The Role of the Individual in History

Author: Georgij Valentinovic Plehanov
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781410209481
Category: History
Page: 64
View: 2880

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The Role of the Individual in History was first published in 1898, and occupies a very prominent place among those of Plekhanov's works in which he substantiates and defends Marxism and advocates the Marxian theory of social development. Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (1856-1918) was one of the leaders of Russian populism and after his emigration to Western Europe in 1880 became the foremost Russian Marxist abroad. He founded in 1883, together with Pavel Axelrod, the 'Group for the Liberation of Labor', the first Russian social democratic party, and in 1900 together with Lenin the 'Iskra', the first Russian Marxist newspaper, but a few years later broke with Lenin and sided with the Mensheviks.

The Individual in History

Essays in Honor of Jehuda Reinharz
Author: ChaeRan Y. Freeze,Sylvia Fuks Fried,Eugene R. Sheppard
Publisher: Brandeis University Press
ISBN: 1611687330
Category: Social Science
Page: 528
View: 9360

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Jehuda Reinharz, born in Haifa in 1944, spent his childhood in Israel and his adolescence in Germany, and moved with his family to the United States when he was seventeen. These three diverse geographies and the experiences they engendered shaped his formative years and the future of a prolific scholar who devoted his life to the study of the central role of leadership as Jews faced the challenges of emancipation and integration in Germany, the rise of modern antisemitism, the formation of Zionist youth culture and politics, and the transformation of Jewish politics in Palestine and the State of Israel. In this volume, eminent scholars in their respective fields extend the lines of Reinharz's research interests and personal activism by focusing on the ideological, political, and scholarly contributions of a diverse range of individuals in Jewish history. Essays are clustered around five central themes: ideology and politics; statecraft; intellectual, social and cultural spheres; witnessing history; and in the academy. This volume offers a panoramic view of modern Jewish history through engaging essays that celebrate Reinharz's rich contribution as a path-breaking and prolific scholar, teacher, and leader in the academy and beyond.

The Lessons of History

Author: Will Durant,Ariel Durant
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439170193
Category: History
Page: 128
View: 5644

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A concise survey of the culture and civilization of mankind, The Lessons of History is the result of a lifetime of research from Pulitzer Prize–winning historians Will and Ariel Durant. With their accessible compendium of philosophy and social progress, the Durants take us on a journey through history, exploring the possibilities and limitations of humanity over time. Juxtaposing the great lives, ideas, and accomplishments with cycles of war and conquest, the Durants reveal the towering themes of history and give meaning to our own.

The Hero in History

A Study in Limitation and Possibility
Author: Sidney Hook
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412837163
Category: History
Page: 187
View: 9529

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The interaction of the individual in history and politics has posed major theoretical questions of historical analysis for the past two centuries: is social destiny shaped by forces beyond the power of the individual, or can the future be mastered by collective effort under the outstanding leadership of heroic men and women? In this classic study, a major philosopher and social theorist of the twentieth century offers a searching examination of the conditions under which individuals make choices that significantly alter the course of historical events and presents a scathing critique of various forms of social determinism that deny the individual freedom of action or a decisive role in history. The myth of the hero as the savior of the tribe or nation, as Hook notes, is older than written history. Until the ninteenth century, the hero functioned not merely as a cult figure but as a principle of historical explanation, a key to the rise and fall of countries and even of cultures. The exaggerations and omissions of this point of view produced an equally simplistic reaction with the formulation of determinist historiographies in which physical, racial, social, and economic forces replaced individuals as the dynamic factors in the development of events. Hook singles out orthodox Marxism as the most all-encompassing determinist system and subjects the historical thinking of Engels, Plekhanov, and Trotsky to sharp and meticulous scrutiny. Using the Russian Revolution as a test case, Hook observes that while the February 1917 Revolution was an inevitable development, the October revolution was, according to the best historical evidence, contingent upon the personality and actions of Lenin. In his 1978 reconsideration of the subject of heroism, appearing new to this edition, Hook defines a middle ground between the extremes of voluntarism and determinism that explains why the presence of strong personalities are decisive under certain conditions while under others key actors would appear to be almost interchangeable. He points us toward an understanding of a fascinating problem in history and raises essential questions about the role of "great" men and women in a democracy. "The Hero in History "will be of interest to intellectual historians, philosophers, political scientists, and sociologists.

