Trade Cooperation

The Purpose, Design and Effects of Preferential Trade Agreements
Author: Andreas Dür,Manfred Elsig
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316033481
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 8533

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Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) have been proliferating for more than two decades, with the negotiations for a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and a Trans-Pacific Partnership being just the tip of the iceberg. This volume addresses some of the most pressing issues related to the surge of these agreements. It includes chapters written by leading political scientists, economists and lawyers which theoretically and empirically advance our understanding of trade agreements. The key theme is that PTAs vary widely in terms of design. The authors provide explanations as to why we see these differences in design and whether and how these differences matter in practice. The tools for understanding the purposes and effects of PTAs that are offered will guide future research and inform practitioners and trade policy experts about progress in the scientific enquiry into PTAs.

The Future of International Competition Law Enforcement

An Assessment of the EU’s Cooperation Efforts
Author: Valerie Demedts
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004372962
Category: Law
Page: 456
View: 2653

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The Future of International Competition Law Enforcement undertakes an original assessment of the EU's international cooperation agreements in the field of competition law and is uniquely focused on the bilateral sphere, often labelled as a mere 'interim-solution' awaiting a global agreement.

The Trade and Culture Debate

Evidence from US Trade Agreements
Author: Gilbert Gagne
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498521916
Category: Political Science
Page: 190
View: 5181

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As the first exporter of cultural goods and services, the United States has long held that such products should be treated like any other merchandise and be liberalized. On the other hand, for countries such as France and Canada who are concerned about the impact of economic globalization and the digital revolution on their cultural identity, cultural products should be exempted from economic liberalization or subject to a cultural exception. conflicting views and interests between states as to the treatment of cultural products in international economic law lie at the hearth of the trade and culture debate. These differences have led to serious tensions over the liberalization of cultural services within the World Trade Organization, as well as to a Convention within UNESCO to recognize the economic and cultural character of cultural products and the states’ right to pursue cultural policies. With most states still not keen on liberalizing the cultural sector and the stalemate in the Doha Round, the United States has turned to preferential trade agreements to secure its policy preferences on the treatment of cultural products. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the US government has concluded eleven trade agreements grouping sixteen countries and has been involved in three sets of plurilateral negotiations, with major implications for the evolution of the trade and culture debate.

Handbook of International Trade Agreements

Country, regional and global approaches
Author: Robert E. Looney
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351046934
Category: Political Science
Page: 462
View: 8433

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International trade has, for decades, been central to economic growth and improved standards of living for nations and regions worldwide. For most of the advanced countries, trade has raised standards of living, while for most emerging economies, growth did not begin until their integration into the global economy. The economic explanation is simple: international trade facilitates specialization, increased efficiency and improved productivity to an extent impossible in closed economies. However, recent years have seen a significant slowdown in global trade, and the global system has increasingly come under attack from politicians on the right and on the left. The benefits of open markets, the continuation of international co-operation, and the usefulness of multilateral institutions such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have all been called into question. While globalization has had a broadly positive effect on overall global welfare, it has also been perceived by the public as damaging communities and social classes in the industrialized world, spawning, for example, Brexit and the US exit from the Trans-Pacific Partnership. The purpose of this volume is to examine international and regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs), which offer like-minded countries a possible means to continue receiving the benefits of economic liberalization and expanded trade. What are the strengths and weaknesses of such agreements, and how can they sustain growth and prosperity for their members in an ever-challenging global economic environment? The Handbook is divided into two parts. The first, Global Themes, offers analysis of issues including the WTO, trade agreements and economic development, intellectual property rights, security and environmental issues, and PTAs and developing countries. The second part examines regional and country-specific agreements and issues, including NAFTA, CARICOM, CETA, the Pacific Alliance, the European Union, EFTA, ECOWAS, SADC, TTIP, RCEP and the TPP (now the CPTPP), as well as the policies of countries such as Japan and Australia.

