The Scientific Basis of Flocculation


Author: K.J. Ives
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400999380
Category: Science
Page: 369
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K.J. Ives Professor of Public Health Engineering University College London The aggregation of small particles in liquids, to form flocs which are large enough to settle, or to be filtered, is a common operation in industrial processes, and water and wastewater treatment. This aggregation, given the general title flliocculation in this book, may be brought about by the addition of chemicals to reduce the stability of the original suspension, by neutralising electrical forces of repulsion, by the addition of chemicals (polymers) to link particles by bridging action, by the addition of chemicals which form particles to increase collision proba bilities, and by the input of energy leading to hydrodynamically induced collisions. The particles undergoing flocculation may range from colloidal in the nanometer size range, through micro scopic (micron) size, up to visible particles in the millimeter size range; that is a total size range of six orders of magnitude. Consequently the colloid chemist and the hydrodynamicist are both concerned with the interactions that take place, and to them the engineer must turn, to obtain the fundamental information ne cessary for the process design and its associated hardware.

Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design

Volume 41 - Polymers: Rubber Modified to Pressure-Relieving Devices: Rupture Disks: Low Burst Pressures
Author: John J. McKetta Jr
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824724917
Category: Science
Page: 536
View: 2547

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"Written by engineers for engineers (with over 150 International Editorial Advisory Board members),this highly lauded resource provides up-to-the-minute information on the chemical processes, methods, practices, products, and standards in the chemical, and related, industries. "

Unit Operations Handbook

Volume 2 (In Two Volumes)
Author: John J. McKetta Jr
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824786700
Category: Science
Page: 742
View: 5496

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Emphasizes the design, control, and functioning of various unit operations - offering shortcut methods of calculation along with computer and nomographic solution techniques. Provides practical sections on conversion to and from SI units and cost indexes for quick updating of all cost information.;This book should be of interest to mechanical, chemical, process design, project, and materials engineers and continuing-education courses in these disciplines.

Surface and Colloid Science


Author: Egon Matijevic,R.J. Good
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461332044
Category: Science
Page: 484
View: 8392

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Ever since the first volume appeared in 1969, this series has received good reviews in a variety of periodicals published in different corners of the world. It would seem that the work has fulfilled its purpose as outlined in the Preface to Volume 1. The rapidly increasing interest in surface and colloid science by people engaged in industrial research and development, and in environmental, ecological, medical, pharmaceutical, and other areas, justifies the continuation of such an effort. The Surface and Colloid Science series originated with John Wiley and Sons and has been continued with Plenum Press. This volume is the third with the present publisher, and is the best assurance of our mutual interest to proceed with this work. Some books in the series, as was the case with Volume 11, may appear under the editorship of other workers in the field. For reasons of continuity, a sequential numbering system will be maintained. This editor hopes to provide the scientific and technical community with high-quality contributions in surface and colloid science in the future. He invites specialists to submit definitive chapters on any topic within the broad area of our discipline for inclusion in this series.

The Scientific Basis of Flotation


Author: K.J. Ives
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400969260
Category: Science
Page: 429
View: 7824

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K.J.Ives Professor of Public Health Engineering University College London Industrial application of the use of bubbles to float fine particles in water began before the beginning of this century, in the field of mineral processing. Such bubble flotation was applied very little outside mineral processing, until about 1960 when the dissolved air process, which has already had some success in the pulp and paper industry, was applied to water and wastewater treatment. The subsequent two decades saw not only a growth development for water and wastewater treatment, but also a growing cognisance of the similarities that existed with mineral processing flotation. Therefore the time seemed ripe in 1982 for a joint meeting between experts in these two major fields of flotation to put together the Scientific Basis of Flotation in the form of a NATO Advanced Study Institute. Attended by about 60 specialists, mainly post doctoral, from 17 countries, this Study Institute in residence for two weeks in Christ's College, Cambridge (UK) heard presentations from several international experts, principally the 8 co-authors of this book. The integration of the various scientific disciplines of physics, physical chemistry, colloid science, hydrodynamics and process engineering showed where the common basiS, and occasional important differences, of flotation could be applied to mineral processing, water and wastewater treatment, and indeed some other process industries (for example: pharmaceuticals, and food manufacture).

Engineering Geology


Author: Wang Sijing,Paul G. Marinos
Publisher: VSP
ISBN: 9789067642408
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 531
View: 1015

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Bibliographic Guide to Conference Publications


Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780816168668
Category: Congresses and conventions
Page: N.A
View: 7443

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Vols. for 1975- include publications cataloged by the Research Libraries of the New York Public Library with additional entries from the Library of Congress MARC tapes.

Supercritical Fluids

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: E. Kiran,Pablo G. Debenedetti,Cor J. Peters
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401139296
Category: Science
Page: 596
View: 6795

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Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.