The Role of the Individual in History Today

Executive Intelligence Review; Volume 43, Issue 35
Author: Lyndon H. Larouche, Jr.
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781537396156
Page: 30
View: 6030

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Aug. 23-The Berlin Wall was not demolished as the result of the success of an election campaign. Nor was it a referendum which brought hundreds of thousands into the streets to ultimately smash through concrete and rebar-to see their family and friends they had been partitioned from for decades. The Berlin Wall came down for the reasons that Lyndon LaRouche had identified in his speech at the Kempinski Hotel in Berlin a little over a year before the wall fell-the intellectual, cultural and economic mortar of that society could no longer sustain and nourish its population. The state of society within the trans-Atlantic community is far worse today than that of Germany in 1989. The structural integrity of our own wall degenerated long ago, and either it will come down by financial collapse and world war, or we will embrace what is on the other side: the growing New Paradigm spreading throughout Eurasia. At the core of this new paradigm is the "New Silk Road" concept, put forward by Lyndon LaRouche and his wife Helga Zepp-LaRouche 25 years ago, as well as the extraordinary space program that is coming into increasing focus around China's declared mission to land on the far side of the moon by 2018. However, there is no way this new paradigm can be realized without a new financial architecture to facilitate its growth. From his call for the creation of an "International Development Bank" in 1975, to his more recent proposal for the convening of a "New Bretton Woods Conference," Lyndon LaRouche has repeatedly proven that the creation of a new global "financial architecture" is a prerequisite for the development of a new world-wide physical economy to replace the dead and rotting British Empire. Now, the Chinese Government, recognizing the likelihood of an imminent collapse of the trans-Atlantic financial system, has announced that the issue of a new financial architecture will be a core agenda item at the upcoming G-20 Summit in Hangzhou, China, September 4-5. In recent discussions that Lyndon and Helga LaRouche have conducted with associates, Mrs. LaRouche has made it clear that, at the present moment, there is no sign from either the European Union or the United States that they are willing to agree to the Chinese agenda of a new financial architecture. Hence, the question-now before the citizens of Europe and the United States-is whether they will show the same foresight and courage as the Germans of 1989 and seize upon this great moment to provide leadership.

Theoretical Discussions of Biography

Approaches from History, Microhistory, and Life Writing
Author: Hans Renders,Binne De Haan
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004274707
Category: History
Page: 294
View: 8738

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Theoretical Discussions of Biography: Approaches from History, Microhistory, and Life Writing offers comprehensive overviews by 14 academic scholars of the actual state of the field of Biography Studies, specifically by connecting biography with microhistory, journalism, and Life Writing.

The Sociological Imagination

Author: C. Wright Mills
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195133730
Category: Social Science
Page: 248
View: 9772

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Hailed upon publication as a cogent and hard-hitting critique, The Sociological Imagination took issue with the ascendant schools of sociology in the United States, calling for a humanist sociology connecting the social, personal, and historical dimensions of our lives. Leading sociologist Todd Gitlin brings this fortieth anniversary edition up to date with a lucid afterword in which he considers the ways social analysis has progressed since Mills first published his study in 1959. A classic in the field, this book still provides rich food for our imagination.

The Greatest Minds and Ideas of All Time

Author: Will Durant
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439107149
Category: Philosophy
Page: 144
View: 8379

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A wise and witty compendium of the greatest thoughts, greatest minds, and greatest books of all time -- listed in accessible and succinct form -- by one of the world's greatest scholars. From the "Hundred Best Books" to the "Ten Greatest Thinkers" to the "Ten Greatest Poets," here is a concise collection of the world's most significant knowledge. For the better part of a century, Will Durant dwelled upon -- and wrote about -- the most significant eras, individuals, and achievements of human history. His selections have finally been brought together in a single, compact volume. Durant eloquently defends his choices of the greatest minds and ideas, but he also stimulates readers into forming their own opinions, encouraging them to shed their surroundings and biases and enter "The Country of the Mind," a timeless realm where the heroes of our species dwell. From a thinker who always chose to exalt the positive in the human species, The Greatest Minds and Ideas of All Time stays true to Durant's optimism. This is a book containing the absolute best of our heritage, passed on for the benefit of future generations. Filled with Durant's renowned wit, knowledge, and unique ability to explain events and ideas in simple and exciting terms, this is a pocket-size liberal arts and humanist curriculum in one volume.

Great Men in the Second World War

The Rise and Fall of the Big Three
Author: Paul Dukes
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474268099
Category: History
Page: 216
View: 9756

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Great Men in the Second World War provides a new perspective on the role of the individual in history. Paul Dukes selects five Great Men, each in his turn one of the leaders of the three victorious powers, the UK, the USA and the USSR. The identity of the Big Three changed significantly during the last months of the conflict. Roosevelt died in April 1945 and was succeeded by Truman. Churchill lost the general election to Attlee in July. Stalin alone provided continuity throughout the conferences of the Big Three, and immediately beyond. The book explores the power of these individuals, asking such questions as: -To what extent did the leaders exert their own influence and to what extent could they be considered to be spokesmen for their countries? -How significant was it that Truman and Attlee had less colourful personalities than Roosevelt and Churchill? -Was Stalin uniquely bad while the others were good? Drawing in particular on the record of their interaction at the Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, but also making use of other sources including novels as well as works of history, Paul Dukes sheds light on both the major statesmen involved and the nature of the Second World War. This is a book that will be useful for students of the Second World War and anyone with an interest in the role of individuals in history.

