The Skeptical Environmentalist

Measuring the Real State of the World
Author: Bjørn Lomborg
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521010689
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 515
View: 752

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Challenges widely held beliefs regarding the current environmental situation, discussing why there is cause for optimism and the need to prioritize resources to address problems.

Cool it!

warum wir trotz Klimawandels einen kühlen Kopf bewahren sollten
Author: Bjørn Lomborg
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783570550656
Category: Climatic changes
Page: 281
View: 6448

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Welt in Angst

Roman
Author: Michael Crichton
Publisher: Karl Blessing Verlag
ISBN: 3641135346
Category: Fiction
Page: N.A
View: 6146

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Der Millionär und Lebemann George Morton kommt einer unglaublichen Verschwörung auf die Spur. Die Umweltorganisation NERF, die er mit großzügigen Spenden unterstützt, macht gemeinsame Sache mit skrupellosen Ökoterroristen. Ihr neuester Plan: Durch ein künstlich ausgelöstes Seebeben wollen sie ganz Kalifornien überfluten, um die Aufmerksamkeit der Welt auf die von NERF organisierte Klimakonferenz zu lenken. Morton setzt alles daran, diesem Wahnsinn ein Ende zu bereiten, doch die Terroristen sind ihm immer einen Schritt voraus ...

Wachstumsperspektiven ausgewählter Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländer


Author: Sven Bolt
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 364096795X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 113
View: 571

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Diplomarbeit aus dem Jahr 2010 im Fachbereich VWL - Konjunktur und Wachstum, Note: 1,0, FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie und Management gemeinnützige GmbH, Hochschulstudienzentrum Hamburg, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Die Finanzkrise 2008/2009 führte zu einem dramatischen Einbruch der weltweiten wirtschaftlichen Aktivität. Während die Industrieländer derzeit erste Stabilisierungsanzeichen aufzeigen, jedoch zum Teil immer noch rezessive Tendenzen aufweisen, konnten zahlreiche Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländer bereits wieder ihren Wachstumskurs der vergangenen Jahre aufnehmen. Neben institutionellen und privaten Investoren richten zunehmend auch Wissenschaftler ihren Blick auf die rasante Entwicklung der Entwicklungsländer. Während die Einen auf wachsenden Wohlstand und wirtschaftliche Konvergenz spekulieren, fürchten derweil die Anderen eine Beschleunigung des Klimawandels durch steigenden Ressourcenverbrauch und Bevölkerungswachstum. Tatsächlich nahm die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländer im Laufe der vergangenen Jahre signifikant zu. Ihr Anteil am Welt-Bruttoinlandsprodukt stieg 2007 auf 25,9%. Doch bilden die Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländer keine homogene Gruppe. Die zunehmende weltwirtschaftliche Verflechtung und der globale Technologieaustausch wirken auf viele Teile der Welt ungleich. So gelang es zahlreichen Ländern ihren Lebensstandard deutlich zu erhöhen und an das Niveau der Industrieländer anzuknüpfen, wohingegen andere Länder noch immer nicht die Barrieren hin zu einem nachhaltigen Wachstum durchbrechen konnten.Innerhalb des Wachstumsprozesses und der Wachstumsdynamik verschiedener Länder existieren offenbar große Unterschiede, so dass die Erklärung des Wirtschaftswachstums die zentrale Herausforderung der Wachstums- und Entwicklungsökonomik darstellt. Das breite Spektrum entwicklungstheoretischer Meinungen und die hohe Komplexität des Entwicklungsprozesses erschweren dabei die Identifizierung der wachstumstreibenden Faktoren.Insofern besteht die Zielsetzung dieser Arbeit darin, die Determinanten des Wachstums mithilfe verschiedener Wachstumstheorien und ergänzender empirischer Erkenntnisse herauszuarbeiten, um im weiteren Verlauf allgemeingültige Indikatoren abzuleiten.Auf einer mehrdimensionalen Basis wird anschließend ein definiertes Länderuniversum hinsichtlich seines Entwicklungsstandes analysiert. Zu diesem Zweck erfahren die Indikatoren aufgrund der unterschiedlichen Bedeutsamkeit im Entwicklungsprozess einer Volkswirtschaft eine Gewichtung, bevor die Länder einem Bewertungsverfahren unterzogen werden. Jedoch finden Interdependenzen und Korrelationen der Indikatoren untereinander in der Bewertung keine Berücksichtigung...

