Theoretical Approaches to Analysis and Interpretation of Commingled Human Remains


Author: Anna J. Osterholtz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319225545
Category: Social Science
Page: 255
View: 3900

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This volume centers on the application of social theory to commingled remains with special focus on the cultural processes that create the assemblages as a way to better understand issues of meaning, social structure and interaction, and lived experience in the past. The importance of the application of theoretical frameworks to bioarchaeology in general has been recognized, but commingled and fragmentary assemblages require an increased theoretical focus. Too often these assemblages are still relegated to appendices; they are analytical puzzles that need the interpretive power offered by social theory. Theoretical Approaches to Analysis and Interpretation of Commingled Human Remains provides case studies that illustrate how an appropriate theoretical model can be used with commingled and fragmentary remains to add to overall site and population level interpretations of past and present peoples. Specifically, the contributions show a blending and melding of different social theories, highlighting the broad interpretive power of social theory. Contributors are drawn from both the Old and New World. Temporally, time periods from the Neolithic to historic periods are present, further widening the audience for the volume.

Children, Death and Burial

Archaeological Discourses
Author: Eileen Murphy,Mélie Le Roy
Publisher: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1785707159
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 4154

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Children, Death and Burials assembles a panorama of studies with a focus on juvenile burials; the 16 papers have a wide geographic and temporal breadth and represent a range of methodological approaches. All have a similar objective in mind, however, namely to understand how children were treated in death by different cultures in the past; to gain insights concerning the roles of children of different ages in their respective societies and to find evidence of the nature of past adult–child relationships and interactions across the life course. The contextualisation and integration of the data collected, both in the field and in the laboratory, enables more nuanced understandings to be gained in relation to the experiences of the young in the past. A broad range of issues are addressed within the volume, including the inclusion/exclusion of children in particular burial environments and the impact of age in relation to the place of children in society. Child burials clearly embody identity and ‘the domestic child’, ‘the vulnerable child’, ‘the high status child’, ‘the cherished child’, ‘the potential child’, ‘the ritual child’ and the ‘political child’, and combinations thereof, are evident throughout the narratives. Investigation of the burial practices afforded to children is pivotal to enlightenment in relation to key facets of past life, including the emotional responses shown towards children during life and in death, as well as an understanding of their place within the social strata and ritual activities of their societies. An important new collection of papers by leading researchers in funerary archaeology, examining the particular treatment of juvenile burials in the past. In particular focuses on the expression of varying status and identity of children in the funerary archaeological record as a key to understanding the place of children in different societies.

Human Remains: Another Dimension

The Application of Imaging to the Study of Human Remains
Author: Tim Thompson,David Errickson
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128046732
Category: Law
Page: 218
View: 1877

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Human Remains – Another Dimension: The Application of 3D Imaging in the Funerary Contextbrings together scattered literature on the topic, assimilating disparate pieces that relate to the novel use of non-invasive three-dimensional imaging techniques in the forensic context. All chapters are written by specialists in the field who use these types of imaging techniques within their research, bringing an engaging and comprehensive view that demonstrates the current use of 3D non-invasive imaging techniques using case studies. In addition, the advantages for using such methods, their current limitations, and possible solutions are also reviewed. Includes three dimensional imaging techniques presented from a forensics point-of-view Written by well-renowned specialists in the field Assimilates disparate pieces that relate to the novel use of non-invasive three-dimensional imaging techniques

Commingled and Disarticulated Human Remains

Working Toward Improved Theory, Method, and Data
Author: Anna J. Osterholtz,Kathryn M. Baustian,Debra L. Martin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461475600
Category: Social Science
Page: 285
View: 7883

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​Commingled and Disarticulated Human Remains:Working Toward Improved Theory, Method, and Data brings together research that provides innovative methodologies for the analysis of commingled human remains. It has temporal and spatial breadth, with case studies coming from pre-state to historic periods, as well as from both the New and Old World. Highlights of this volume include: standardizes methods and presents best practices in the field using a case study approach demonstrates how data gathered from commingled human remains can be incorporated into the overall interpretation of a site explores best way to formulate population size, using commingled remains Field archaeologists, bioarchaeologists, academic anthropologists, forensic anthropologists, zoo archaeologists, and students of anthropology and archaeology will find this to be an invaluable resource.

