Transforming Probation

Social Theories and the Criminal Justice System
Author: Philip Whitehead
Publisher: Policy Press
ISBN: 1447327659
Category: Social Science
Page: 260
View: 6405

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This book explores the politics of modernisation and transformation of probation in the criminal justice system. It draws upon innovative social theories and moral perspectives to analyse changes in the probation service and makes a timely contribution to criminal justice and probation theory.

Exploring Modern Probation

Social Theory and Organisational Complexity
Author: Philip Whitehead
Publisher: Policy Press
ISBN: 1847423485
Category: Social Science
Page: 186
View: 923

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Since 1997 the probation service, an integral component of criminal justice for over 100 years, has been subject to a politically-driven process of modernisation and cultural transformation. This innovative book explores this probation modernisation by using social theories associated with Durkheim, Weber, Marx and Foucault. The book combines this theoretical analysis with empirical research from interviews, which highlights challenges to, as well as support of, the politics of modernisation. This research is unique in providing insights into what representatives of other organisations think about probation - from the outside looking in.This up-to-date text will be essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students of probation, criminology, criminal and social justice and allied disciplines.

Demonising the Other

The criminalisation of morality
Author: Whitehead, Philip
Publisher: Policy Press
ISBN: 1447343433
Category: Social Science
Page: 128
View: 2482

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Throughout history there has always been an ‘other’, often based on culture, race, gender or class, that has been demonised by the majority. This attribution of negative features onto others affects everyone, but Whitehead challenges the idea that this is an inevitable fact of life. While looking at the historical criminalisation of the ‘other’ and the subsequent modernising transformations in criminal justice and penal policy, such as ‘Big Society’, Whitehead also questions if this is the most effective way to dismantle the conditions of existence responsible for ‘othering’. This important book not only looks for the origin of the ‘other’ but also offers insights for a resolution that benefits society as a whole rather than just the powerful few.

Women and Criminal Justice

From the Corston Report to Transforming Rehabilitation
Author: Annison, Jill,Brayford, Jo,John Deering
Publisher: Policy Press
ISBN: 1447319303
Category: Social Science
Page: 265
View: 9194

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This book focuses on developments since the publication of the 2007 Corston Report into women and criminal justice. The challenges of working with women in the current climate also explored, translating lessons from good practice to policy development and recommending future directions arising from the ‘Transforming Rehabilitation’ plans.

The New Jim Crow

Masseninhaftierung und Rassismus in den USA
Author: Michelle Alexander
Publisher: Antje Kunstmann
ISBN: 3956141598
Category: Political Science
Page: 352
View: 3401

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Die Wahl von Barack Obama im November 2008 markierte einen historischen Wendepunkt in den USA: Der erste schwarze Präsident schien für eine postrassistische Gesellschaft und den Triumph der Bürgerrechtsbewegung zu stehen. Doch die Realität in den USA ist eine andere. Obwohl die Rassentrennung, die in den sogenannten Jim-Crow-Gesetzen festgeschrieben war, im Zuge der Bürgerrechtsbewegung abgeschafft wurde, sitzt heute ein unfassbar hoher Anteil der schwarzen Bevölkerung im Gefängnis oder ist lebenslang als kriminell gebrandmarkt. Ein Status, der die Leute zu Bürgern zweiter Klasse macht, indem er sie ihrer grundsätzlichsten Rechte beraubt – ganz ähnlich den explizit rassistischen Diskriminierungen der Jim-Crow-Ära. In ihrem Buch, das in Amerika eine breite Debatte ausgelöst hat, argumentiert Michelle Alexander, dass die USA ihr rassistisches System nach der Bürgerrechtsbewegung nicht abgeschafft, sondern lediglich umgestaltet haben. Da unter dem perfiden Deckmantel des »War on Drugs« überproportional junge männliche Schwarze und ihre Communities kriminalisiert werden, funktioniert das drakonische Strafjustizsystem der USA heute wie das System rassistischer Kontrolle von gestern: ein neues Jim Crow.