Das geheime Leben der Bäume

Was sie fühlen, wie sie kommunizieren - die Entdeckung einer verborgenen Welt
Author: Peter Wohlleben
Publisher: Ludwig
ISBN: 3641114004
Category: Nature
Page: 224
View: 4313

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Ein neuer Blick auf alte Freunde Erstaunliche Dinge geschehen im Wald: Bäume, die miteinander kommunizieren. Bäume, die ihren Nachwuchs, aber auch alte und kranke Nachbarn liebevoll umsorgen und pflegen. Bäume, die Empfindungen haben, Gefühle, ein Gedächtnis. Unglaublich? Aber wahr! – Der Förster Peter Wohlleben erzählt faszinierende Geschichten über die ungeahnten und höchst erstaunlichen Fähigkeiten der Bäume. Dazu zieht er die neuesten wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse ebenso heran wie seine eigenen unmittelbaren Erfahrungen mit dem Wald und schafft so eine aufregend neue Begegnung für die Leser: Wir schließen Bekanntschaft mit einem Lebewesen, das uns vertraut schien, uns aber hier erstmals in seiner ganzen Lebendigkeit vor Augen tritt. Und wir betreten eine völlig neue Welt ...

The Inquisition of Climate Science


Author: James Lawrence Powell
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231527845
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 9814

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Modern science is under the greatest and most successful attack in recent history. An industry of denial, abetted by news media and "info-tainment" broadcasters more interested in selling controversy than presenting facts, has duped half the American public into rejecting the facts of climate science—an overwhelming body of rigorously vetted scientific evidence showing that human-caused, carbon-based emissions are linked to warming the Earth. The industry of climate science denial is succeeding: public acceptance has declined even as the scientific evidence for global warming has increased. It is vital that the public understand how anti-science ideologues, pseudo-scientists, and non-scientists have bamboozled them. We cannot afford to get global warming wrong—yet we are, thanks to deniers and their methods. The Inquisition of Climate Science is the first book to comprehensively take on the climate science denial movement and the deniers themselves, exposing their lack of credentials, their extensive industry funding, and their failure to provide any alternative theory to explain the observed evidence of warming. In this book, readers meet the most prominent deniers while dissecting their credentials, arguments, and lack of objectivity. James Lawrence Powell shows that the deniers use a wide variety of deceptive rhetorical techniques, many stretching back to ancient Greece. Carefully researched, fully referenced, and compellingly written, his book clearly reveals that the evidence of global warming is real and that an industry of denial has deceived the American public, putting them and their grandchildren at risk.

The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies


Author: Michael Freeden,Lyman Tower Sargent,Marc Stears
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191663719
Category: Political Science
Page: 752
View: 7671

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This is the first comprehensive volume to offer a state of the art investigation both of the nature of political ideologies and of their main manifestations. The diversity of ideology studies is represented by a mixture of the range of theories that illuminate the field, combined with an appreciation of the changing complexity of concrete ideologies and the emergence of new ones. Ideologies, however, are always with us. The Handbook is divided into three sections: The first is divided into three sections: The first reflects some of the latest thinking about the development of ideology on an historical dimension, from the standpoints of conceptual history, Marx studies, social science theory and history, and leading schools of continental philosophy. The second includes some of the most recent interpretations and theories of ideology, all of which are sympathetic in their own ways to its exploration and close investigation, even when judiciously critical of its social impact. This section contains many of the more salient contemporary accounts of ideology. The third focuses on the leading ideological families and traditions, as well as on some of their cultural and geographical manifestations, incorporating both historical and contemporary perspectives. Each chapter is written by an expert in their field, bringing the latest approaches and understandings to their task. The Handbook will position the study of ideologies in the mainstream of political theory and political analysis and will attest to its indispensability both to courses on political theory and to scholars who wish to take their understanding of ideologies in new directions.