The Analysis of Burned Human Remains


Author: Christopher W. Schmidt,Steven A. Symes
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128005211
Category: Social Science
Page: 448
View: 1138

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The Analysis of Burned Human Remains, Second Edition, provides a primary source for osteologists and the medical/legal community for the understanding of burned bone remains in forensic or archaeological contexts. It describes in detail the changes in human bone and soft tissues as a body burns at both the chemical and gross levels and provides an overview of the current procedures in burned bone study. Case studies in forensic and archaeological settings aid those interested in the analysis of burned human bodies, from death scene investigators to biological anthropologists. A timely state-of-the-art analyses of burned bone studies for bioarchaeologists and forensic anthropologists Covers the diagnostic patterning of color changes, the positioning of the body, and presence (or absence of soft tissues during the burning event Chapters on bones and teeth give step-by-step recommendations for hot to study and recognize burned hard tissues New chapters include improved analyses of thermally induced impacts on bone microstructure, development, and appearance; they also cover sites from a greater geographic range adding Alaska, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, and Southeast Asia

Advances in Forensic Taphonomy

Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives
Author: William D. Haglund,Marcella H. Sorg
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420058352
Category: Law
Page: 544
View: 2041

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The taphonomic approach within paleontology, archaeology, and paleoanthropology continues to produce advances in understanding postmortem biochemical and morphological transformations. Conversely, advances in understanding the early and intermediate postmortem period generated in the forensic realm can and should be brought to the attention of scientists who study the historic and prehistoric past. Building on the success of Forensic Taphonomy: The Postmortem Fate of Human Remains, Advances in Forensic Taphonomy: Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives presents new and updated techniques. It expands the taphonomic focus on biogeographic context and microenvironments and integrates further the theoretical and methodological links with archaeology and paleontology. Topics covered include: Microenvironmental variation and decomposition in different environments Taphonomic interpretation of water deaths Mass graves, mass fatalities and war crimes, archaeological and forensic approaches Updates in geochemical and entomological analysis Interpretation of burned human remains Discrimination of trauma from postmortem change Taphonomic applications at the scene and in the lab This comprehensive text takes an interdisciplinary and international approach to understanding taphonomic modifications. Liberally illustrated with photographs, maps, and other images, Advances in Forensic Taphonomy: Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives is a valuable source of information for postmortem death investigation.

Theory and Practice in the Bioarchaeology of Care


Author: Lorna Tilley
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319188607
Category: Social Science
Page: 319
View: 3523

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This book provides the first comprehensive introduction to, and explanation of, the theory and practice of the ‘bioarchaeology of care’, an original, fully theorised and contextualised case study-based approach designed to identify and interpret cases of care provision in prehistory. The applied methodology comprises four stages of analysis, each building on the content of the preceding one(s), which provide the framework for this process. Theory and Practice in the Bioarchaeology of Care is the primary source of information on this new approach and serves as a manual for its implementation. It elaborates the foundations on which the bioarchaeology of care is constructed; it leads the reader through the methodology; and it provides three detailed examples of prehistoric caregiving which illustrate how bioarchaeology of care analysis has the capacity to reveal aspects of past group and individual identity and lifeways which might otherwise have remained unknown.

New Developments in the Bioarchaeology of Care

Further Case Studies and Expanded Theory
Author: Lorna Tilley,Alecia A. Schrenk
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319399012
Category: Social Science
Page: 385
View: 1363

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New Developments in the Bioarchaeology of Care evaluates, refines and expands existing concepts and practices in the developing field of bioarchaeological research into health-related care provision in the past. Evidence in human remains that indicates an individual survived with, or following, a serious pathology suggests this person most likely received some form of care from others. This observation was first made half a century ago, but it is only in the last five years that health-related caregiving has been accepted as a topic for bioarchaeology research. In this time, interest has grown exponentially. A focus on care provides a dynamic framework for examining the experiences of disease and disability in the past - at the level of the individual receiving care, and that of the community providing it. When caregiving can be identified in the archaeological record, bioarchaeologists may be able to offer unique insights into aspects of past lifeways. This volume represents the work of an international, diverse, cross-disciplinary group of contributors, each bringing their own particular focus, style and expertise to analyzing past health-related care. Nineteen chapters offer content that ranges from an introduction to the basic 'bioarchaeology of care' approach, through original case studies of care provision, to new theoretical perspectives in this emerging area of scholarship. This book creates a synergy that challenges our thinking about past health-related care behaviors and about the implications of these behaviors for understanding the social environment in which they took place.