Regional Trade Agreements and the Multilateral Trading System


Author: Rohini Acharya
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316889416
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 5919

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This volume contains a collection of studies examining trade-related issues negotiated in regional trade agreements (RTAs) and how RTAs are related to the WTO's rules. While previous work has focused on subsets of RTAs, these studies are based on what is probably the largest dataset used to date, and highlight key issues that have been negotiated in all RTAs notified to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). New rules within RTAs are compared to rules agreed upon by WTO members. The extent of their divergences and the potential implications for parties to RTAs, as well as for WTO members that are not parties to RTAs, are examined. This volume makes an important contribution to the current debate on the role of the WTO in regulating international trade and how WTO rules relate to new rules being developed by RTAs.

Handbook of Commercial Policy


Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444639268
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 598
View: 9350

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Handbook of Commercial Policy explores three main topics that permeate the study of commercial policy. The first section presents a broad set of basic empirical facts regarding the pattern and evolution of commercial policy, with the second section investigating the crosscutting legal issues relating to the purpose and design of agreements. Final sections cover key issues of commercial policy in the modern global economy. Every chapter in the book provides coverage from the perspectives of multilateral, and where appropriate, preferential trade agreements. While most other volumes are policy-oriented, this comprehensive guide explores the ways that intellectual thinking and rigor organize research, further making frontier-level synthesis and current theoretical, and empirical, research accessible to all. Covers the research areas that are critical for understanding how the world of commercial policy has changed, especially over the last 20 years Presents the way in which research on the topic has evolved Scrutinizes the economic modeling of bargaining and legal issues Useful for examining the theory and empirics of commercial policy

Preferential Trade Agreement Policies for Development

A Handbook
Author: Jean-Pierre Chauffour,Jean-Christophe Maur
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821386433
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 511
View: 7573

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The Handbook offers an introduction to the key elements of Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs), addressing the practical economic and legal aspects of the regulatory policies in PTAs.

Votes, Vetoes, and the Political Economy of International Trade Agreements


Author: Edward D. Mansfield,Helen V. Milner
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691135304
Category: Political Science
Page: 211
View: 3790

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Preferential trading arrangements (PTAs) play an increasingly prominent role in the global political economy, two notable examples being the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreement. These agreements foster economic integration among member states by enhancing their access to one another's markets. Yet despite the importance of PTAs to international trade and world politics, until now little attention has been focused on why governments choose to join them and how governments design them. This book offers valuable new insights into the political economy of PTA formation. Many economists have argued that the roots of these agreements lie in the promise they hold for improving the welfare of member states. Others have posited that trade agreements are a response to global political conditions. Edward Mansfield and Helen Milner argue that domestic politics provide a crucial impetus to the decision by governments to enter trade pacts. Drawing on this argument, they explain why democracies are more likely to enter PTAs than nondemocratic regimes, and why as the number of veto players--interest groups with the power to block policy change--increases in a prospective member state, the likelihood of the state entering a trade agreement is reduced. The book provides a novel view of the political foundations of trade agreements.

The Economics of the World Trading System


Author: Kyle Bagwell,Robert W. Staiger
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262524346
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 224
View: 2243

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An economic analysis of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the World Trade Organization.

Mega-Regional Trade Agreements


Author: Thilo Rensmann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319566636
Category: Law
Page: 376
View: 3601

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This book provides an in-depth analysis of "Mega-Regionals", the new generation of trans-regional free-trade agreements (FTAs) currently under negotiation, and their effect on the future of international economic law. The main focus centres on the EU-US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), but the findings are also applicable to similar agreements under negotiation, such as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).The specific features of Mega-Regional Trade Agreements raise a number of issues with respect to their potential effect on the current system of international trade and investment law. These include the consequences of Mega-Regionals for the most-favoured-nation (MFN) principle, their relation to the multilateral system of the World Trade Organization (WTO), their democratic legitimacy and their interaction with existing bilateral investment treaties (BITs).The book is intended for academics and practitioners working in the field of international economic law.