The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History


Author: Andrew C. Isenberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199394474
Category: Science
Page: 640
View: 3022

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The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.

Der große Ausbruch

Health, Ealth, and the Origins of Inequality
Author: Angus Deaton
Publisher: Klett-Cotta
ISBN: 3608100741
Category: Political Science
Page: 448
View: 3549

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Heute sind die Menschen gesünder, wohlhabender und sie leben länger als früher. Einem Teil der Menschheit ist »Der Große Ausbruch« aus Armut, Not, Krankheit und Entbehrung in Freiheit, Bildung, Demokratie und eine freie globale Weltwirtschaft gelungen. Dennoch nimmt die Ungleichheit zwischen Nationen und Menschen unaufhaltsam zu. Das Opus Magnum des Nobelpreisträgers beschreibt, wie Lebens- und Gesundheitsstandards sich weltweit erhöhen ließen, wenn Aufrichtigkeit und neue Fairness Einzug in die globale Weltwirtschaft hielten. Aus dem »Wohlstand der Nationen« könnte ein Wohlstand aller Nationen werden. Angus Deaton, der Träger des Wirtschaftsnobelpreises 2015, schildert die Geschichte der Weltwirtschaft überraschend neu und anders. Vor 250 Jahren bescherte die Industrielle Revolution Westeuropa und den USA nachhaltigen Aufschwung und wirtschaftlicher Fortschritt, der bis heute andauert. Viele Menschen in Großbritannien, Frankreich, den USA und Deutschland überwanden ihre Armut, eigneten sich Bildung an und gestalteten ihre Staaten freiheitlich und demokratisch um. Aber bereits damals öffnete sich die Kluft zwischen Reich und Arm. Erhellend und eindringlich entwirft der Ökonom ein Panorama überwältigender Entdeckungen und phantastischer Erfindungen: Von der Überwindung von Pest, Cholera und Epidemien, von den Errungenschaften wie Impfungen, Antibiotika, Hygiene, sauberem Trinkwasser und den Erfolgen der modernen Medizin und Technik. Dennoch holen schmerzhafte Rückschläge auch die modernen Gesellschaften – vor allem aber die Ärmsten – immer wieder ein: entsetzliche Hungersnöte, Naturkatastrophen, Drogenhandel, Krebserkrankungen und die AIDS/HIV-Epidemie auf der anderen Seite. Alternativen bieten Reformen: Die Entwicklungs- und Protektionspolitik des Westens sollte eingestellt, jedenfalls grundlegend verändert werden. Dringend müssten die Handelshemmnisse aufgehoben werden, um der ganzen globalisierten Welt ihren eigenen „Großen Ausbruch“ zu eröffnen. Unser Wohlstand ist anfällig; Umdenken und anders Handeln sind dringend erforderlich. Hatten die USA noch vor 20 Jahren einen bis dahin nie gekannten Wohlstand für viele Amerikaner erreicht, wächst das einstige Vorbild der westlichen Welt heute wirtschaftlich schleppend oder gar nicht. Die Ungleichheit unter den Amerikanern hat schlagartig zugenommen. Hingegen hat sich das Wirtschaftswachstum in Indien und China vervielfacht und das Leben von mehr als zwei Milliarden Menschen unvorstellbar verbessert. »Dieses Thema bedarf einer großen Leinwand und eines kühnen Pinselstrichs, und Angus Deaton liefert auf virtuose Weise beides.« The Economist

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies


Author: Erik Brynjolfsson,Andrew McAfee
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393241254
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 304
View: 5398

