Readings in Urban Sociology

Readings in Sociology
Author: R. E. Pahl
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483181243
Category: Social Science
Page: 348
View: 7588

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Readings in Urban Sociology covers the specialized aspect of sociology, together with an introduction designed to relate the selected Readings to the state of sociological knowledge and research in the field in question. This book is organized into four parts encompassing 12 chapters, and begins with an overview of the study of urbanization and urban sociology. The opening part describes the nature of industrial urbanism in Great Britain. This part deals with the development of British urban sociology and the idea of neighborhood community. The next part examines the distinction between ways of life in the modern city and the modern suburb. This part also looks into the context of urbanization involving population dispersal and diffusion. The closing parts provide an analysis of the urban system in terms of a conflict model and demonstrate the development of Prague's ecological structure. These parts also discuss the notion of a rural-urban continuum and the process of adjustment to an urban system in Africa. This book will prove useful to sociologists and researchers.

Rethinking Urban Transitions

Politics in the Low Carbon City
Author: Andrés Luque-Ayala,Simon Marvin,Harriet Bulkeley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351675141
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 4974

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Rethinking Urban Transitions provides critical insight for societal and policy debates about the potential and limits of low carbon urbanism. It draws on over a decade of international research, undertaken by scholars across multiple disciplines concerned with analysing and shaping urban sustainability transitions. It seeks to open up the possibility of a new generation of urban low carbon transition research, which foregrounds the importance of political, geographical and developmental context in shaping the possibilities for a low carbon urban future. The book’s contributions propose an interpretation of urban low carbon transitions as primarily social, political and developmental processes. Rather than being primarily technical efforts aimed at measuring and mitigating greenhouse gases, the low carbon transition requires a shift in the mode and politics of urban development. The book argues that moving towards this model requires rethinking what it means to design, practise and mobilize low carbon in the city, while also acknowledging the presence of multiple and contested developmental pathways. Key to this shift is thinking about transitions, not solely as technical, infrastructural or systemic shifts, but also as a way of thinking about collective futures, societal development and governing modes – a recognition of the political and contested nature of low carbon urbanism. The various contributions provide novel conceptual frameworks as well as empirically rich cases through which we can begin to interrogate the relevance of socio-economic, political and developmental dimensions in the making or unmaking of low carbon in the city. The book draws on a diverse range of examples (including ‘world cities’ and ‘ordinary cities’) from North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Africa, India and China, to provide evidence that expectations, aspirations and plans to undertake purposive socio-technical transitions are both emerging and encountering resistance in different urban contexts. Rethinking Urban Transitions is an essential text for courses concerned with cities, climate change and environmental issues in sociology, politics, urban studies, planning, environmental studies, geography and the built environment.

Urban Sustainability Transitions


Author: Niki Frantzeskaki,Vanesa Castán Broto,Lars Coenen,Derk Loorbach
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351855956
Category: Social Science
Page: 402
View: 6501

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The world’s population is currently undergoing a significant transition towards urbanisation, with the UN expecting that 70% of people globally will live in cities by 2050. Urbanisation has multiple political, cultural, environmental and economic dimensions that profoundly influence social development and innovation. This fundamental long-term transformation will involve the realignment of urban society’s technologies and infrastructures, culture and lifestyles, as well as governance and institutional frameworks. Such structural systemic realignments can be referred to as urban sustainability transitions: fundamental and structural changes in urban systems through which persistent societal challenges are addressed, such as shifts towards urban farming, renewable decentralised energy systems, and social economies. This book provides new insights into how sustainability transitions unfold in different types of cities across the world and explores possible strategies for governing urban transitions, emphasising the co-evolution of material and institutional transformations in socio-technical and socio-ecological systems. With case studies of mega-cities such as Seoul, Tokyo, New York and Adelaide, medium-sized cities such as Copenhagen, Cape Town and Portland, and nonmetropolitan cities such as Freiburg, Ghent and Brighton, the book provides an opportunity to reflect upon the comparability and transferability of theoretical/conceptual constructs and governance approaches across geographical contexts. Urban Sustainability Transitions is key reading for students and scholars working in Environmental Sciences, Geography, Urban Studies, Urban Policy and Planning.

