fundamental yet most technical problems in philosophy, such as meaning and reference, semantics, and propositional attitudes. Some of its greatest exponents, including Gottlob Frege, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell are amongst the major figures in the history of philosophy. In this clear and carefully structured introduction to the subject Gary Kemp explains the following key topics: the basic nature of philosophy of language and its historical development early arguments concerning the role of meaning, including cognitive meaning vs expressivism, context and compositionality Frege’s arguments concerning sense and reference; non-existent objects Russell and the theory of definite descriptions modern theories including Kripke and Putnam; arguments concerning necessity, analyticity and natural kind terms indexicality, context and modality. What are indexicals? Davidson’s theory of language and the ‘principle of charity’ propositional attitudes Quine’s naturalism and its consequences for philosophy of language. Chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary make this an indispensable introduction to those teaching philosophy of language and will be particularly useful for students coming to the subject for the first time.

What is this thing called Philosophy of Language?


Author: Gary Kemp
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351999478
Category: Philosophy
Page: 242
View: 7494

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Philosophy of language explores some of the most abstract yet most fundamental questions in philosophy. The ideas of some of the subject's great founding figures, such as Gottlob Frege, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, as well as of more recent figures such as Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam, are central to a great many philosophical debates to this day.? In this clear and carefully structured introduction to the subject Gary Kemp explains the following key topics: the basic nature of philosophy of language, its concepts, and its historical development Frege’s theory of sense and reference; Russell's theory of definite descriptions? Wittgenstein's Tractatus, Ayer, and the Logical Positivists recent perspectives including Kripke, Kaplan and Putnam; arguments concerning necessity, indexicals, rigid designation and natural kinds The pragmatics of language, including speech-acts, presupposition and conversational implicature Davidson’s theory of language, the ‘principle of charity’, and the indeterminacy of interpretation puzzles surrounding the propositional attitudes (sentences which ascribe beliefs to people) Quine’s naturalism and its consequences for philosophy of language. The challenges presented by the later Wittgenstein Contemporary directions, including contextualism, fictional objects and the phenomenon of slurs This second edition has been thoroughly revised to include new key topics and updated material. Chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary make this an indispensable introduction to those teaching philosophy of language and will be particularly useful for students coming to the subject for the first time.

What is this thing called Philosophy of Religion?


Author: Elizabeth Burns
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317595467
Category: Philosophy
Page: 232
View: 3438

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What is this thing called Philosophy of Religion? grapples with the core topics studied on philosophy of religion undergraduate courses including: the meaning of religious language, including 20th century developments the nature of the Divine, including divine power, wisdom and action? arguments for the existence of the Divine challenges to belief in the Divine, including the problems of evil, divine hiddenness and religious diversity believing without arguments arguments for life after death, including reincarnation. In addition to the in-depth coverage of the key themes within the subject area Elizabeth Burns explores the topics from the perspectives of the five main world religions, introducing students to the work of scholars from a variety of religious traditions and interpretations of belief. What is this thing called Philosophy of Religion? is the ideal introduction for those approaching the philosophy of religion for the first time, containing many helpful student-friendly features, such as a glossary of important terms, study questions and further reading.

What is this Thing Called Knowledge?


Author: Duncan Pritchard
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136976825
Category: Philosophy
Page: 200
View: 1350

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What is Knowledge? Where does it come from? Can we know anything at all? This lucid and engaging introduction grapples with these central questions in the theory of knowledge, offering a clear, non-partisan view of the main themes of epistemology including recent developments such as virtue epistemology and contextualism. Duncan Pritchard discusses traditional issues and contemporary ideas in thirteen easily digestible sections, including: the value of knowledge the structure of knowledge virtues and faculties perception testimony and memory induction scepticism. What is this thing called Knowledge? contains many helpful student-friendly features including study questions, annotated further reading, a glossary and a guide to web resources. Clear and interesting examples are used throughout. This is an ideal first textbook in the theory of knowledge for undergraduates taking a first course in philosophy.

What is this thing called Global Justice?


Author: Kok-Chor Tan
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317566483
Category: Philosophy
Page: 154
View: 1966

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What is this thing called Global Justice? explores the core topics covered on the increasingly popular undergraduate modules on global justice including: world poverty economic inequality nationalism human rights humanitarian intervention immigration global democracy and governance climate change international justice. Centered on real world problems, this textbook helps students to understand that global justice is not only a field of philosophical inquiry but also of practical importance. Each chapter concludes with a helpful summary of the main ideas discussed, study questions and a further reading guide.

What Is This Thing Called Jazz?