Criminal Justice at the Crossroads

Transforming Crime and Punishment
Author: William R. Kelly
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231539223
Category: Social Science
Page: 432
View: 3190

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Over the past forty years, the criminal justice system in the United States has engaged in a very expensive policy failure, attempting to punish its way to public safety, with dismal results. So-called "tough on crime" policies have not only failed to effectively reduce crime, recidivism, and victimization but also created an incredibly inefficient system that routinely fails the public, taxpayers, crime victims, criminal offenders, their families, and their communities. Strategies that focus on behavior change are much more productive and cost effective for reducing crime than punishment, and in this book, William R. Kelly discusses the policy, process, and funding innovations and priorities that the United States needs to effectively reduce crime, recidivism, victimization, and cost. He recommends proactive, evidence-based interventions to address criminogenic behavior; collaborative decision making from a variety of professions and disciplines; and a focus on innovative alternatives to incarceration, such as problem-solving courts and probation. Students, professionals, and policy makers alike will find in this comprehensive text a bracing discussion of how our criminal justice system became broken and the best strategies by which to fix it.

International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice


Author: Shlomo Giora Shoham,Ori Beck,Martin Kett
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420053883
Category: Law
Page: 800
View: 6018

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At the outset of the twenty-first century, more than 9 million people are held in custody in over 200 countries around the world. --from the essay "Prisons and Jails" by Ron King The first comparative study of this increasingly integral social subject, International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice provides a comprehensive and balanced review of the philosophy and practicality of punishment. Drawn from the expertise of scholars and researchers from around the world, this book covers the theory, practice, history, and empirical evidence surrounding crime prevention, identification, retribution, and incarceration. It analyzes the efficacy of both traditional methods and thinking as well as novel concepts and approaches. Beginning with a study of the changing attitude of penal practice in Florida from one of offender transformation to one of risk-management, imprisonment, surveillance, and control, this volume embarks on an objective and sober appraisal of every aspect of the field. Contributions consider the sociology of incarcerated prisoners including the increasing prevalence of prison suicides. The book evaluates arguments regarding the world-wide abolition of capitol punishment from moral, utilitarian, and practical positions. It examines non-incarcerative and alternative punishments such as financial restoration and restrictions of liberty, as well as the positive effects of Victim Offender Mediation. It also considers several methods aimed at achieving measurable crime prevention including identifying at-risk juveniles and minimizing crimes of opportunity, as well as the pros and cons of employing the coercive power of police. Further essays consider subjects such as international policing, the roles of prosecution and defense attorneys, current discretionary sentencing practices, and the role and treatment of victims. The volume concludes with two chapters of case studies that provide a "hands-on" feel for the interplay of the concepts discussed. This volume is the first in a three-part trilogy. See also The International Handbook of Victimology and The International Handbook of Criminology.

The Culture of Control

Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society
Author: David Garland
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198299370
Category: Law
Page: 307
View: 5401

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This work charts the changes in crime control & criminal justice that have occurred in Britain & America over the last 25 years. It then explains these transformations by showing how social organisation has prompted political and cultural adaptations.

Desistance Transitions and the Impact of Probation


Author: Sam King
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136170901
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 6028

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Moving away from criminal behaviour can be fraught with difficulties. Often it can involve leaving behind old habits, customs, and even friends, while at the same time adopting a new way of life. How do individuals go about making a decision to give up crime? How do they plan to sustain this decision? And in what ways does probation help? This book explores these questions. Based on in-depth interviews with a group of men under probation supervision, Sam King investigates the factors associated with making a decision to desist from crime. The book examines strategies for desistance, and explores the factors that individuals consider when they are thinking about how they will desist. In doing so, the book sheds new light on existing understandings of desistance from crime and helps to develop our understandings of the role that individuals play in constructing their own desistance journeys. This book also highlights the role of probation in this process, offering a timely and critical review of the nature of probation under the New Labour government in the UK between 1997-2010. The findings indicate that we should allow Probation Officers greater autonomy and discretion within their roles, and that we should free them from the bureaucracy of risk assessment and targets. Moreover, the book warns against the potential fragmentation of community supervision. As such, the book will be of interest to criminology students, researchers, academics, policymakers and practitioners, particularly those who work with ex-offenders in the community.