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A New York Times Bestseller. A “fascinating” (Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times) look at how digital technology is transforming our work and our lives. In recent years, Google’s autonomous cars have logged thousands of miles on American highways and IBM’s Watson trounced the best human Jeopardy! players. Digital technologies—with hardware, software, and networks at their core—will in the near future diagnose diseases more accurately than doctors can, apply enormous data sets to transform retailing, and accomplish many tasks once considered uniquely human. In The Second Machine Age MIT’s Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee—two thinkers at the forefront of their field—reveal the forces driving the reinvention of our lives and our economy. As the full impact of digital technologies is felt, we will realize immense bounty in the form of dazzling personal technology, advanced infrastructure, and near-boundless access to the cultural items that enrich our lives. Amid this bounty will also be wrenching change. Professions of all kinds—from lawyers to truck drivers—will be forever upended. Companies will be forced to transform or die. Recent economic indicators reflect this shift: fewer people are working, and wages are falling even as productivity and profits soar. Drawing on years of research and up-to-the-minute trends, Brynjolfsson and McAfee identify the best strategies for survival and offer a new path to prosperity. These include revamping education so that it prepares people for the next economy instead of the last one, designing new collaborations that pair brute processing power with human ingenuity, and embracing policies that make sense in a radically transformed landscape. A fundamentally optimistic book, The Second Machine Age alters how we think about issues of technological, societal, and economic progress.

Kicking the Carbon Habit

Global Warming and the Case for Renewable and Nuclear Energy
Author: William Sweet
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231510373
Category: Political Science
Page: 272
View: 663

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With glaciers melting, oceans growing more acidic, species dying out, and catastrophic events like Hurricane Katrina ever more probable, strong steps must be taken now to slow global warming. Further warming threatens entire regional economies and the well being of whole populations, and in this century alone, it could create a global cataclysm. Synthesizing information from leading scientists and the most up-to-date research, science journalist William Sweet examines what the United States can do to help prevent climate devastation. Rather than focusing on cutting oil consumption, which Sweet argues is expensive and unrealistic, the United States should concentrate on drastically reducing its use of coal. Coal-fired plants, which currently produce more than half of the electricity in the United States, account for two fifths of the country's greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sweet believes a mixture of more environmentally sound technologies-wind turbines, natural gas, and nuclear reactors-can effectively replace coal plants, especially since dramatic improvements in technology have made nuclear power cleaner, safer, and more efficient. Sweet cuts through all the confusion and controversies. He explores dramatic advances made by climate scientists over the past twenty years and addresses the various political and economic issues associated with global warming, including the practicality of reducing emissions from automobiles, the efficacy of taxing energy consumption, and the responsibility of the United States to its citizens and the international community to reduce greenhouse gases. Timely and provocative, Kicking the Carbon Habit is essential reading for anyone interested in environmental science, economics, and the future of the planet.

The Siberian Curse

How Communist Planners Left Russia Out in the Cold
Author: Fiona Hill,Clifford G. Gaddy
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815796188
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 4310

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Can Russia ever become a normal, free-market, democratic society? Why have so many reforms failed since the Soviet Union's collapse? In this highly-original work, Fiona Hill and Clifford Gaddy argue that Russia's geography, history, and monumental mistakes perpetrated by Soviet planners have locked it into a dead-end path to economic ruin. Shattering a number of myths that have long persisted in the West and in Russia, The Siberian Curse explains why Russia's greatest assets––its gigantic size and Siberia's natural resources––are now the source of one its greatest weaknesses. For seventy years, driven by ideological zeal and the imperative to colonize and industrialize its vast frontiers, communist planners forced people to live in Siberia. They did this in true totalitarian fashion by using the GULAG prison system and slave labor to build huge factories and million-person cities to support them. Today, tens of millions of people and thousands of large-scale industrial enterprises languish in the cold and distant places communist planners put them––not where market forces or free choice would have placed them. Russian leaders still believe that an industrialized Siberia is the key to Russia's prosperity. As a result, the country is burdened by the ever-increasing costs of subsidizing economic activity in some of the most forbidding places on the planet. Russia pays a steep price for continuing this folly––it wastes the very resources it needs to recover from the ravages of communism. Hill and Gaddy contend that Russia's future prosperity requires that it finally throw off the shackles of its Soviet past, by shrinking Siberia's cities. Only by facilitating the relocation of population to western Russia, closer to Europe and its markets, can Russia achieve sustainable economic growth. Unfortunately for Russia, there is no historical precedent for shrinking cities on the scale that will be required. Downsizing Siberia will be a costly and wrenching process. But there is no alternative. Russia cannot afford to keep the cities communist planners left for it out in the cold.

