Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams

Explorations in Massively Parallel Microworlds
Author: Mitchel Resnick
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262680936
Category: Computers
Page: 163
View: 561

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"A Bradford book." Includes bibliographical references (p. [157]-163).

Constructionism in Practice

Designing, Thinking, and Learning in A Digital World
Author: Yasmin B. Kafai,Mitchel Resnick
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136491422
Category: Education
Page: 360
View: 7741

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The digital revolution necessitates, but also makes possible, radical changes in how and what we learn. This book describes a set of innovative educational research projects at the MIT Media Laboratory, illustrating how new computational technologies can transform our conceptions of learning, education, and knowledge. The book draws on real-world education experiments conducted in formal and informal contexts: from inner-city schools and university labs to neighborhoods and after-school clubhouses. The papers in this book are divided in four interrelated sections as follows: * Perspectives in Constructionism further develops the intellectual underpinnings of constructionist theory. This section looks closely at the role of perspective-taking in learning and discusses how both cognitive and affective processes play a central role in building connections between old and new knowledge. * Learning through Design analyzes the relationship between designing and learning, and discusses ways that design activities can provide personally meaningful contexts for learning. This section investigates how and why children can learn through the processes of constructing artifacts such as games, textile patterns, robots and interactive devices. * Learning in Communities focuses on the social aspects of constructionist learning, recognizing that how people learn is deeply influenced by the communities and cultures with which they interact. It examines the nature of learning in classroom, inner-city, and virtual communities. * Learning about Systems examines how students make sense of biological, technological, and mathematical systems. This section explores the conceptual and epistemological barriers to learning about feedback, self-organization, and probability, and it discusses new technological tools and activities that can help people develop new ways of thinking about these phenomena.

Adventures in Modeling

Exploring Complex, Dynamic Systems with StarLogo
Author: Vanessa Stevens Colella,Eric Klopfer,Mitchel Resnick
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780807740828
Category: Literary Collections
Page: 188
View: 1203

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Have you ever wondered how birds flock or forest fires spread? For thousands of years people - from DaVinci to Einstein - have created models to help them better understand patterns and processes in the world around them. Computers make it easier for novices to build and explore their own models - and learn new scientific ideas in the process. Adventures in Modeling introduces you and your students to designing, creating, and investigating models in StarLogo. Computer modeling, the use of computer programs to simulate complex, dynamic systems or events (like population growth or environmental conservation), is a powerful learning tool that is finding a rapidly growing audience among teachers in middle and high school science and mathematics classes, especially since the NCTM Standards 2000 advocates its use in the curriculum. This valuable resource: Provides educators with a rich and accessible introduction to the use of computer modeling in the classroom using the popular StarLogo computer programming language; Takes readers step-by-step through the process of using computer models to simulate complex relationships; Shows how and why computer modeling can lead to powerful and enduring learning outcomes for all students. Provides explicit links between various state and national math and science content standards and the use of computer models, to enable educators to see how this work may enhance standards-based instruction; As computer use gains in currency and value in the middle and high school classroom, Adventures in Modeling will give teachers and students a very effective way to build curiosity and boost learning outcomes in a standards-based curriculum.

Growing Artificial Societies

Social Science from the Bottom Up
Author: Joshua M. Epstein,Robert Axtell
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780262050531
Category: Social Science
Page: 208
View: 2453

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""Growing Artificial Societies" is a milestone in social science research. It vividly demonstrates the potential of agent-based computer simulation to break disciplinary boundaries. It does this by analyzing in a unified framework the dynamic interactions of such diverse activities as trade, combat, mating, culture, and disease. It is an impressive achievement." -- Robert Axelrod, University of Michigan How do social structures and group behaviors arise from the interaction of individuals? "Growing Artificial Societies" approaches this question with cutting-edge computer simulation techniques. Fundamental collective behaviors such as group formation, cultural transmission, combat, and trade are seen to "emerge" from the interaction of individual agents following a few simple rules. In their program, named Sugarscape, Epstein and Axtell begin the development of a "bottom up" social science that is capturing the attention of researchers and commentators alike. The study is part of the 2050 Project, a joint venture of the Santa Fe Institute, the World Resources Institute, and the Brookings Institution. The project is an international effort to identify conditions for a sustainable global system in the next century and to design policies to help achieve such a system. "Growing Artificial Societies" is also available on CD-ROM, which includes about 50 animations that develop the scenarios described in the text. "Copublished with the Brookings Institution"

Connected Code

Why Children Need to Learn Programming
Author: Yasmin B. Kafai,Quinn Burke
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262027755
Category: Computers
Page: 200
View: 8349

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Why every child needs to learn to code: the shift from "computational thinking" to computational participation.