The European Union's Foreign Economic Policies

A Principal-Agent Perspective
Author: Andreas Dür,Manfred Elsig
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317985044
Category: Political Science
Page: 160
View: 1777

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The European Union is a key actor in international economic governance. Through its foreign economic policies it plays a central role in the negotiation of international trade agreements, the global regulation of the financial services sector, and the provision of aid to developing countries. This book shows how principal-agent theory can be used to shed new light on this complex of policy areas. In particular, the contributions to this volume analyze delegation, control, and agent strategies in a variety of principal-agent relationships shaping the EU’s foreign economic policies: mainly those involving interest groups and governments; governments and the European Commission; and the European Union and international organizations. The chapters, written by leading experts in the field, offer empirically-rich studies of various areas of the EU’s external economic relations including trade, financial regulation, accounting standards and global regulation through the G7/G8. The book is aimed at researchers and advanced students interested in the EU, international economic relations, and principal-agent theory. This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Public Policy.

The World Trade System

Trends and Challenges
Author: Jagdish N. Bhagwati,Pravin Krishna,Arvind Panagariya
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026233769X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 416
View: 7411

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When the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) metamorphosed into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1994, it seemed that the third pillar of the international economic superstructure was finally in place. And yet with the failure of member countries to close the Doha Round of trade negotiations and the emergence of bilateral and plurilateral preferential trade arrangements (PTAs) such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the future of the multilateral WTO seems uncertain. In this volume, leading economists examine issues in trade policy that have arisen during this shift. The contributors discuss such topics as the effect of trade on poverty and inequality, PTAs and litigation between trading partners, the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement, and the relationship of food security and trade liberalization. They also offer regional perspectives on the TPP and trans-Atlantic free trade. ContributorsRahel Aichele, Jagdish Bhagwati, Steve Charnovitz, Gabriel Felbermayr Dimitar Gueorguiev, Bernard Hoekman, Jonas Kasteng, Pravin Krishna, Mary Lovely, Petros Mavroidis, Devashish Mitra, Arvind Panagariya, Tom Prusa, Andre Sapir, Stefan Tangermann

Investment Law within International Law

Integrationist Perspectives
Author: Freya Baetens
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107434912
Category: Law
Page: 556
View: 7985

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Developments within various sub-fields of international law influence international investment law, but changes in investment law also have an impact on the evolution of other fields within international law. Through contributions from leading scholars and practitioners, this book analyses specific links between investment law and other sub-fields of international law such as the law on armed conflict, human rights, sustainable development, trade, development and EU law. In particular, this book scrutinises how concepts, principles and rules developed in the context of such sub-fields could inform the content of investment law. Solutions aimed at resolving problems in other settings may provide instructive examples for addressing current problems in the field of investment law, and vice versa. The underlying question is whether key sub-fields of public international law, notably international investment law, are open to cross-fertilisation, or, whether they are evolving further into self-contained regimes.

Reshaping the Asia Pacific Economic Order


Author: Associate Professor of Economics and Research Associate of the Australian-Japan Research Center Christopher Findlay, Dr,Christopher Findlay,Hadi Soesastro
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134270879
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 304
View: 7575

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Relationships and alignments among the nations of the world’s most populous and productive region, the Asia Pacific, are in flux. Current global political, economic and security uncertainty, heightened by 9/11 and the subsequent War on Terror, has fuelled a reassessment by many Asia Pacific nations about the structure and form of future economic and political cooperation and development. Featuring contributions from some of the most eminent and influential economists and political scientists in the Asia Pacific region, this book explores the forces reshaping the Asia Pacific economic order, and where these changes may lead. Focusing on the origins of the shift towards policy driven integration, the book examines what new structures may eventually emerge on both sides of the Pacific, the ways in which this shift will affect the progress of economic integration and how cross-Pacific relations will therefore be affected.