You Have to Admit It's Getting Better

From Economic Prosperity to Environmental Quality
Author: Terry L. Anderson
Publisher: Hoover Press
ISBN: 0817944834
Category: Political Science
Page: 300
View: 8307

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Contrary to popular belief, economic growth is not the antithesis of environmental quality; rather, the two go hand in hand if the incentives are right. The author shows how, by developing and protecting the institutions of freedom rather than regulating human use of natural resources through political processes, we can have our environmental cake and eat it too.

Earth

A Tenant's Manual
Author: Frank H. T. Rhodes
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801466202
Category: Science
Page: 392
View: 7188

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"It's impossible to grasp the whole planet or integrate all the descriptions of it. But because we live here, we have to try. This is not just an artistic compulsion or an existential yearning, still less an academic exercise. It's a survival issue. This is the only planet we have. We're stuck here, and we don't own the place-it would be the height of arrogance to assume that we do. We're tenants here, not owners, but we're tenants with hope for a long-term tenancy. We want to extend our lease just as far as we can."-from Earth: A Tenant's Manual In Earth: A Tenant's Manual, the distinguished geologist Frank H. T. Rhodes, President Emeritus of Cornell University, provides a sweeping, accessible, and deeply informed guide to the home we all share, showing us how we might best preserve the Earth's livability for ourselves and future generations. Rhodes begins by setting the scene for our active planet and explaining how its location and composition determine how the Earth works and why it teems with life. He emphasizes the changes that are of concern to us today, from earthquakes to climate change and the clashes over the energy resources needed for the Earth's exploding population. He concludes with an extended exploration of humanity's prospects on a complex, protean, and ultimately finite world. It is not a question of whether the planet is sustainable; the challenge facing life on Earth-and the life of the Earth-is whether an expanding and high-consumption species like ours is sustainable. Only new resources, new priorities, new policies and, most of all, new knowledge, can reverse the damage that humanity is doing to our home-and ourselves. A sustainable human future, Rhodes concludes in this eloquent, sobering, but ultimately optimistic book, will require a sense of responsible stewardship, for we are not owners of this planet; we are tenants. Surveying the systems, large and small, that govern Earth's processes and influence its changes, Rhodes addresses the negative consequences of human activities for the health of its regulatory systems but offers practical suggestions as to how we might effect repairs, or at least limit further damage to our home.

The Incredible Human Journey


Author: Alice Roberts
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1408810913
Category: Science
Page: 384
View: 5547

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Alice Roberts has been travelling the world - from Ethiopian desert to Malay peninsula and from Russian steppes to Amazon basin - in order to understand the challenges that early humans faced as they tried to settle continents. On her travels she has witnessed some of the daunting and brutal challenges our ancestors had to face: mountains, deserts, oceans, changing climates, terrifying giant beasts and volcanoes. But she discovers that perhaps the most serious threat of all came from other humans. When our ancestors set out from Africa there were already two other species of human on the planet: Neanderthal in Europe and Homo erectus in Asia. Both (contrary to popular perception) were intelligent, adept at making tools and weapons and were long adapted to their environments. So, Alice asks, why did only Homo sapiens survive? Part detective story, part travelogue, and drawing on the latest genetic and archaeological discoveries, Alice examines how our ancestors evolved physically in response to these challenges, finding out how our colour, shape, size, diet, disease resistance and even athletic ability have been shaped by the range of environments that our ancestors had to survive. She also relates how astonishingly closely related we all are. As a lecturer in Anatomy at Bristol University, Alice Roberts is eminently qualified to write this book. As a talented artist, she is perfectly qualified to illustrate it, and dotted throughout this lively book are many of the sketches and photographs from her travels.