African American Musicians as Artists, Critics, and Activists
Author: Eric Porter
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520928404
Category: Music
Page: 425
View: 4954

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Despite the plethora of writing about jazz, little attention has been paid to what musicians themselves wrote and said about their practice. An implicit division of labor has emerged where, for the most part, black artists invent and play music while white writers provide the commentary. Eric Porter overturns this tendency in his creative intellectual history of African American musicians. He foregrounds the often-ignored ideas of these artists, analyzing them in the context of meanings circulating around jazz, as well as in relationship to broader currents in African American thought. Porter examines several crucial moments in the history of jazz: the formative years of the 1920s and 1930s; the emergence of bebop; the political and experimental projects of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s; and the debates surrounding Jazz at Lincoln Center under the direction of Wynton Marsalis. Louis Armstrong, Anthony Braxton, Marion Brown, Duke Ellington, W.C. Handy, Yusef Lateef, Abbey Lincoln, Charles Mingus, Archie Shepp, Wadada Leo Smith, Mary Lou Williams, and Reggie Workman also feature prominently in this book. The wealth of information Porter uncovers shows how these musicians have expressed themselves in print; actively shaped the institutional structures through which the music is created, distributed, and consumed, and how they aligned themselves with other artists and activists, and how they were influenced by forces of class and gender. What Is This Thing Called Jazz? challenges interpretive orthodoxies by showing how much black jazz musicians have struggled against both the racism of the dominant culture and the prescriptive definitions of racial authenticity propagated by the music's supporters, both white and black.

Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature


Author: Richard Rorty
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691141329
Category: Philosophy
Page: 439
View: 3296

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Includes the previously unpublished essay "The philosopher as expert."

Philosophy of Mathematics

Selected Readings
Author: Paul Benacerraf,Hilary Putnam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107268133
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 2509

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The twentieth century has witnessed an unprecedented 'crisis in the foundations of mathematics', featuring a world-famous paradox (Russell's Paradox), a challenge to 'classical' mathematics from a world-famous mathematician (the 'mathematical intuitionism' of Brouwer), a new foundational school (Hilbert's Formalism), and the profound incompleteness results of Kurt Gödel. In the same period, the cross-fertilization of mathematics and philosophy resulted in a new sort of 'mathematical philosophy', associated most notably (but in different ways) with Bertrand Russell, W. V. Quine, and Gödel himself, and which remains at the focus of Anglo-Saxon philosophical discussion. The present collection brings together in a convenient form the seminal articles in the philosophy of mathematics by these and other major thinkers. It is a substantially revised version of the edition first published in 1964 and includes a revised bibliography. The volume will be welcomed as a major work of reference at this level in the field.

A Companion to the Philosophy of Science


Author: W. H. Newton-Smith
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9780631230205
Category: Science
Page: 596
View: 9471

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Unmatched in the quality of its world-renowned contributors, this companion serves as both a course text and a reference book across the broad spectrum of issues of concern to the philosophy of science.

The Legend of Zelda and Philosophy

I Link Therefore I Am
Author: Luke Cuddy
Publisher: Open Court
ISBN: 0812696913
Category: Philosophy
Page: 288
View: 7876

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With both young and adult gamers as loyal fans, The Legend of Zelda is one of the most beloved video game series ever created. The contributors to this volume consider the following questions and more: What is the nature of the gamer’s connection to Link? Does Link have a will, or do gamers project their wills onto him? How does the gamer experience the game? Do the rules of logic apply in the game world? How is space created and distributed in Hyrule (the fictional land in which the game takes place)? How does time function? Is Zelda art? Can Hyrule be seen as an ideal society? Can the game be enjoyable without winning? The Legend of Zelda and Philosophy not only appeals to Zelda fans and philosophers but also puts video games on the philosophical map as a serious area of study.

Faith and Philosophical Analysis

The Impact of Analytical Philosophy on the Philosophy of Religion
Author: Dr Christopher J Insole,Dr Harriet A Harris
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409477142
Category: Religion
Page: 212
View: 1753

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What tensions arise between philosophy of religion and theology? What strengths and weaknesses of analytical methods emerge in relation to strongly confessional philosophical theologies, or to Continental philosophies? Faith and Philosophical Analysis evaluates how well philosophy of religion serves in understanding religious faith. Figures who rarely share the space of the same book - leading exponents of analytic philosophy of religion and those who question its legacy - are drawn together in this book, with their disagreements harnessed to positive effect. Figures such as Richard Swinburne and Basil Mitchell reflect on their life-long projects from a perspective which has not previously been seen in print. A wide range of approaches found in contemporary philosophy of religion are explored, including: reformed epistemology, 'traditional' metaphysical theory building, feminist methodologies, Wittgensteinian approaches, and American pragmatism. Considering the trends in philosophy of religion as they are interacting across continents, looking particularly at philosophical influences in North America, Britain, and Continental Europe, this book will appeal to students, scholars and general readers with an interest in philosophy of religion, theology, or analytical philosophy.

