War and the Crisis of Youth in Sierra Leone


Author: Krijn Peters
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139497391
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 8781

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The armed conflict in Sierra Leone and the extreme violence of the main rebel faction - the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) - have challenged scholars and members of the international community to come up with explanations. Up to this point, though, conclusions about the nature of the war are mainly drawn from accounts of civilian victims and commentators who had access to only one side of the war. The present study addresses this currently incomplete understanding of the conflict by focusing on the direct experiences and interpretations of protagonists, paying special attention to the hitherto neglected, and often underage, cadres of the RUF. The data presented challenges the widely canvassed notion of the Sierra Leone conflict as a war motivated by 'greed, not grievance'. Rather, it points to a rural crisis expressed in terms of unresolved tensions between landowners and marginalized rural youth, further reinforced and triggered by a collapsing patrimonial state.

Fighting for the Rain Forest

War, Youth, and Resources in Sierra Leone
Author: Paul Richards
Publisher: Heinemann Educational Publishers
ISBN: 9780435074067
Category: History
Page: 182
View: 8388

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"What appears as random, anarchic violence is no such thing. The terrifying military methods of Sierra Leone's soldiers may not fit conventional western models of warfare, but they are rational and effective nonetheless. The war must be understood partly as a 'performance', in which techniques of terror compensate for lack of equipment." "Sierra Leone's youth belong to a modern, trans-Atlantic culture. In remote diamond-digging camps, young people watch Rambo videos and have a sophisticated understanding of world affairs from the BBC. These are part of the cultural resources with which the war is fought." "The war is fought in the rain forest, and can only be understood in the context of old traditions of social and technical management of the forest. There is no evidence that a crisis of deforestation or overpopulation has contributed to the war." "Rebuilding the state - and giving young Sierra Leoneans confidence in it - is essential for peace. But in the meantime, many people are learning to live with war, and building limited peace locally. Aid agencies must learn from these initiatives if relief is to contribute to peace and not become part of the economy of conflict."--BOOK JACKET.

Childhood Deployed

Remaking Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone
Author: Susan Shepler
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814760929
Category: Social Science
Page: 223
View: 3526

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Childhood Deployed examines the reintegration of former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. Based on eighteen months of participant-observer ethnographic fieldwork and ten years of follow-up research, the book argues that there is a fundamental disconnect between the Western idea of the child soldier and the individual lived experiences of the child soldiers of Sierra Leone. Susan Shepler contends that the reintegration of former child soldiers is a political process having to do with changing notions of childhood as one of the central structures of society. For most Westerners the tragedy of the idea of “child soldier” centers around perceptions of lost and violated innocence. In contrast, Shepler finds that for most Sierra Leoneans, the problem is not lost innocence but the horror of being separated from one’s family and the resulting generational break in youth education. Further, Shepler argues that Sierra Leonean former child soldiers find themselves forced to strategically perform (or refuse to perform) as the“child soldier” Western human rights initiatives expect in order to most effectively gain access to the resources available for their social reintegration. The strategies don’t always work—in some cases, Shepler finds, Western human rights initiatives do more harm than good. While this volume focuses on the well-known case of child soldiers in Sierra Leone, it speaks to the larger concerns of childhood studies with a detailed ethnography of people struggling over the situated meaning of the categories of childhood.It offers an example of the cultural politics of childhood in action, in which the very definition of childhood is at stake and an important site of political contestation.

Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars


Author: Edward Newman,Karl DeRouen, Jr.
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113625577X
Category: Political Science
Page: 406
View: 2176

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This comprehensive new Handbook explores the significance and nature of armed intrastate conflict and civil war in the modern world. Civil wars and intrastate conflict represent the principal form of organised violence since the end of World War II, and certainly in the contemporary era. These conflicts have a huge impact and drive major political change within the societies in which they occur, as well as on an international scale. The global importance of recent intrastate and regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Somalia, Nepal, Cote d'Ivoire, Syria and Libya – amongst others – has served to refocus academic and policy interest upon civil war. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field who discuss the sources, causes, duration, nature and recurrence of civil wars, as well as their political meaning and international impact, the Handbook is organised into five key parts: Part I: Understanding and Explaining Civil Wars: Theoretical and Methodological Debates Part II: The Causes of Civil Wars Part III: The Nature and Impact of Civil Wars Part IV: International Dimensions Part V: Termination and Resolution of Civil Wars Covering a wide range of topics including micro-level issues as well as broader debates, Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars will set a benchmark for future research in the field. This volume will be of much interest to students of civil wars and intrastate conflict, ethnic conflict, political violence, peace and conflict studies, security studies and IR in general.