Forensic Anthropology

Current Methods and Practice
Author: Angi M. Christensen,Nicholas V. Passalacqua,Eric J. Bartelink
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124172903
Category: Law
Page: 464
View: 7707

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Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice—winner of a 2015 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association—approaches forensic anthropology through an innovative style using current practices and real case studies drawn from the varied experiences, backgrounds, and practices of working forensic anthropologists. This text guides the reader through all aspects of human remains recovery and forensic anthropological analysis, presenting principles at a level that is appropriate for those new to the field, while at the same time incorporating evolutionary, biomechanical, and other theoretical foundations for the features and phenomena encountered in forensic anthropological casework. Attention is focused primarily on the most recent and scientifically valid applications commonly employed by working forensic anthropologists. Readers will therefore learn about innovative techniques in the discipline, and aspiring practitioners will be prepared by understanding the necessary background needed to work in the field today. Instructors and students will find Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice comprehensive, practical, and relevant to the modern discipline of forensic anthropology. Winner of a 2015 Most Promising New Textbook Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association Focuses on modern methods, recent advances in research and technology, and current challenges in the science of forensic anthropology Addresses issues of international relevance such as the role of forensic anthropology in mass disaster response and human rights investigations Includes chapter summaries, topicoriented case studies, keywords, and reflective questions to increase active student learning

Bioarchaeology of Women and Children in Times of War

Case Studies from the Americas
Author: Debra L. Martin,Caryn Tegtmeyer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331948396X
Category: Social Science
Page: 187
View: 6291

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This volume will examine the varied roles that women and children play in period of warfare, which in most cases deviate from their perceived role as noncombatants. Using social theory about the nature of sex, gender and age in thinking about vulnerabilities to different groups during warfare, this collection of studies focuses on the broader impacts of war both during warfare but also long after the conflict is over. The volume will show that during periods of violence and warfare, many suffer beyond those individuals directly involved in battle. From pre-Hispanic Peru to Ming dynasty Mongolia to the Civil War-era United States to the present, warfare has been and is a public health disaster, particularly for women and children. Individuals and populations suffer from displacement, sometimes permanently, due to loss of food and resources and an increased risk of contracting communicable diseases, which results from the poor conditions and tight spaces present in most refugee camps, ancient and modern. Bioarchaeology can provide a more nuanced lens through which to examine the effects of warfare on life, morbidity, and mortality, bringing individuals not traditionally considered by studies of warfare and prolonged violence into focus. Inclusion of these groups in discussions of warfare can increase our understanding of not only the biological but also the social meaning and costs of warfare.

Bioarchaeology

An Integrated Approach to Working with Human Remains
Author: Debra L. Martin,Ryan P. Harrod,Ventura R. Pérez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461463785
Category: Social Science
Page: 262
View: 2714

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Bioarchaeology is the analysis of human remains within an interpretative framework that includes contextual information. This comprehensive and much-needed manual provides both a starting point and a reference for archaeologists, bioarchaeologists and others working in this integrative field. The authors cover a range of bioarchaeological methods and theory including: Ethical issues involved in dealing with human remains Theoretical approaches in bioarchaeology Techniques in taphonomy and bone analysis Lab and forensic techniques for skeletal analysis Best practices for excavation techniques Special applications in bioarchaeology With case studies from bioarchaeological research, the authors integrate theoretical and methodological discussion with a wide range of field studies from different geographic areas, time periods, and data types, to demonstrate the full scope of this important field of study.

Recovery, Analysis, and Identification of Commingled Human Remains


Author: Bradley J. Adams,John E. Byrd
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781597453165
Category: Medical
Page: 374
View: 8647

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Commingling of human remains presents an added challenge to all phases of the forensic process. This book brings together tools from diverse sources within forensic science to offer a set of comprehensive approaches to handling commingled remains. It details the recovery of commingled remains in the field, the use of triage in the assessment of commingling, various analytical techniques for sorting and determining the number of individuals, the role of DNA in the overall process, ethical considerations, and data management. In addition, the book includes case examples that illustrate techniques found to be successful and those that proved problematic.