Unequal Cities

The Challenge of Post-Industrial Transition in Times of Austerity
Author: Roberta Cucca,Costanzo Ranci
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317419421
Category: Social Science
Page: 284
View: 5734

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This seminal edited collection examines the impact of austerity and economic crisis on European cities. Whilst on the one hand the struggle for competitiveness has induced many European cities to invest in economic performance and attractiveness, on the other, national expenditure cuts and dominant neo-liberal paradigms have led many to retrench public intervention aimed at preserving social protection and inclusion. The impact of these transformations on social and spatial inequalities – whether occupational structures, housing solutions or working conditions – as well as on urban policy addressing these issues is traced in this exemplary piece of comparative analysis grounded in original research. Unequal Cities links existing theories and debates with newer discussions on the crisis to develop a typology of possible orientations of local government towards economic development and social cohesion. In the process, it describes the challenges and tensions facing six large European cities, representative of a variety of welfare regimes in Western Europe: Barcelona, Copenhagen, Lyon, Manchester, Milan, and Munich. It seeks to answer such key questions as: What social groups are most affected by recent urban transformations and what are the social and spatial impacts? What are the main institutional factors influencing how cities have dealt with the challenges facing them? How have local political agendas articulated the issues and what influence is still exerted by national policy? Grounded in an original urban policy analysis of the post-industrial city in Europe, the book will appeal to a wide range of social science researchers, Ph.D. and graduate students in urban studies, social policy, sociology, human geography, European studies and business studies, both in Europe and internationally.

Urban Food Planning

Seeds of Transition in the Global North
Author: Rositsa T. Ilieva
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317331699
Category: Social Science
Page: 286
View: 5420

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This highly original work examines the rise of the urban food planning movement in the Global North and provides insights into the new relationship between cities and food which has started developing over the past decade. It sheds light on cities as new spaces for food system innovation and on food as a tool for sustainable urban development. Drawing insights from the literature on socio-technical transitions, the book presents examples of pioneering urban food planning endeavours from North America and Western Europe (especially the Netherlands and the UK). These are integrated into a single mosaic helping to uncover the conceptual, analytical, design, and organizational innovations emerging at the interface of food and urban policy and planning. The author shows how promising "seeds of transition" to a shared urban food planning agenda are in the making, though the urban food planning niche as a whole still lacks the necessary maturity to lastingly influence mainstream planning practices and the dominant agri-food system regime. Some of the strategic levers to cope with the current instability and limitations of urban food planning and effectively transition it from a marginal novelty to a normalized domain of policy, research, and practice are systematically examined to this end. The conclusions and recommendations put forward have major implications for scholars, activists, and public officials seeking to radically transform the co-evolution of food, cities, and the environment.

China's Urban Transition


Author: John Friedmann
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 0816646155
Category: Social Science
Page: 168
View: 8859

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A timely and thorough analysis of the rapid urban growth in China.

Smart Transitions in City Regionalism

Territory, Politics and the Quest for Competitiveness and Sustainability
Author: Tassilo Herrschel,Yonn Dierwechter
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317447808
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 244
View: 2234

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In recent years "smartness" has risen as a buzzword to characterize novel urban policy and development patterns. As a result of this, debates around what "smart" actually means, both theoretically and empirically, have emerged within the interdisciplinary arenas of urban and regional studies. This book explores the changes in discourse, rationality and selected responses of smartness through the theme of "transition." The concept of transition provides the broader context and points of reference for adopting smartness in reconciling competing interests and agendas in city-regional governance. Using case studies from around the world, including North America, Europe and South Africa, the authors link external regime transition in societal values and goals with internal moves towards smartness. While reflecting the growing integration of overarching themes and analytical concerns, this volume further develops work on smartness, smart growth, transition, city-regionalism, governance and sustainability. Smart Transitions in City Regionalism explores how smart cities and city regions interact with conventional state structures. It will be of great interest to postgraduates and advanced undergraduates across urban studies, geography, sustainability studies and political science.

Urban Sociology

Images and Structure
Author: William G. Flanagan
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 1442201908
Category: Social Science
Page: 462
View: 3296

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The fifth edition of this book extends the discussion of the challenges faced by urban sociology in the global age, while covering the issues traditionally associated with urban sociology. It presents a balanced review of the ecological perspective and the political and economic contexts of the urban environment. Topics include communities in cities, minority and ethnic groups, poverty, power, crime, cities in economic development and underdevelopment, metropolitanization and urban sprawl, and urban policy and planning. The final chapter explores the significance of cyberspace, transnationalism, and global terrorism for the future of urban sociology.

Housing in Post-Growth Society

Japan on the Edge of Social Transition
Author: Yosuke Hirayama,Misa Izuhara
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351619454
Category: Architecture
Page: 184
View: 5079