The Powerful Presence of the Past

Integration and Conflict Along the Upper Guinea Coast
Author: Jacqueline Knörr,Wilson Trajano Filho
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004190007
Category: Social Science
Page: 375
View: 1862

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This book conceptualizes integration and conflict as interrelated dimensions of social interaction impacted by specific historical experiences. Contributions aim at a better understanding of the social mechanisms affecting processes of integration and conflict at the local, national and regional levels.

The Challenge of Stability and Security in West Africa


Author: Alexandre Marc,Neelam Verjee,Stephen Mogaka
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464804656
Category: Social Science
Page: 212
View: 2238

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Since independence, the West African sub-region has been an arena for a number of large-scale conflicts and civil wars, as well as simmering and low-intensity uprisings. Contrary to perceptions, West Africa in its post-independence history has experienced fewer conflict events and fatalities from conflict than the other sub-regions on the continent. The turn of the millennium has witnessed the recession of large-scale and conventional conflict, and it has ushered in new and emerging threats. The specters of religious extremism, maritime piracy, and narcotics trafficking threaten to undermine some of the progress achieved in recent years. The Challenge of Stability and Security in West Africa critically examines the key drivers of conflict and violence, and the way in which they impact the countries of the sub-region. In addition to emerging threats, these drivers include the challenges of youth inclusion, migration, sub-regional imbalances, and extractives, as well as challenges related to the fragility of political institutions and managing the competition for power, reform of the security sector, and weakness of institutions related to land management. The book explores how the sub-region, under the auspices of the regional organization ECOWAS, has become a pioneer on the continent in terms of addressing regional challenges. The Challenge of Stability and Security in West Africa also identifies key lessons in the dynamics of resilience in the face of political violence and civil war drawn from CÃ ́te d'Ivoire, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, that can be useful for countries around the world in similar situations. It incorporates knowledge and findings from leading experts and provides insights from academics and development practitioners. Finally, the book identifies possible policy and programmatic responses and directions for policy dialogue at the national and international levels.

Islam, Youth and Modernity in the Gambia

The Tablighi Jama'at
Author: Marloes Janson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107040574
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 8370

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This monograph explores the expansion of the Tablighi Jama'at, a transnational Islamic missionary movement that originated in India in the mid-nineteenth century, and its impact in the Gambia (West Africa) in the past decade. The Jama'at offers Gambian youth, and women in particular, new opportunities to express their religious identity in a way that is in line with a modern lifestyle. The book investigates how Gambian youth have incorporated the South Asian Tablighi ideology into their daily lives and adapted it to their local context.

Post-War Regimes and State Reconstruction in Liberia and Sierra Leone


Author: Amadu Sesay,Charles Ukeje
Publisher: African Books Collective
ISBN: 286978256X
Category: Political Science
Page: 109
View: 7142

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The shocks of the unexpected outbreak of violent internal armed conflicts in post Cold War West Africa continue to linger in policy and academic circles. While considerable attention is devoted to explaining the civil wars, there is little understanding of the delicate and unpredictable processes of reconstruction. Post-war reconstruction programmes in Africa have become, by and large, externally driven processes; and while externalisation may not be negative per se, it is important to interrogate how such intervention recognises and interacts with local dynamics, and how it manipulates and conditions the outcomes of post-conflict reconstruction agenda. Investigating the interface between power elite, the nature of post-war regimes and the pattern which post-war reconstruction takes is important both for theory and practice. This original study, by some of West Africa's leading scholars, interrogates post-war reconstruction processes in the twin West African countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone, focusing on the effects of regime types on the nature, scope, success or failure of their post-war reconstruction efforts. Political scientists, diplomats, the international community, donor and humanitarian agencies, advocacy groups, the United Nations and its agencies, would find it an important resource in dealing with countries emerging from protracted violence and civil war.

A Dirty War in West Africa

The RUF and the Destruction of Sierra Leone
Author: Lansana Gberie
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 9780253218551
Category: History
Page: 224
View: 9996

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"Provides important insider information concerning Sierra Leone's recent war... and builds on [the author's] established reputation as an insightful and courageous journalist." --William Reno, Northwestern University A Dirty War in West Africa recounts Lansana Gberie's harrowing experiences as a journalist during the decade-long civil war in Sierra Leone. Since 1991, this West African nation has been brought to its knees by a series of coups, violent conflicts, and finally, outright war. The war has ended today, but it is clear that things are hardly settled. Focusing on the group spearheading the violence, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), Gberie exposes the corruption and appalling use of rape and mutilation as tactics to overthrow the former government. Gberie looks closely at the rise of the RUF and its ruthless leader, Foday Sankoh, as he seeks to understand the personalities and parties involved in the war. This sobering and powerful account reveals the domestic and international consequences of the Sierra Leone conflict.