Fundamentals of Natural Computing

Basic Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications
Author: Leandro Nunes de Castro
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420011448
Category: Science
Page: 696
View: 9963

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Natural computing brings together nature and computing to develop new computational tools for problem solving; to synthesize natural patterns and behaviors in computers; and to potentially design novel types of computers. Fundamentals of Natural Computing: Basic Concepts, Algorithms, and Applications presents a wide-ranging survey of novel techniques and important applications of nature-based computing. This book presents theoretical and philosophical discussions, pseudocodes for algorithms, and computing paradigms that illustrate how computational techniques can be used to solve complex problems, simulate nature, explain natural phenomena, and possibly allow the development of new computing technologies. The author features a consistent and approachable, textbook-style format that includes lucid figures, tables, real-world examples, and different types of exercises that complement the concepts while encouraging readers to apply the computational tools in each chapter. Building progressively upon core concepts of nature-inspired techniques, the topics include evolutionary computing, neurocomputing, swarm intelligence, immunocomputing, fractal geometry, artificial life, quantum computing, and DNA computing. Fundamentals of Natural Computing is a self-contained introduction and a practical guide to nature-based computational approaches that will find numerous applications in a variety of growing fields including engineering, computer science, biological modeling, and bioinformatics.

The Official ScratchJr Book

Help Your Kids Learn to Code
Author: Marina Umaschi Bers,Mitchel Resnick
Publisher: No Starch Press
ISBN: 1593276710
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 160
View: 1743

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ScratchJr is a free, introductory computer programming language that runs on iPads and Android tablets. Inspired by Scratch, the wildly popular programming language used by millions of children worldwide, ScratchJr helps even younger kids create their own playful animations, interactive stories, and dynamic games. The Official ScratchJr Book is the perfect companion to this free app and makes coding easy and fun for all. Kids learn to program by connecting blocks of code to make characters move, jump, dance, and sing. Each chapter includes several activities that build on one another, culminating in a fun final project. These hands-on activities help kids develop computational-thinking, problem-solving, and design skills. In each activity, you’ll find: *Step-by-step, easy-to-follow directions *Ways to connect the activity with literacy and math concepts *Tips for grown-ups and teachers *Creative challenges to take the learning further By the end of the book, kids will be ready for all sorts of new programming adventures!

Distributed Cognitions

Psychological and Educational Considerations
Author: Gavriel Salomon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521574235
Category: Psychology
Page: 275
View: 4349

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Traditionally, human cognition has been seen and studied as existing solely 'inside' a person's head, with relative disregard for the social, physical, and artifactual surroundings in which cognition takes place. This book is a bold attempt to re-examine the nature of cognitions and to propose that a clearer understanding of human cognition would be achieved if it were conceptualized and studied as distributed among individuals, that knowledge is socially constructed through collaborative efforts toward shared objectives within cultural surroundings and that information is processed between individuals and the tools and artifacts provided by culture. The authors use illustrations from daily life and educational activities and suggest implications for education.

Computers and Exploratory Learning


Author: Andrea A. DiSessa,Celia Hoyles,Richard Noss
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642577997
Category: Education
Page: 482
View: 5988

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Computers are playing a fundamental role in enhancing exploratory learning techniques in education. This volume in the NATO Special Programme on Advanced Educational Technology covers the state of the art in the design and use of computer systems for exploratory learning. Contributed chapters treat principles, theory, practice, and examples of some of the best contemporary computer-based learning environments: Logo, Boxer, Microworlds, Cabri-Géomètre, Star Logo, Table Top, Geomland, spreadsheets, Function Machines, and others. Emphasis is on mathematics and science education. Synthetic chapters provide an overview of the current scene in computers and exploratory learning, and analyses from the perspectives of epistemology, learning, and socio-cultural studies.

An Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling

Modeling Natural, Social, and Engineered Complex Systems with NetLogo
Author: Uri Wilensky,William Rand
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262731894
Category: Computers
Page: 504
View: 8014

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A comprehensive and hands-on introduction to the core concepts, methods, and applications of agent-based modeling, including detailed NetLogo examples.

Software Quality Assurance

From Theory to Implementation
Author: Daniel Galin
Publisher: Pearson Education
ISBN: 9780201709452
Category: Computers
Page: 590
View: 580

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This book comprehensively covers the ISO 9000-3 requirements. IT also provides a substantial portion of the body of knowledge required for the CSQE (Certified Software Quality Engineer) as outlined by the ASQ (American Quality Engineer) as outlined by the ASQ (American Society for Quality).

Agent-Based and Individual-Based Modeling

A Practical Introduction
Author: Steven F. Railsback,Volker Grimm
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691136742
Category: Science
Page: 329
View: 3236

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Agent-based modeling is a new technique for understanding how the dynamics of biological, social, and other complex systems arise from the characteristics and behaviors of the agents making up these systems. This innovative textbook gives students and scientists the skills to design, implement, and analyze agent-based models. It starts with the fundamentals of modeling and provides an introduction to NetLogo, an easy-to-use, free, and powerful software platform. Nine chapters then each introduce an important modeling concept and show how to implement it using NetLogo. The book goes on to present strategies for finding the right level of model complexity and developing theory for agent behavior, and for analyzing and learning from models. Agent-Based and Individual-Based Modeling features concise and accessible text, numerous examples, and exercises using small but scientific models. The emphasis throughout is on analysis--such as software testing, theory development, robustness analysis, and understanding full models--and on design issues like optimizing model structure and finding good parameter values. The first hands-on introduction to agent-based modeling, from conceptual design to computer implementation to parameterization and analysis Provides an introduction to NetLogo with nine chapters introducing an important modeling concept and showing how to implement it using NetLogo Filled with examples and exercises, with updates and supplementary materials at http://www.railsback-grimm-abm-book.com/ Designed for students and researchers across the biological and social sciences Written by leading practitioners Leading universities that have adopted this book include: Amherst College Brigham Young University Carnegie Mellon University Cornell University Miami University Northwestern University Old Dominion University Portland State University Rhodes College Susquehanna University University College, Dublin University of Arizona University of British Columbia University of Michigan University of South Florida University of Texas at Austin University of Virginia

Kill Decision


Author: Daniel Suarez
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0451417704
Category: Fiction
Page: 495
View: 4062

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When her research is being used to run unmanned drones, Lindsey McKinney and Odin, a Special Ops soldier with an insight into the faceless enemy, must slow the advance long enough for the world to recognize its destructive power.

Critical Mass


Author: Philip Ball
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1448185416
Category: Science
Page: 656
View: 1438

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Is there a 'physics of society'? Philip Ball's investigation into human nature ranges from Hobbes and Adam Smith to modern work on traffic flow and market trading, across economics, sociology and psychology. Ball shows how much of human behaviour we can understand when we cease trying to predict and analyse the behaviour of individuals and look to the impact of hundreds, thousands or millions of individual human decisions, in circumstances in which human beings both co-operate and conflict, when their aggregate behaviour is constructive and when it is destructive. By perhaps Britain's leading young science writer, this is a deeply thought-provoking book, causing us to examine our own behaviour, whether in buying the new Harry Potter book, voting for a particular party or responding to the lures of advertisers.

Complex Adaptive Systems

An Introduction to Computational Models of Social Life
Author: John H. Miller,Scott E. Page
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400835522
Category: Social Science
Page: 288
View: 7474

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This book provides the first clear, comprehensive, and accessible account of complex adaptive social systems, by two of the field's leading authorities. Such systems--whether political parties, stock markets, or ant colonies--present some of the most intriguing theoretical and practical challenges confronting the social sciences. Engagingly written, and balancing technical detail with intuitive explanations, Complex Adaptive Systems focuses on the key tools and ideas that have emerged in the field since the mid-1990s, as well as the techniques needed to investigate such systems. It provides a detailed introduction to concepts such as emergence, self-organized criticality, automata, networks, diversity, adaptation, and feedback. It also demonstrates how complex adaptive systems can be explored using methods ranging from mathematics to computational models of adaptive agents. John Miller and Scott Page show how to combine ideas from economics, political science, biology, physics, and computer science to illuminate topics in organization, adaptation, decentralization, and robustness. They also demonstrate how the usual extremes used in modeling can be fruitfully transcended.