Advanced Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment: A Road to Safer Society and Environment


Author: Petr Hlavinek,Igor Winkler,Jiri Marsalek,Ivana Mahrikova
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400702795
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 353
View: 7454

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Stable, safe, secure and readily available water supply is one of the key factors in ensuring a good level of the public health and a stable society. Scientific assessments show that about 80 % of diseases and one-third of the total death toll in the developing countries are caused by the low quality of the drinking water. Other countries are also suffering from water shortages and insufficient quality of the drinking water. Many rivers in Europe and in other parts of the world are significantly polluted by insufficiently treated or untreated wastewater discharge. This book is based on the discussions and papers prepared for the NATO Advanced Research Workshop that took place in Lviv, Ukraine, and addressed recent advances in water supply and wastewater treatment as a prerequisite for a safer society and environment. The contributions critically assess the existing knowledge on urban water management and provide an overview of the current water management issues, especially in the countries in transition in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Mediterranean Dialogue countries.

Azospirillum VI and Related Microorganisms

Genetics — Physiology — Ecology
Author: Istvan Fendrik,Maddalena Del Gallo,Jos Vanderleyden,Miklos, de Zamaroczy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364279906X
Category: Science
Page: 577
View: 6692

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Azospirillum is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium used for inoculation of cereal and forage crops. The book covers its physiology, ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. The most advanced molecular techniques to understand the regulatory mechanisms of nitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation, as well as the basis of phytohormone production, are included. In particular, the identification of novel types of promoters, specific regulatory circuits, and new regulatory proteins is described. New insights in the plant growth promoting role of the bacteria through the analysis of their interactions with the plant are presented. Also discussed are field applications, allowing the evaluation of the physiological and agronomic involvement of Azospirillum inoculations.

Natural Microporous Materials in Environmental Technology


Author: P. Misaelides,F. Macásek,T.J. Pinnavaia,C. Colella
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401144990
Category: Science
Page: 516
View: 1306

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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Application of Natural Microporous Materials for Environmental Technology, Smolenice Castle, Slovakia, 26-30 October 1998

Water Purification and Management


Author: José Coca-Prados,Gemma Gutiérrez-Cervelló
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048197740
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 230
View: 4401

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One of the major challenges for many Mediterranean and other countries is finding viable solutions to tackle water shortage. Some of the major water quality constraints derive from the high salinity of groundwater and from pollution sources such as: untreated domestic sewage, fertilizers and pesticides from irrigation drainage, industrial effluents, and solid waste disposal. Wastewater treatment processes involving physico-chemical and biological treatment, chemical oxidation, membrane technologies, along with methods of solids concentration and disposal are of special relevance in dealing with these problems. This volume contains selected lectures presented at the NATO ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE held in Oviedo (November 15-21, 2009) and sponsored by the NATO Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme. They cover a variety of topics from wastewater treatment methods to cleaner production strategies, as a careful management of water resources is the basis for sustainable development and to avoid potential security threats. The reader will benefit from a general view of some of the operations involved in wastewater treatment and solid concentration and disposal methods. A proper water reuse and recycling, together with efficient solid disposal, would contribute to a better use of the resources and a sustainable economic growth, particularly in many arid lands of the world.

Water Treatment Technologies for the Removal of High-Toxity Pollutants


Author: Miroslava Václavíková,Ksenija Vitale,G.P. Gallios,Lucia Ivanicová
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9048134978
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 345
View: 4489

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Water is essential for life, a strategic resource for every country and population. Its availability and sanitary safety is highly connected with the health and economy status of population. Burden of disease due to polluted water is a major public health problem throughout the world. Many pollutants in water streams have been identified as toxic and harmful to the environment and human health, and among them arsenic, mercury and cadmium are considered as high priority ones. Providing population with safe drinking water became the priority and at the same time a big challenge for the modern society. Many funding agencies in various countries have assigned a high priority to the envir- mental security and pollution prevention. UN, being one of them, launched the “International Decade for Action: Water for life 2005–2015. ” Therefore, today’s political and social climate presents an important opportunity to implement principles of sustainable development and to preserve resources essential for future life. This process requires interdisciplinary approach; it is critically important to stimulate interactions between medical doctors, chemists, physicist, materials scientists, engineers and policy makers, which are already experienced in their specific areas. It is also our ethical obligation to preserve existing water resources and existing eco systems enhancing their biodiversity. The NATO Advanced Research Workshop “Water Treatment Te- nologies for the Removal of High-Toxicity Pollutants” took place on September 13–17, 2008 in Košice, Slovak Republic.

Brilliant Light in Life and Material Sciences


Author: Vasili Tsakanov,Helmut Wiedemann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402057245
Category: Science
Page: 500
View: 1802

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This book contains an excellent overview of the status and highlights of brilliant light facilities and their applications in biology, chemistry, medicine, materials and environmental sciences. Overview papers on diverse fields of research by leading experts are accompanied by the highlights in the near and long-term perspectives of brilliant X-Ray photon beam usage for fundamental and applied research.