Armies of the Young

Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism
Author: David M. Rosen
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 9780813535685
Category: History
Page: 199
View: 2951

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Children have served as soldiers throughout history. They fought in the American Revolution, the Civil War, and in both world wars. They served as uniformed soldiers, camouflaged insurgents, and even suicide bombers. Indeed, the first U.S. soldier to be killed by hostile fire in the Afghanistan war was shot in ambush by a fourteen-year-old boy. Does this mean that child soldiers are aggressors? Or are they victims? It is a difficult question with no obvious answer, yet in recent years the acceptable answer among humanitarian organizations and contemporary scholars has been resoundingly the latter. These children are most often seen as especially hideous examples of adult criminal exploitation. In this provocative book, David M. Rosen argues that this response vastly oversimplifies the child soldier problem. Drawing on three dramatic examples-from Sierra Leone, Palestine, and Eastern Europe during the Holocaust-Rosen vividly illustrates this controversial view. In each case, he shows that children are not always passive victims, but often make the rational decision that not fighting is worse than fighting. With a critical eye to international law, Armies of the Young urges readers to reconsider the situation of child combatants in light of circumstance and history before adopting uninformed child protectionist views. In the process, Rosen paints a memorable and unsettling picture of the role of children in international conflicts.

Adolescents and War

How Youth Deal with Political Violence
Author: Brian K Barber
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195343352
Category: Psychology
Page: 332
View: 3769

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Experts aim to understand and document the intricacies of youth who have been involved in political violence. They argue that the assumption that youth are automatically debilitated by this violence is too simplistic: effective care must include an awareness of motives and beliefs, roles they played in the conflict, relationships, etc.

Sierra Leone beyond the Lome Peace Accord


Author: M. Mustapha,J. Bangura
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 023011153X
Category: History
Page: 181
View: 1615

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The Lomé Peace Accord, signed in 1999, presented significant implications, challenges, and possibilities for post-conflict Sierra Leone, but the literature on post-conflict Sierra Leone only scantily addresses these issues. This project seeks to address the void in the literature on post-Lomé Sierra Leone.

Children at War


Author: Peter W. Singer
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 1101970057
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 6753

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Children at War is the first comprehensive book to examine the growing and global use of children as soldiers. P.W. Singer, an internationally recognized expert in twenty-first-century warfare, explores how a new strategy of war, utilized by armies and warlords alike, has targeted children, seeking to turn them into soldiers and terrorists. Singer writes about how the first American serviceman killed by hostile fire in Afghanistan—a Green Beret—was shot by a fourteen-year-old Afghan boy; how suspected militants detained by U.S. forces in Iraq included more than one hundred children under the age of seventeen; and how hundreds who were taken hostage in Thailand were held captive by the rebel "God's Army," led by twelve-year-old twins. Interweaving the voices of child soldiers throughout the book, Singer looks at the ways these children are recruited, abducted, trained, and finally sent off to fight in war-torn hot spots, from Colombia and the Sudan to Kashmir and Sierra Leone. He writes about children who have been indoctrinated to fight U.S. forces in Iraq and Afghanistan; of Iraqui boys between the ages of ten and fifteen who had been trained in military arms and tactics to become Saddam Hussein's Ashbal Saddam (Lion Cubs); of young refugees from Pakistani madrassahs who were recruited to help bring the Taliban to power in the Afghan civil war. The author, National Security Fellow at the Brookings Institution and director of the Brookings Project on U.S. Policy Towards the Islamic World, explores how this phenomenon has come about, and how social disruptions and failures of development in modern Third World nations have led to greater global conflict and an instability that has spawned a new pool of recruits. He writes about how technology has made today's weapons smaller and lighter and therefore easier for children to carry and handle; how one billion people in the world live in developing countries where civil war is part of everyday life; and how some children—without food, clothing, or family—have volunteered as soldiers as their only way to survive. Finally, Singer makes clear how the U.S. government and the international community must face this new reality of modern warfare, how those who benefit from the recruitment of children as soldiers must be held accountable, how Western militaries must be prepared to face children in battle, and how rehabilitation programs can undo this horrific phenomenon and turn child soldiers back into children.