Big History

From the Big Bang to the Present
Author: Cynthia Stokes Brown
Publisher: New Press/ORIM
ISBN: 1595588450
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 9500

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Extend the human story backward for the five thousand years of recorded history and it covers no more than a millionth of a lifetime of the Earth. Yet how do we humans take stock of the history of our planet, and our own place within it? A “vast historical mosaic” (Publishers Weekly) rendered engaging and accessible, Big History interweaves different disciplines of knowledge to offer an all-encompassing account of history on Earth. Since its publication, Cynthia Brown’s “world history on a grand scale” (Kirkus) has been translated into nine languages and has helped propel the “big history” concept to viral status. This new edition of Brown’s seminal work is more relevant today than ever before, as we increasingly must grapple with accelerating rates of change and, ultimately, the legacy we will bequeath to future generations. Here is a pathbreaking portrait of our world, from the birth of the universe from a single point the size of an atom to life on a twenty-first-century planet inhabited by 7 billion people.

On Global Justice


Author: Mathias Risse
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400845505
Category: Philosophy
Page: 480
View: 4627

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Debates about global justice have traditionally fallen into two camps. Statists believe that principles of justice can only be held among those who share a state. Those who fall outside this realm are merely owed charity. Cosmopolitans, on the other hand, believe that justice applies equally among all human beings. On Global Justice shifts the terms of this debate and shows how both views are unsatisfactory. Stressing humanity's collective ownership of the earth, Mathias Risse offers a new theory of global distributive justice--what he calls pluralist internationalism--where in different contexts, different principles of justice apply. Arguing that statists and cosmopolitans seek overarching answers to problems that vary too widely for one single justice relationship, Risse explores who should have how much of what we all need and care about, ranging from income and rights to spaces and resources of the earth. He acknowledges that especially demanding redistributive principles apply among those who share a country, but those who share a country also have obligations of justice to those who do not because of a universal humanity, common political and economic orders, and a linked global trading system. Risse's inquiries about ownership of the earth give insights into immigration, obligations to future generations, and obligations arising from climate change. He considers issues such as fairness in trade, responsibilities of the WTO, intellectual property rights, labor rights, whether there ought to be states at all, and global inequality, and he develops a new foundational theory of human rights.

Global Politics


Author: Juliet Kaarbo,James Ray
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 0495802646
Category: Political Science
Page: 608
View: 5779

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Written in clear and accessible prose, GLOBAL POLITICS discusses the major theories of international relations and provides students with the historical background to understand global politics. The new edition is a thorough revision and reflects the latest developments in world events and the study of international relations. The text is organized into five parts: theory and history, states and foreign policy, security relations, economic relations, and global challenges. It focuses on today's most urgent issues, such as international conflict, economic alliances, and terrorism and global security. A theoretical chapter on global politics covers six major perspectives on international relations and clearly explains the premise and significance of each theory. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Salishan


Author: Michael Hollister
Publisher: AuthorHouse
ISBN: 1468566725
Category: Fiction
Page: 492
View: 8919

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Historical novel beginning in the last Ice Age, depicting first contacts between whites and Indians, Jedidiah Bowman, a young logger from Maine, fights at Gettysburg, rides the Oregon Trail settles outside Molalla, near Portland. Five generation of his family care for three hundred acres of forestland and help to build the West. Affirms both pioneers and Indians in a cast including over thirty tribes. In the 1970’s Daniel Bowman marries a Salish Indian girl, Shona Fullmoon. Their son Nathaniel grows up to be a logger, studies forestry and marries an activist. During the 1990’s, he becomes a double agent in the culture war between environmentalist and timber workers, focused on the northern spotted owl. Dramatize the conflict over forests and urban versus rural politics. Under cover, Nat contends with hit men, penetrates a cell of eco terrorists after 9/11and falls in love with the revisionists historians and prevailing ecological theory