Leaders at War

How Presidents Shape Military Interventions
Author: Elizabeth N. Saunders
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801461477
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 7483

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One of the most contentious issues in contemporary foreign policy—especially in the United States—is the use of military force to intervene in the domestic affairs of other states. Some military interventions explicitly try to transform the domestic institutions of the states they target; others do not, instead attempting only to reverse foreign policies or resolve disputes without trying to reshape the internal landscape of the target state. In Leaders at War, Elizabeth N. Saunders provides a framework for understanding when and why great powers seek to transform foreign institutions and societies through military interventions. She highlights a crucial but often-overlooked factor in international relations: the role of individual leaders. Saunders argues that leaders’ threat perceptions—specifically, whether they believe that threats ultimately originate from the internal characteristics of other states—influence both the decision to intervene and the choice of intervention strategy. These perceptions affect the degree to which leaders use intervention to remake the domestic institutions of target states. Using archival and historical sources, Saunders concentrates on U.S. military interventions during the Cold War, focusing on the presidencies of Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. After demonstrating the importance of leaders in this period, she also explores the theory’s applicability to other historical and contemporary settings including the post–Cold War period and the war in Iraq.

Inventing the Individual

The Origins of Western Liberalism
Author: Larry Siedentop
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674417534
Category: Political Science
Page: 433
View: 7556

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Here, in a grand narrative spanning 1,800 years of European history, a distinguished political philosopher firmly rejects Western liberalism’s usual account of itself: its emergence in opposition to religion in the early modern era. Larry Siedentop argues instead that liberal thought is, in its underlying assumptions, the offspring of the Church.

The Theory of the Individual in Economics

Identity and Value
Author: John B Davis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134633467
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 224
View: 331

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The concept of the individual and his/her motivations is a bedrock of philosophy. All strands of thought at heart come down to a particular theory of the individual. Economics, though, is guilty of taking this hugely important concept without questioning how we theorise it. This superb book remedies this oversight. The new approach put forward by Davis is to pay more attention to what moral philosophy may offer us in the study of personal identity, self consciousness and will. This crosses the traditional boundaries of economics and will shed new light on the distinction between positive and normative analysis in economics. With both heterodox and orthodox economics receiving a thorough analysis from Davis, this book is at once inclusive and revealing.

History of the Idea of Progress

Author: Robert Nisbet
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351515462
Category: History
Page: 370
View: 9182

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The idea of progress from the Enlightenment to postmodernism is still very much with us. In intellectual discourse, journals, popular magazines, and radio and talk shows, the debate between those who are "progressivists" and those who are "declinists" is as spirited as it was in the late seventeenth century. In History of the Idea of Progress, Robert Nisbet traces the idea of progress from its origins in Greek, Roman, and medieval civilizations to modern times. It is a masterful frame of reference for understanding the present world. Nisbet asserts there are two fundamental building blocks necessary to Western doctrines of human advancement: the idea of growth, and the idea of necessity. He sees Christianity as a key element in both secular and spiritual evolution, for it conveys all the ingredients of the modern idea of progress: the advancement of the human race in time, a single time frame for all the peoples and epochs of the past and present, the conception of time as linear, and the envisagement of the future as having a Utopian end. In his new introduction, Nisbet shows why the idea of progress remains of critical importance to studies of social evolution and natural history. He provides a contemporary basis for many disciplines, including sociology, economics, philosophy, religion, politics, and science. History of the Idea of Progress continues to be a major resource for scholars in all these areas.

Government versus Markets

The Changing Economic Role of the State
Author: Vito Tanzi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139499734
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 1751

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Vito Tanzi offers a truly comprehensive treatment of the economic role of the state in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries from a historical and world perspective. The book addresses the fundamental question of what governments should do, or have attempted to do, in economic activities in past and recent periods. It also speculates on what they are likely or may be forced to do in future years. The investigation assembles a large set of statistical information that should prove useful to policy-makers and scholars in the perennial discussion of government's optimal economic roles. It will become an essential reference work on the analytical borders between the market and the state, and on what a reasonable 'exit strategy' from the current fiscal crises should be.