Mindstorms

Children, Computers, And Powerful Ideas
Author: Seymour A. Papert
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 9780465046744
Category: Education
Page: 252
View: 6505

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Mindstorms has two central themes: that children can learn to use computers in a masterful way and that learning to use computers can change the way they learn everything else. Even outside the classroom, Papert had a vision that the computer could be used just as casually and as personally for a diversity of purposes throughout a person's entire life. Seymour Papert makes the point that in classrooms saturated with technology there is actually more socialization and that the technology often contributes to greater interaction among students and among students and instructors.

Multi-Agent-Based Simulation

Second International Workshop, MABS 2000, Boston, MA, USA, July 2000; Revised and Additional Papers
Author: Scott Moss,Paul Davidsson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540445617
Category: Computers
Page: 272
View: 9303

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This volume is based on papers accepted for the Second International Workshop on Multi-agent-based Simulation (MABS-2000)federated with the Fourth Int- national Conference on Multi Agent Systems (ICMAS-2000)held in Boston in July 2000. The purpose of MABS-2000 was to investigate and develop the synergy - tween software engineering for multi-agent systems and agent-based social s- ulation. The papers included in the MABS-2000 workshop were selected either because they explore how agent interaction can be used to build multi-agent s- tems or they o?er examples of problem-oriented (rather than technique-oriented) systems. No paper was selected if it speci?ed a model or an issue to make it ?t a previously chosen technique. All of the papers in the volume have been reviewed and in many cases revised since the workshop. Two papers (by Edmonds and by Hales)as well as the editorial introduction have been added to those accepted for the workshop. As editors and workshop organisers, we are very grateful to the participants who engaged enthusiastically in the discussions about both individual papers and the issues facing the MABS community. Issues raised and positions taken in those discussions are reported in the editorial introduction. We are also grateful to the authors for their punctuality and the grace with which they received and responded to editorial comments and requests. Klaus Fischer, the ICMAS-2000 workshops chair, was exceptionally patient and diplomatic in reconciling our demands with the resources available.

Complexity and the Human Experience

Modeling Complexity in the Humanities and Social Sciences
Author: Paul A. Youngman,Mirsad Hadzikadic
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9814463272
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 9262

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Questions of values, ontologies, ethics, aesthetics, discourse, origins, language, literature, and meaning do not lend themselves readily, or traditionally, to equations, probabilities, and models. However, with the increased adoption of natural science tools in economics, anthropology, and political science—to name only a few social scientific fields highlighted in this volume—quantitative methods in the humanities are becoming more common. The theory of complexity holds significant promise for better understanding social and human phenomena based on interactions among the participating "agents," whatever they may be: a thought, a person, a conversation, a sentence, or an email. Such systems can exhibit phase transitions, feedback loops, self-organization, and emergent properties. These dynamic systems lend themselves naturally to the kind of analysis made possible by models and simulations developed with complex science tools. This volume offers a tour of quantitative analyses, models, and simulations of humanities and social science phenomena that have been historically the purview of qualitative methods.

The Nature of Code


Author: Daniel Shiffman
Publisher: Nature of Code
ISBN: 9780985930806
Category: Computer programming
Page: 498
View: 3704

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How can we capture the unpredictable evolutionary and emergent properties of nature in software? How can understanding the mathematical principles behind our physical world help us to create digital worlds? This book focuses on a range of programming strategies and techniques behind computer simulations of natural systems, from elementary concepts in mathematics and physics to more advanced algorithms that enable sophisticated visual results. Readers will progress from building a basic physics engine to creating intelligent moving objects and complex systems, setting the foundation for further experiments in generative design. Subjects covered include forces, trigonometry, fractals, cellular automata, self-organization, and genetic algorithms. The book's examples are written in Processing, an open-source language and development environment built on top of the Java programming language. On the book's website (http: //www.natureofcode.com), the examples run in the browser via Processing's JavaScript mode.