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology


Author: Joshua Blau
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315427761
Category: Social Science
Page: 534
View: 336

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Over the last 10 years interest in the disciplines of forensic anthropology and archaeology has exploded. In order to provide archaeologists and their students with a reliable understanding of these disciplines, this authoritative volume draws contributions from fifty experienced practitioners from around the world to offer a solid foundation in both the practical and ethical components of forensic work. Over 40 chapters weave together historical development, current field methods in analyzing crime, natural disasters and human atrocities, an array of laboratory techniques, key case studies, legal, professional, and ethical issues, and promising future directions, all from a global perspective. This volume will be the benchmark for the understanding of anthropological and archaeological forensics for years to come.

Bioarchaeology of Impairment and Disability

Theoretical, Ethnohistorical, and Methodological Perspectives
Author: Jennifer F. Byrnes,Jennifer L. Muller
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331956949X
Category: Social Science
Page: 292
View: 2280

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Over the years, impairment has been discussed in bioarchaeology, with some scholars providing carefully contextualized explanations for their causes and consequences. Such investigations typically take a case study approach and focus on the functional aspects of impairments. However, these interpretations are disconnected from disability theory discourse. Other social sciences and the humanities have far surpassed most of anthropology (with the exception of medical anthropology) in their integration of social theories of disability. This volume has three goals: The first goal of this edited volume is to present theoretical and methodological discussions on impairment and disability. The second goal of this volume is to emphasize the necessity of interdisciplinarity in discussions of impairment and disability within bioarchaeology. The third goal of the volume is to present various methodological approaches to quantifying impairment in skeletonized and mummified remains. This volume serves to engage scholars from many disciplines in our exploration of disability in the past, with particular emphasis on the bioarchaeological context.

The Bioarchaeology of Societal Collapse and Regeneration in Ancient Peru


Author: Danielle Shawn Kurin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319284045
Category: Social Science
Page: 218
View: 7951

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This book explores how individuals, social groups, and entire populations are impacted by the tumultuous collapse of ancient states and empires. Through meticulous study of the bones of the dead and the molecules embedded therein, bioarchaeologists can reconstruct how the reverberations of traumatic social disasters permanently impact human bodies over the course of generations. In this case, we focus on the enigmatic civilizations of ancient Peru. Around 1000 years ago, the Wari Empire, the first expansive, imperial state in the highland Andes, abruptly collapsed after four centures of domination. Several hundred years later, the Inca rose to power, creating a new highland empire running along the spine of South America. But what happened in between? According to Andean folklore, two important societies, known today as the Chanka and the Quichua, emerged from the ashes of the ruined Wari state, and coalesced as formidable polities despite the social, political, and economic chaos that characterized the end of imperial control. The period of the Chanka and the Quichua, however, produced no known grand capital, no large, elaborate cities, no written or commercial records, and left relatively little by way of tools, goods, and artwork. Knowledge of the Chanka and Quichua who thrived in the Andahuaylas region of south-central Peru, ca. 1000 – 1400 A.D., is mainly written in bone—found largely in the human remains and associated funerary objects of its population. This book presents novel insights as to the nature of society during this important interstitial era between empires—what specialists call the “Late Intermediate Period” in Andean pre-history. Additionally, it provides a detailed study of Wari state collapse, explores how imperial fragmentation impacted local people in Andahuaylas, and addresses how those people reorganized their society after this traumatic disruption. Particular attention is given to describing how Wari collapse impacted rates and types of violence, altered population demographic profiles, changed dietary habits, prompted new patterns of migration, generated novel ethnic identities, prompted innovative technological advances, and transformed beliefs and practices concerning the dead.

The Meeting

Gatherings in Organizations and Communities
Author: H.B. Schwartzman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489908854
Category: Social Science
Page: 344
View: 2725

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In writing this book I discovered that everyone I talked to had his or her own theory about meetings, and yet there is no theory of meetings in the research literature. This makes writing about this subject both excit ing and hazardous. It is always exciting to examine the significance of something that has been ignored, but it is hazardous to write about something that everyone already thinks they understand. Without re course to the legitimacy of a research tradition, readers are likely to evaluate this study based on their own theory. I have tried to take this into account by discussing what might be referred to as American folk theory about meetings (see particularly Chapter 3), and also by juxtapos ing my own research in an American organization with research in traditional or non-Western societies as conducted by anthropologists. This juxtaposition throws into relief some of the important differences as well as similarities in views of meetings as well as the form of meetings across cultures. It is also the only way that I know to examine how and when one's cultural context is affecting one's theoretical constructions. If this book is successful, it will challenge what I believe is the most common interpretation of meetings found in American society, that is, that meetings are a blank-slate phenomenon useful as a tool for such functions as making decisions, solving problems, and resolving con flicts, but having no impact on behavior in and of themselves.