Außenseiter

Zur Soziologie abweichenden Verhaltens
Author: Howard S. Becker
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658012544
Category: Social Science
Page: 197
View: 7022

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​ „Der Mensch mit abweichendem Verhalten ist ein Mensch, auf den diese Bezeichnung erfolgreich angewandt worden ist; abweichendes Verhalten ist Verhalten, das Menschen als solches bezeichnen“: Es ist einer der klassischen Sätze der Devianzsoziologie in einem der Klassiker des Feldes. Howard S. Becker betont fernab von alten und simplistischen Fragen danach, „warum Menschen Regeln brechen“, welche Situationen und welche Prozesse dazu führen, dass Menschen in Positionen geraten, in denen sie als „Regelbrecher“ betitelt werden, wie sie mit diesen Positionen umgehen und sich auch gegen diese wehren. „Außenseiter“ erschien erstmals 1963 in New York und wurde 1981 bei S. Fischer in deutscher Übersetzung publiziert. Seit den frühen neunziger Jahren vergriffen, liegt hier nun eine von Michael Dellwing überarbeitete und herausgegebene Version vor.

How Offenders Transform Their Lives


Author: Bonita Veysey,Johnna Christian,Damian J. Martinez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134028350
Category: Social Science
Page: 288
View: 5406

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This book presents a series of studies (mostly qualitative) that investigate individual identity transformation from offender status to pro-social, non-offending roles.

Probation


Author: Rob Canton,Jane Dominey
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315407000
Category: Social Science
Page: 332
View: 7217

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This book provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to probation. It brings together themes of policy, theory and practice to help students and practitioners better understand the work of probation, its limitations, its potential, but above all its value. Setting probation in the context of the criminal justice system, the book explores its history, purposes and contemporary significance. It explains what probation is and the practical realities of working with offenders in the community. The book also covers the governance of probation and how policy and practice are responding to contemporary concerns about crime and community safety. This book encourages readers to appreciate the practical and theoretical strengths and shortcomings of contemporary probation practice. This revised and updated new edition includes a full description and discussion of recent reforms in the probation service and the Transforming Rehabilitation policy agenda. It also offers further discussion of international perspectives on probation, including international developments and collaborative efforts between countries. This book is essential reading for trainee probation officers and students taking courses on probation, offender management, treatment and rehabilitation, working with offenders and community justice.

Women in the Criminal Justice System


Author: Clarice Feinman
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0275944875
Category: Social Science
Page: 211
View: 1496

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This third edition provides thoroughly updated information on the status of women in all aspects of the U.S. criminal justice system, from incarcerated women to professionals in the legal, law enforcement, and correctional fields. While concentrating on the present, Clarice Feinman traces changes in theories, goals, practices, and policies concerning women of different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds--be they offenders, professionals, or reformers--since 1800, with a focus on why changes occurred. This unique text is an important tool for filling gaps in information, continuity, and understanding of issues affecting women in the up-hill battle to transform this male-dominated system.

Key Ideas in Criminology and Criminal Justice


Author: Travis C. Pratt,Jacinta M. Gau,Travis W. Franklin
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 141297013X
Category: Law
Page: 189
View: 9209

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By focusing on key ideas in both criminology and criminal justice, this book brings a new and unique perspective to understanding critical research in criminology and criminal justice -- heretofore, the practice has been to separate criminology and criminal justice. However, given their interconnected nature, this book brings both together cohesively. In going beyond simply identifying and discussing key contributions and their effects by giving students a broader socio-political context for each key idea, this book concretely conceptualizes the key ideas in ways that students will remember and understand.