Being No One

The Self-Model Theory of Subjectivity
Author: Thomas Metzinger
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262263801
Category: Medical
Page: 714
View: 3526

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According to Thomas Metzinger, no such things as selves exist in the world: nobody ever had or was a self. All that exists are phenomenal selves, as they appear in conscious experience. The phenomenal self, however, is not a thing but an ongoing process; it is the content of a "transparent self-model." In Being No One, Metzinger, a German philosopher, draws strongly on neuroscientific research to present a representationalist and functional analysis of what a consciously experienced first-person perspective actually is. Building a bridge between the humanities and the empirical sciences of the mind, he develops new conceptual toolkits and metaphors; uses case studies of unusual states of mind such as agnosia, neglect, blindsight, and hallucinations; and offers new sets of multilevel constraints for the concept of consciousness. Metzinger's central question is: How exactly does strong, consciously experienced subjectivity emerge out of objective events in the natural world? His epistemic goal is to determine whether conscious experience, in particular the experience of being someone that results from the emergence of a phenomenal self, can be analyzed on subpersonal levels of description. He also asks if and how our Cartesian intuitions that subjective experiences as such can never be reductively explained are themselves ultimately rooted in the deeper representational structure of our conscious minds.

Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity


Author: Richard Rorty
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521367813
Category: Philosophy
Page: 201
View: 4603

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In this 1989 book Rorty argues that thinkers such as Nietzsche, Freud, and Wittgenstein have enabled societies to see themselves as historical contingencies, rather than as expressions of underlying, ahistorical human nature or as realizations of suprahistorical goals. This ironic perspective on the human condition is valuable on a private level, although it cannot advance the social or political goals of liberalism. In fact Rorty believes that it is literature not philosophy that can do this, by promoting a genuine sense of human solidarity. A truly liberal culture, acutely aware of its own historical contingency, would fuse the private, individual freedom of the ironic, philosophical perspective with the public project of human solidarity as it is engendered through the insights and sensibilities of great writers. The book has a characteristically wide range of reference from philosophy through social theory to literary criticism. It confirms Rorty's status as a uniquely subtle theorist, whose writing will prove absorbing to academic and nonacademic readers alike.

Worldviews

An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of Science
Author: Richard DeWitt
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 144439276X
Category: Science
Page: 392
View: 3785

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Updated throughout and with three entirely new chapters, Worldviews: An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of Science, Second Edition furthers its reputation as the definitive introductory text on the historical developments and philosophical issues that inform our scientific view of the world around us. Represents an innovative introduction to the history and philosophy of science, designed especially for those coming to the subject for the first time Updated new edition features the addition of chapters focusing on scientific laws, evolutionary theory, and implications of evolution Covers the key historical developments and philosophical themes that have impacted our scientific view of the world around us Analyzes the transitions from the Aristotelian worldview to the Newtonian worldview to a new and currently developing worldview Explores challenges to the Western scientific worldview brought on by recent discoveries

Principia Mathematica to *56


Author: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521626064
Category: Mathematics
Page: 410
View: 7107

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The great three-volume Principia Mathematica (CUP 1927) is deservedly the most famous work ever written on the foundations of mathematics. Its aim is to deduce all the fundamental propositions of logic and mathematics from a small number of logical premises and primitive ideas, establishing that mathematics is a development of logic. This abridged text of Volume I contains the material that is most relevant to an introductory study of logic and the philosophy of mathematics (more advanced students will of course wish to refer to the complete edition). It contains the whole of the preliminary sections (which present the authors' justification of the philosophical standpoint adopted at the outset of their work); the whole of Part I (in which the logical properties of propositions, propositional functions, classes and relations are established); section A of Part II (dealing with unit classes and couples); and Appendices A and C (which give further developments of the argument on the theory of deduction and truth functions).

Why Buddhism is True

The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment
Author: Robert Wright
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439195455
Category: Philosophy
Page: 336
View: 6446

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Philosophically explains how the human mind evolved to channel anxiety, depression, anger, and greed and how a healthy practice of Buddhist meditation can promote clarity and alleviate suffering.

The Big Think Book

Discover Philosophy Through 99 Perplexing Problems
Author: Peter Cave
Publisher: Oneworld Publications
ISBN: 1780747438
Category: Philosophy
Page: 544
View: 5225

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Peter Cave’s bestselling trio of humorous philosophy titles – What’s Wrong With Eating People?, Can a Robot be Human?, and Do Llamas Fall in Love? – brought together in one big book. What makes me, me – and you, you? What is this thing called ‘love’? Does life have a point? Is ‘no’ the right answer to this question? Philosophy transports us from the wonderful to the weird, from the funny to the very serious indeed. With the aid of tall stories, jokes, fascinating insights and common sense, Peter Cave offers a comprehensive survey of all areas of philosophy, addressing the big puzzles in ethics and politics, metaphysics and knowledge, religion and the emotions, aesthetics and logic. Replete with a smorgasbord of amusing and mind-boggling examples, The Big Think Book is perfect for anyone who delights in life’s conundrums.

I Am a Strange Loop


Author: Douglas R. Hofstadter
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465030785
Category: Philosophy
Page: 412
View: 6818

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An original, endlessly thought-provoking, and controversial look at the nature of consciousness and identity argues that the key to understanding selves and consciousness is the "strange loop," a special kind of abstract feedback loop inhabiting our brains.