Sociopolitics of Migrant Death and Repatriation

Perspectives from Forensic Science
Author: Krista E. Latham,Alyson J. O'Daniel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319618660
Category: Social Science
Page: 177
View: 692

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As scholars have by now long contended, global neoliberalism and the violence associated with state restructuring provide key frameworks for understanding flows of people across national boundaries and, eventually, into the treacherous terrains of the United States borderlands. The proposed volume builds on this tradition of situating migration and migrant death within broad, systems-level frameworks of analysis, but contends that there is another, perhaps somewhat less tidy, but no less important sociopolitical story to be told here. Through examination of how forensic scientists define, navigate, and enact their work at the frontiers of US policy and economics, this book joins a robust body of literature dedicated to bridging social theory with bioarchaeological applications to modern day problems. This volume is based on deeply and critically reflective analyses, submitted by individual scholars, wherein they navigate and position themselves as social actors embedded within and, perhaps partially constituted by, relations of power, cultural ideologies, and the social structures characterizing this moment in history. Each contribution addresses a different variation on themes of power relations, production of knowledge, and reflexivity in practice. In sum, however, the chapters of this book trace relationships between institutions, entities, and individuals comprising the landscapes of migrant death and repatriation and considers their articulation with sociopolitical dynamics of the neoliberal state.

Demography in Archaeology


Author: Andrew T. Chamberlain
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139455346
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 4335

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Demography in Archaeology, first published in 2006, is a review of current theory and method in the reconstruction of populations from archaeological data. Starting with a summary of demographic concepts and methods, the book examines historical and ethnographic sources of demographic evidence before addressing the methods by which reliable demographic estimates can be made from skeletal remains, settlement evidence and modern and ancient biomolecules. Recent debates in palaeodemography are evaluated, new statistical methods for palaeodemographic reconstruction are explained, and the notion that past demographic structures and processes were substantially different from those pertaining today is critiqued. The book covers a wide span of evidence, from the evolutionary background of human demography to the influence of natural and human-induced catastrophes on population growth and survival. This is essential reading for any archaeologist or anthropologist with an interest in relating the results of field and laboratory studies to broader questions of population structure and dynamics.

The Archaeology of Maritime Landscapes


Author: Ben Ford
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441982100
Category: Social Science
Page: 352
View: 4325

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Maritime cultural landscapes are collections of submerged archaeological sites, or combinations of terrestrial and submerged sites that reflect the relationship between humans and the water. These landscapes can range in size from a single beach to an entire coastline and can include areas of terrestrial sites now inundated as well as underwater sites that are now desiccated. However, what binds all of these sites together is the premise that each aspect of the landscape –cultural, political, environmental, technological, and physical – is interrelated and can not be understood without reference to the others. In this maritime cultural landscape approach, individual sites are treated as features within the larger landscape and the interpretation of single sites add to a larger analysis of a region or culture. This approach provides physical and theoretical links between terrestrial and underwater archaeology as well as prehistoric and historic archaeology; consequently, providing a framework for integrating such diverse topics as trade, resource procurement, habitation, industrial production, and warfare into a holistic study of the past. Landscape studies foster broader perspectives and approaches, extending the study of maritime cultures beyond the shoreline. Despite this potential, the archaeological study of maritime landscapes is a relatively untried approach with many questions regarding the methods and perspectives needed to effectively analyze these landscapes. The chapters in this volume, which include contributions from the United States, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Australia, address many of the theoretical and methodological questions surrounding maritime cultural landscapes. The authors comprise established scholars as well as archaeologists at the beginning of their careers, providing a healthy balance of experience and innovation. The chapters also demonstrate parity between method and theory, where the varying interpretations of culture and space are given equal weight with the challenges of investigating both wet and dry sites across large areas.

Arming America

The Origins of a National Gun Culture
Author: Michael A. Bellesiles
Publisher: American Society for Training and Development
ISBN: 9781932360073
Category: History
Page: 604
View: 3724

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Draws on archival material to challenge popular misconceptions about the American belief system about arms rights, tracing "gun fever" to its European origins while documenting the rarity of firearms in early America as well as the technological advances and events that made guns an integral part of American life. Original.