Dyes and Pigments


Author: Ahmet Gürses,Metin Açıkyıldız,Kübra Güneş,M. Sadi Gürses
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319338927
Category: Science
Page: 83
View: 3436

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In this book the authors go back to basics to describe the structural differences between dyes and pigments, their mechanisms of action, properties and applications. They set the scene by explaining the reasons behind these differences and show how dyes are predominately organic compounds that dissolve or react with substrates, whereas pigments are (predominantly) finely ground inorganic substances that are insoluble and therefore have a different mode of coloring. They also describe the role of functional groups and their effect on dyeing ability, contrasting this with the way in which pigments cause surface reflection (or light absorption) depending on their chemical and crystalline structure and relative particle size. The book explores the environmental impact of dyes in a section that covers the physical, chemical, toxicological, and ecological properties of dyes and how these are used to assess their effect on the environment and to estimate whether a given product presents a potential hazard. Lastly, it assesses how, in addition to their traditional uses in the textile, leather, paper, paint and varnish industries, dyes and pigments are indispensable in other fields such as microelectronics, medical diagnostics, and in information recording techniques.

Solid-Liquid Separation


Author: Ladislav Svarovsky
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 148316280X
Category: Science
Page: 730
View: 2010

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Solid-Liquid Separation, Third Edition reviews the equipment and principles involved in the separation of solids and liquids from a suspension. Some important aspects of solid-liquid separation such as washing, flotation, membrane separation, and magnetic separation are discussed. This book is comprised of 23 chapters and begins with an overview of solid-liquid separation processes and the principles involved, including flotation, gravity sedimentation, cake filtration, and deep bed filtration. The following chapters focus on the characterization of particles suspended in liquids; the efficiency of separation of particles from fluids; coagulation and flocculation; gravity thickening; and the operating characteristics, optimum design criteria, and applications of hydrocyclones. The reader is also introduced to various solid-liquid separation processes such as centrifugal sedimentation, screening, and filtration, along with the use of filter aids. Countercurrent washing of solids and problems associated with fine particle recycling are also considered. The final chapter is devoted to the thermodynamics of particle-fluid interaction. This monograph will be useful to chemical engineers and process engineers, particularly those in plant operation, plant design, or equipment testing and commissioning. It can also be used as a textbook for both undergraduate and postgraduate students.

The Modern Problems of Electrostatics with Applications in Environment Protection


Author: Ion I. Inculet,Florin Teodor Tanasescu,Radu Cramariuc
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401144478
Category: Science
Page: 413
View: 5628

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Among the many technological and legal efforts being made to restore our environment, electrostatic technologies may well hold the solution to the cleaning of air, water and soil. Such technologies include non-thermal plasma processing - electron beam irradiation, electrical discharge, hybrid plasma systems. The book also contains descriptions of the industrial implementation of the technology for NOx and SO2 removal using accelerated electrons. This technique has been implemented in three plants, built in China, Poland and Japan. Water pollution can be controlled and reduced by the use of ozone and UV irradiation. Soil pollution can be reduced by electrical methods and by using electrostatics to spray agricultural pesticides. Further articles cover the future of EHD systems in environmental protection, new aspects of ESD research, and industrial waste recycling technologies.

Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research


Author: Institute of Medicine,National Academy of Engineering,National Academy of Sciences,Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy,Committee on Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309165488
Category: Science
Page: 332
View: 5909

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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research examines current interdisciplinary research efforts and recommends ways to stimulate and support such research. Advances in science and engineering increasingly require the collaboration of scholars from various fields. This shift is driven by the need to address complex problems that cut across traditional disciplines, and the capacity of new technologies to both transform existing disciplines and generate new ones. At the same time, however, interdisciplinary research can be impeded by policies on hiring, promotion, tenure, proposal review, and resource allocation that favor traditional disciplines. This report identifies steps that researchers, teachers, students, institutions, funding organizations, and disciplinary societies can take to more effectively conduct, facilitate, and evaluate interdisciplinary research programs and projects. Throughout the report key concepts are illustrated with case studies and results of the committee’s surveys of individual researchers and university provosts.

Environmental Simulation Chambers: Application to Atmospheric Chemical Processes


Author: Ian Barnes,Krzysztof J. Rudzinski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402042329
Category: Science
Page: 458
View: 8095

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Atmospheric pollution has many different detrimental impacts on air quality at urban, regional and global scales. Large volume photoreactors (often referred to as smog or simulation chambers) have been used very effectively to investigate and understand many varied aspects of atmospheric chemistry related to air pollution problems. Photochemical smog formation, which was first observed around 1945 in Los Angeles, is now a major environmental problem for all industrialised and densely populated regions of the world. Over the years many different modelling and experimental tools have been developed to analyse and simulate the complex chemical processes associated with tropspheric photooxidant formation. Work in environmental chambers has played a key role in the development of our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry associated with pollution problems on local, regional and global scales. Chamber observations have also been used in connection with environmental policy issues. In general they are used for validation of atmospheric chemical models, studies of chemical reaction mechanisms and as a direct means to test the possible impact of specific chemical compounds on air quality under simulated ambient conditions New large smog chamber installations have been recently developed in the US (Riverside, California), Europe (Jülich, Germany) and Japan, and a large number of smaller scale laboratory chambers are in operation around the world. Over the years there have been numerous new technical developments related to environmental chamber facilities such as the design of the chambers (e. g.