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In a globalising world, many mature economies share post-growth characteristics such as low economic growth, low fertility, declining and ageing of the population and increasing social stratification. Japan stands at the forefront of such social change in the East Asian region as well as in the Global North. It is in this context of ‘post-growth society’ that housing issues are examined, using the experiences of Japan at the leading edge of social transition in the region. The post-war housing system was developed during the golden age of economy and welfare, when upward social trajectories such as increasing population, high-speed economic growth with rising real incomes, housing construction driven by high demands, increasing rates of home ownership supported by generous government subsidies generated new housing opportunities and accompanying issues. As we have entered the post-growth phase of socio-economic development, however, it requires a re-examination of such structure, policy and debates. This volume explores what roles housing plays in the reorganisation and reconstruction of economic processes, social policy development, ideology and identity, and intergenerational relations. The volume offers a greater understanding of the characteristics of post-growth society – changing demography, economy and society – in relation to housing. It considers how a definitive shift to the post-growth period has produced new housing issues including risks as well as opportunities. Through analysis of the impact on five different areas: post-crisis economy, urban and regional variations, young adults and housing pathways, fertility and housing, and ageing and housing wealth, the authors use policy and institutions as overarching analytical tools to examine the contemporary housing issues in a post-growth context. It also considers any relevance from the Japanese experiences in the wider regional and global context. This original book will be of great interest to academics and students as well as policy makers and practitioners internationally in the fields of housing studies, urban studies, social policy, sociology, political economy, comparative analysis, and East Asian Studies.

The Sociology of Modernization

Studies on Its Historical and Theoretical Aspects With Special Regard to the Latin American Case
Author: Gino Germani
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412839044
Category: History
Page: 266
View: 5309

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This work places in historical and theoretical contexts the work Germani in the area of modernization, especially as it relates to Latin America. Germani views modernization as the touchstone of the twentieth century. His notion of modernization has to do with how a society can harness technology for distinctly political ends and link science to distinctly economic ends.

Action Research in Policy Analysis

Critical and Relational Approaches to Sustainability Transitions
Author: Koen P.R. Bartels,Julia M. Wittmayer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351372637
Category: Political Science
Page: 266
View: 498

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Today’s pressing political, social, economic, and environmental crises urgently ask for effective policy responses and fundamental transitions towards sustainability supported by a sound knowledge base and developed in collaboration between all stakeholders. This book explores how action research forms a valuable methodology for producing such collaborative knowledge and action. It outlines the recent uptake of action research in policy analysis and transition research and develops a distinct and novel approach that is both critical and relational. By sharing action research experiences in a variety of settings, the book seeks to explicate ambitions, challenges, and practices involved with fostering policy changes and sustainability transitions. As such it provides crucial guidance and encouragement for future action research in policy analysis and transition research. This text will be of key interest to scholars and students of policy analysis and transition research and more broadly to public administration and policy, urban and regional studies, political science, research and innovation, sustainability science, and science and technology studies. It will also speak to practitioners, policymakers and philanthropic funders aiming to engage in or fund action research.

Analysing China's Population

Social Change in a New Demographic Era
Author: Isabelle Attané,Baochang Gu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401789878
Category: Social Science
Page: 270
View: 5887

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Based on China’s recently released 2010 population census data, this edited volume analyses the most recent demographic trends in China, in the context of significant social and economic upheavals. The editor and the expert contributors describe the main features of China’s demography, and focus on the details of this latest phase of its demographic transition. The book explores such striking characteristics of China’s demography as the changing age and sex population structure; recent trends in marriage and divorce; fertility trends with a focus on sex imbalance at birth; the demography of the ethnic minorities and recent mortality trends by sex. Analysing China's Population: Social Change in a New Demographic Era examines and assesses the impact of changes that in the coming decades will be crucial for individuals, and the larger society and economy of the nation.

Cities and Low Carbon Transitions


Author: Harriet Bulkeley,Vanesa Castán Broto,Mike Hodson,Simon Marvin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136883266
Category: Architecture
Page: 224
View: 4048

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Current societies face unprecedented risks and challenges connected to climate change. Addressing them will require fundamental transformations in the infrastructures that sustain everyday life, such as energy, water, waste and mobility. A transition to a ‘low carbon’ future implies a large scale reorganisation in the way societies produce and use energy. Cities are critical in this transition because they concentrate social and economic activities that produce climate change related emissions. At the same time, cities are increasingly recognised as sources of opportunities for climate change mitigation. Whether, how and why low carbon transitions in urban systems take place in response to climate change will therefore be decisive for the success of global mitigation efforts. As a result, climate change increasingly features as a critical issue in the management of urban infrastructure and in urbanisation policies. Cities and Low Carbon Transitions presents a ground-breaking analysis of the role of cities in low carbon socio-technical transitions. Insights from the fields of urban studies and technological transitions are combined to examine how, why and with what implications cities bring about low carbon transitions. The book outlines the key concepts underpinning theories of socio-technical transition and assesses its potential strengths and limits for understanding the social and technological responses to climate change that are emerging in cities. It draws on a diverse range of examples including world cities, ordinary cities and transition towns, from North America, Europe, South Africa and China, to provide evidence that expectations, aspirations and plans to undertake purposive socio-technical transitions are emerging in different urban contexts. This collection adds to existing literature on cities and energy transitions and introduces critical questions about power and social interests, lock-in and development trajectories, social equity and economic development, and socio-technical change in cities. The book addresses academics, policy makers, practitioners and researchers interested in the development of systemic responses in cities to curb climate change.