Probation Practice and the New Penology

Practitioner Reflections
Author: John Deering
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317075544
Category: Social Science
Page: 216
View: 8735

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The criminal justice system has been in a state of flux in recent decades, accompanied by growing levels of insecurity and intolerance of crime and offenders among the general population. Along with government policy and practice, these developments are seen as contributing to an increasingly punitive system that imprisons more than ever before and seeks to punish and manage offenders in the community, rather than to attempt their rehabilitation. For these reasons, along with a loss of faith in rehabilitation, the probation service is now described by many as having become a law enforcement agency, charged by government with the assessment and management of risk, the protection of the public and the management and punishment of offenders, rather than their transformation into pro-social citizens. This book explores the extent to which practitioners within the National Probation Service for England and Wales and the National Offender Management Service ascribe to the values, attitudes and beliefs associated with these macro and mezzo level changes and how much their practice has changed accordingly. By viewing examples of 'real' practice through the lens of the modernisation of public services, managerialism and theories of organisation change, the book considers how 'real' practice is likely to emerge as something unpredictable and perhaps different from the intentions of both government/management and practitioners.

A companion to criminal justice, mental health and risk


Author: Paul Taylor,Karen Corteen
Publisher: Policy Press
ISBN: 1447312627
Category: Social Science
Page: 368
View: 2849

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Within the domains of criminal justice and mental health care, critical debate concerning ‘care’ versus ‘control’ and ‘therapy’ versus ‘security’ is now commonplace. Indeed, the ‘hybridisation’ of these areas is now a familiar theme. This unique and topical text provides an array of expert analyses from key contributors in the field that explore the interface between criminal justice and mental health. Using concise yet robust definitions of key terms and concepts, it consolidates scholarly analysis of theory, policy and practice. Readers are provided with practical debates, in addition to the theoretical and ideological concerns surrounding the risk assessment, treatment, control and risk management in a cross-disciplinary context. Included in this book is recommended further reading and an index of legislation, making it an ideal resource for students at undergraduate and postgraduate level, together with researchers and practitioners in the field.

The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice


Author: Barry C. Feld,Donna M. Bishop
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195385101
Category: Law
Page: 934
View: 3707

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State-of-the-art critical reviews of recent scholarship on the causes of juvenile delinquency, juvenile justice system responses, and public policies to prevent and reduce youth crime are brought together in a single volume authored by leading scholars and researchers in neuropsychology, developmental and social psychology, sociology, history, criminology/criminal justice, and law.

Criminology

Theory and Context
Author: John Tierney
Publisher: Pearson Education
ISBN: 9780273722779
Category: Social Science
Page: 436
View: 9736

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This text explores the history and growth of criminology as an academic discipline and presents a detailed discussion of the major criminological theories that have developed as a result.

Transforming Corrections

Humanistic Approaches to Corrections and Offender Treatment
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781594604522
Category: Social Science
Page: 245
View: 9170

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Transforming Corrections offers an alternative perspective not currently found in the existing literature concerning the way in which individuals in the criminal justice system are understood and treated. Intended for use as a supplementary text, this collection will help to enhance the current conversation that is ongoing in the field of rehabilitative corrections. Part of the Criminal Justice and Psychology Series.

City of Disorder

How the Quality of Life Campaign Transformed New York Politics
Author: Alex S. Vitale
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814788202
Category: Social Science
Page: 252
View: 4429

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2009 Association of American University Presses Award for Jacket Design In the 1990s, improving the quality of life became a primary focus and a popular catchphrase of the governments of New York and many other American cities. Faced with high levels of homelessness and other disorders associated with a growing disenfranchised population, then mayor Rudolph Giuliani led New York's zero tolerance campaign against what was perceived to be an increase in disorder that directly threatened social and economic stability. In a traditionally liberal city, the focus had shifted dramatically from improving the lives of the needy to protecting the welfare of the middle and upper classes—a decidedly neoconservative move. In City of Disorder, Alex S. Vitale analyzes this drive to restore moral order which resulted in an overhaul of the way New York views such social problems as prostitution, graffiti, homelessness, and panhandling. Through several fascinating case studies of New York neighborhoods and an in-depth look at the dynamics of the NYPD and of the city's administration itself, Vitale explains why Republicans have won the last four New York mayoral elections and what the long-term impact Giuliani's zero tolerance method has been on a city historically known for its liberalism.