When the State Fails

Studies on Intervention in the Sierra Leone Civil War
Author: Tunde Zack-Williams
Publisher: Pluto Press
ISBN: 9780745332215
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 6584

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Compared with Kosovo and Iraq, the recent Western intervention in Sierra Leone has been largely forgotten. When the State Fails rectifies this, providing a comprehensive and critical analysis of the intervention. The civil war in Sierra Leone began in 1991 and was declared officially over in 2002 after UK, UN, and regional African military intervention. Some claimed it as a case of successful humanitarian intervention. The authors in this collection provide an informed analysis of the impact of the intervention on democracy, development, and society in Sierra Leone. The authors take a particularly critical view of the imposition of neo-liberalism after the conflict. As NATO intervention in Libya shows the continued use of external force in internal conflicts, When the State Fails is a timely book for all students and scholars interested in Africa and the question of "humanitarian intervention."

The Routledge Handbook of War and Society

Iraq and Afghanistan
Author: Steven Carlton-Ford,Morten G. Ender
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136919384
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 7699

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This new handbook provides an introduction to current sociological and behavioral research on the effects of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan represent two of the most interesting and potentially troubling events of recent decades. These two wars-so similar in their beginnings-generated different responses from various publics and the mass media; they have had profound effects on the members of the armed services, on their families and relatives, and on the people of Iraq and Afghanistan. Analyzing the effect of the two wars on military personnel and civilians, this volume is divided into four main parts: Part I: War on the Ground: Combat and Its Aftermath Part II: War on the Ground: Non-Combat Operations, Noncombatants, and Operators Part III: The War Back Home: The Social Construction of War, Its Heroes, And Its Enemies Part IV: The War Back Home: Families and Youth on the Home Front With contributions from leading academic sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists, military researchers, and researchers affiliated with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), this Handbook will be of interest to students of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, military sociology and psychology, war studies, anthropology, US politics, and of youth. Steven Carlton-Ford is associate professor of Sociology at the University of Cincinnati. He recently served for five years as the editor of Sociological Focus. Morten G. Ender is professor of sociology and Sociology Program Director at West Point, the United States Military Academy. He is the author of American Soldiers in Iraq (Routledge 2009).

Representations of Violence

Art about the Sierra Leone Civil War
Author: Russ Feingold,Abu-Hassan Koroma and Karin Wolf,Donald Cosentino,Sabine Mödersheim,Mathew J. Christensen,Jonathan A. Peters,Mariama Ross,Rebecca Golden,John D. Ogram,Akintunde Oyetade
Publisher: Twenty-First Century African Youth Movement, Inc.
ISBN: 9780615128184
Category: Sierra Leone
Page: 100
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This unprecedented exhibition of viscerally potent art focuses on how Sierra Leonean Artists have documented the atrocities of war and how these representations of violence spur conscious action.

The War Machines

Young Men and Violence in Sierra Leone and Liberia
Author: Danny Hoffman
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822350777
Category: History
Page: 295
View: 7986

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Based on ethnographic research among militias in Sierra Leone and Liberia, Danny Hoffman considers how young men are made available for violent labor on battlefields and in dangerous unregulated industries.

Epistemologies of African Conflicts

Violence, Evolutionism, and the War in Sierra Leone
Author: Z. Wai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137280808
Category: Political Science
Page: 263
View: 7608

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This book offers a bold, ground-breaking epistemological critique of the dominant discourses on African conflicts. Based on a painstaking study of the ways in which the Sierra Leone civil war has been interpreted, it considers how Africa is constructed as a site of knowledge and the implications that this has for the continent and its people.

Female Soldiers in Sierra Leone

Sex, Security, and Post-conflict Development
Author: Megan H. MacKenzie
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814761372
Category: Political Science
Page: 175
View: 4288

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The eleven-year civil war in Sierra Leone from 1991 to 2002 was incomprehensibly brutal—it is estimated that half of all female refugees were raped and many thousands were killed. While the publicity surrounding sexual violence helped to create a general picture of women and girls as victims of the conflict, there has been little effort to understand female soldiers’ involvement in, and experience of, the conflict. Female Soldiers in Sierra Leone draws on interviews with 75 former female soldiers and over 20 local experts, providing a rare perspective on both the civil war and post-conflict development efforts in the country. Megan MacKenzie argues that post-conflict reconstruction is a highly gendered process, demonstrating that a clear recognition and understanding of the roles and experiences of female soldiers are central to both understanding the conflict and to crafting effective policy for the future.