Urban China in transition


Author: John R. Logan
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9781405161459
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 361
View: 2334

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Using an innovative approach, this book interprets the unprecedented transformation of contemporary China's major cities. It deals with a diversity of trends and analyzes their sources. Offers a multi-dimensional analysis of urban life in China Highlights a diversity of trends in the areas of migration, criminal victimization, gated communities, and the status of women, suburbanization, and neighbourhood associations Each chapter includes input from both an expert on urban life in China and an 'outside' expert from the fields of sociology, geography, economics, planning, political science, history, demography, architecture, or anthropology An alternative theoretical perspective comparing the Chinese experience with other urban settings in the United States, Poland, Russia, Vietnam, East and South East Asia, and South America

Cities in Transition

Social Innovation for Europe’s Urban Sustainability
Author: Thomas Sauer,Susanne Elsen,Cristina Garzillo
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317410149
Category: Architecture
Page: 280
View: 4537

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Cities in Transition focuses on the sustainability transitions initiated in 40 European cities. The book presents the incredible wealth of insights gathered through hundreds of interviews and questionnaires. Four key domains—local energy systems, local green spaces, local water systems and local labour markets—have been the focus of the field research investigating local potentials for social innovation and new forms of civil society self-organisation. Examining the potential of new organizational frameworks like co-operatives, multi-stakeholder constructions, local-regional partnerships and networks for the success of such transitions, this book presents the key ingredients of a sustainable urban community as a viable concept to address current global financial, environmental and social challenges. Crucial reading for academics and practitioners of urban planning and sustainability in Europe, Cities in Transition is an innovative roadmap for sustainability in changing cities.

The Housing and Economic Experiences of Immigrants in U.S. and Canadian Cities


Author: Carlos Teixeira,Wei Li
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1442622903
Category: House & Home
Page: 408
View: 1767

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Since the 1960s, new and more diverse waves of immigrants have changed the demographic composition and the landscapes of North American cities and their suburbs. The Housing and Economic Experiences of Immigrants in U.S. and Canadian Cities is a collection of essays examining how recent immigrants have fared in getting access to jobs and housing in urban centres across the continent. Using a variety of methodologies, contributors from both countries present original research on a range of issues connected to housing and economic experiences. They offer both a broad overview and a series of detailed case studies that highlight the experiences of particular communities. This volume demonstrates that, while the United States and Canada have much in common when it comes to urban development, there are important structural and historical differences between the immigrant experiences in these two countries.

Higher Education Transitions

Theory and Research
Author: Eva Kyndt,Vincent Donche,Keith Trigwell,Sari Lindblom-Ylänne
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317207726
Category: Education
Page: 340
View: 4970

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In the current era where lifelong learning is brought to the fore, higher education can no longer be regarded as an isolated trajectory within one’s educational career as many students face substantial challenges in crafting their professional future. More specifically, the transition from school to higher education and continuing to the labour market are often a difficult hurdles for many students. Almost half of students do not succeed in the first year and often withdraw from education, students are faced with a variety of contexts and may choose to study in a different (international) context, and they are then confronted with structural barriers in finding a (high-quality) job, as evidenced by increasing levels of youth unemployment and underemployment. Higher Education Transitions aims to deepen our understanding of the transitions taking place when students enter, progress and leave higher education to enter the labour market. Drawing on an international team of contributors, this guide includes three conceptual and fifteen empirical studies which include a range of quantitative, qualitative, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Divided into three sections to reflect each important transition phase, topics include: transitions from secondary to higher education; transitions within higher education; transitions from higher education to the labour market.? By considering transitions across different phases as a broad and interrelated process, this guide will be essential reading for higher education researchers, policy stakeholders and all those interested in the transitions into higher education and the labour market.

China's Urban Space

Development under market socialism
Author: Terry McGee,George C.S. Lin,Mark Wang,Andrew Marton,Jiaping Wu
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134072139
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 7197

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China’s urban growth is unparalleled in the history of global urbanization, and will undoubtedly create huge challenges to China as it modernizes its society. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book presents an overview of the radical transformation of China’s urban space since the 1970s, arguing that to study the Chinese urbanization process one must recognize the distinctive political economy of China. After a long period as a planned socialist economy, China’s rapid entry into the global economy has raised suggestions that modernization in China will inevitably result in urban patterns and features like those of cities in developed market economies. This book argues that this is unlikely in the short term, because processes of urban transition in China must be interpreted through the lens of a unique and unprecedented juxtaposition of socialism and the market economy, which is leading to distinctive patterns of Chinese urbanization. Richly illustrated with maps, diagrams and in-depth case studies, this book will be an invaluable resource to students and scholars of urban economics and policy, geography, and the development of China.