Assessing the World Trade Organization

Fit for Purpose?
Author: Manfred Elsig,Bernard Hoekman,Joost Pauwelyn
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108148409
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 667

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The World Trade Organization (WTO) recently celebrated twenty years of existence. The general wisdom is that its dispute settlement institutions work well and its negotiation machinery goes through a phase of prolonged crises. Assessing the World Trade Organization overcomes this myopic view and takes stock of the WTO's achievements whilst going beyond existing disciplinary narratives. With chapters written by scholars who have closely observed the development of the WTO in recent years, this book presents the state of the art in thinking about WTO performance. It also considers important issues such as the origins of the multilateral system, the accession process and the WTO's interaction with other international organisations. The contributions shed new light on untold stories, critically review and present existing scholarship, and sketch new research avenues for a future generation of trade scholars. This book will appeal to a wide audience that aims to better understand the drivers and obstacles of WTO performance.

Global Value Chains Development Report


Author: World Trade Organization
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9789287041258
Category: Political Science
Page: 200
View: 6430

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Global value chains (GVCs) break up the production process so that different steps can be carried out in different countries. Many smart phones and televisions, for example, are designed in the United States or Japan. They have sophisticated inputs, such as semiconductors and processors, which are produced in Korea or Taiwan Province of China. And they are assembled in China. They are then marketed and receive after-sale servicing in Europe and the United States. These complex global production arrangements have transformed the nature of trade. But their complexity has also created difficulties in understanding trade and in formulating policies that allow firms and governments to capitalize on GVCs and to mitigate negative side effects. This publication provides a detailed map of GVCs, enabling policymakers to have a better understanding of the ongoing development and evolution of GVCs and the relationship between economic development and GVC participation. Copublished with the World Bank, OECD, IDE-JETRO, and the Research Center for Global Value Chain Research. The joint research undertaken by these organizations aims to synthesize the parties' knowledge and expertise on GVC studies and to contribute to better policymaking by the international community.

Trade and Health

Seeking Common Ground
Author: Chantal Blouin,Jody Heymann,Nick Drager
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
ISBN: 0773578587
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 384
View: 9369

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Trade and Health answers this question by exploring the entire array of avenues through which trade affects health, and examining a number of case studies on how best to achieve policies that integrate health objectives. The contributors represent the full range of stakeholders in the trade-health debate - medical professionals, civil society representatives, academics from a range of disciplines, and negotiators and policy-makers at the national and global levels.

Political Economy and Instruments of Environmental Politics


Author: Friedrich Schneider,Andrea Kollmann,Johannes Reichl
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262029243
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 296
View: 7390

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Conceptual, empirical, and theoretical analyses of the effectiveness of market-based policy instruments in achieving environmental goals.

Sailing the Water's Edge

The Domestic Politics of American Foreign Policy
Author: Helen V. Milner,Dustin Tingley
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400873827
Category: Political Science
Page: 352
View: 9589

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When engaging with other countries, the U.S. government has a number of different policy instruments at its disposal, including foreign aid, international trade, and the use of military force. But what determines which policies are chosen? Does the United States rely too much on the use of military power and coercion in its foreign policies? Sailing the Water's Edge focuses on how domestic U.S. politics—in particular the interactions between the president, Congress, interest groups, bureaucratic institutions, and the public—have influenced foreign policy choices since World War II and shows why presidents have more control over some policy instruments than others. Presidential power matters and it varies systematically across policy instruments. Helen Milner and Dustin Tingley consider how Congress and interest groups have substantial material interests in and ideological divisions around certain issues and that these factors constrain presidents from applying specific tools. As a result, presidents select instruments that they have more control over, such as use of the military. This militarization of U.S. foreign policy raises concerns about the nature of American engagement, substitution among policy tools, and the future of U.S. foreign policy. Milner and Tingley explore whether American foreign policy will remain guided by a grand strategy of liberal internationalism, what affects American foreign policy successes and failures, and the role of U.S. intelligence collection in shaping foreign policy. The authors support their arguments with rigorous theorizing, quantitative analysis, and focused case studies, such as U.S. foreign policy in Sub-Saharan Africa across two presidential administrations. Sailing the Water’s Edge examines the importance of domestic political coalitions and institutions on the formation of American foreign policy.