The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union


Author: Richard Sakwa
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134806019
Category: History
Page: 544
View: 4140

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Through sources and documents, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union by Richard Sakwa places the Soviet experience in historical and comparative context. The author introduces each source in this volume fully and provides commentary and analysis. Using eye-witness accounts, official documents and new materials which have just come to light, Richard Sakwa gives an historical overview of the Soviet Union from the revolution of 1906 to the fall of the regime.

Brezhnev and the Decline of the Soviet Union


Author: Thomas Crump
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134669151
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 8133

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Leonid Brezhnev was leader of the Soviet Union from 1964-1982, a longer period than any other Soviet leader apart from Stalin. During Brezhnev’s time Soviet power seemed at its height and increasing. Living standards were rising, the Soviet Union was a nuclear power and successful in its space missions, and the Soviet Union's influence reached into all part of the world. Yet, as this book, which provides a comprehensive overview and reassessment of Brezhnev’s life, early political career and career as leader, shows, the seeds of decline were sown in Brezhnev's time. There was a huge over-commitment of resources to the Soviet industrial-military complex and to massively expensive foreign policy overstretch. At the same time there was a failure to deliver on citizens' rising expectations, and an overconfident ignoring of dissidents and their demands. The book will be of great interest to Russian specialists, and also to scholars of international relations and world history.

The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union


Author: Martin Mccauley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317867823
Category: History
Page: 552
View: 5821

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'An expert in probing mafia-type relationships in present-day Russia, Martin McCauley here offers a vigorously written scrutiny of Soviet politics and society since the days of Lenin and Stalin.' John Keep, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto. The birth of the Soviet Union surprised many; its demise amazed the whole world. How did imperial Russia give way to the Soviet Union in 1917, and why did the USSR collapse so quickly in 1991? Marxism promised paradise on earth, but the Communist Party never had true power, instead allowing Lenin and Stalin to become dictators who ruled in its name. The failure of the planned economy to live up to expectations led to a boom in the unplanned economy, in particular the black market. In turn, this led to the growth of organised crime and corruption within the government. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union examines the strengths, weaknesses, and contradictions of the first Marxist state, and reassesses the role of power, authority and legitimacy in Soviet politics. Including first-person accounts, anecdotes, illustrations and diagrams to illustrate key concepts, McCauley provides a seminal history of twentieth-century Russia.

The Stalin Era


Author: Philip Boobbyer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134739370
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 2891

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This book provides a wide-ranging history of every aspect of Stalin's dictatorship over the peoples of the Soviet Union. Drawing upon a huge array of primary and secondary sources, The Stalin Era is a first-hand account of Stalinist thought, policy and and their effects. It places the man and his ideology into context both within pre-Revolutionary Russia, Lenin's Soviet Union and post-Stalinist Russia. The Stalin Era examines: * collectivisation * industrialisation * terror * government * the Cult of Stalin * education and Science * family * religion: The Russian Orthodox Church * art and the state.

The Rise and Fall of the The Soviet Economy

An Economic History of the USSR 1945 - 1991
Author: Philip Hanson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317885376
Category: History
Page: 292
View: 8603

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Why did the Soviet economic system fall apart? Did the economy simply overreach itself through military spending? Was it the centrally-planned character of Soviet socialism that was at fault? Or did a potentially viable mechanism come apart in Gorbachev's clumsy hands? Does its failure mean that true socialism is never economically viable? The economic dimension is at the very heart of the Russian story in the twentieth century. Economic issues were the cornerstone of soviet ideology and the soviet system, and economic issues brought the whole system crashing down in 1989-91. This book is a record of what happened, and it is also an analysis of the failure of Soviet economics as a concept.

The Routledge Atlas of Russian History


Author: Martin Gilbert
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135108307
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 9652

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The complex and often turbulent history of Russia over the course of 2,000 years is brought to life in a series of 176 maps by one of the most prolific and successful historian authors today. This fourth edition of The Routledge Atlas of Russian History covers not only the wars and expansion of Russia but also a wealth of less conspicuous details of its history, from famine and anarchism to the growth of naval strength and the strengths of the river systems. From 800 BC to the fall of the Soviet Union, this indispensable guide to Russian history covers: war and conflict: from the triumph of the Goths between 200 and 400 BC to the defeat of Germany at the end of the Second World War and the end of the Cold War politics: from the rise of Moscow in the Middle Ages to revolution, the fall of the monarchy and the collapse of communism industry, economics and transport: from the Trans-Siberian Railway between 1891 and 1917 to the Virgin Lands Campaign and the growth of heavy industry society, trade and culture: from the growth of monasticism to peasant discontent, Labour Camps and the geographical distribution of ethnic Russians. Now bringing new material to view, and including seven new maps, this popular atlas will more than readily gain a place on the bookshelves of anyone interested in the history of Russia.

Sources and Methods in Indigenous Studies


Author: Chris Andersen,Jean M. O'Brien
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1315528843
Category: History
Page: 314
View: 4529

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Sources and Methods in Indigenous Studies is a synthesis of changes and innovations in methodologies in Indigenous Studies, focusing on sources over a broad chronological and geographical range. Written by a group of highly respected Indigenous Studies scholars from across an array of disciplines, this collection offers insight into the methodological approaches contributors take to research, and how these methods have developed in recent years. The book has a two-part structure that looks, firstly, at the theoretical and disciplinary movement of Indigenous Studies within history, literature, anthropology, and the social sciences. Chapters in this section reveal that, while engaging with other disciplines, Indigenous Studies has forged its own intellectual path by borrowing and innovating from other fields. In part two, the book examines the many different areas with which sources for indigenous history have been engaged, including the importance of family, gender, feminism, and sexuality, as well as various elements of expressive culture such as material culture, literature, and museums. Together, the chapters offer readers an overview of the dynamic state of the field in Indigenous Studies. This book shines a spotlight on the ways in which scholarship is transforming Indigenous Studies in methodologically innovative and exciting ways, and will be essential reading for students and scholars in the field.

Transatlantic Relations in the 21st Century

Europe, America and the Rise of the Rest
Author: Erwan Lagadec
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113630195X
Category: History
Page: 336
View: 6255

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This book offers an overview of the interface between European integration, transatlantic relations, and the 'rise of the rest' in the early 21st century. The collapse of the Soviet bloc opened up an era in which the drivers and perceived benefits of the US alliance among European countries have become more variegated and shifting. The proposition that the US remains at once an 'indispensable' and 'intolerable' nation in Europe is a key concept in the alliance, as the US remains inextricably tied to the continent through economic, military and cultural links. This work examines this complex subject area from many angles, including an analysis of the historical and cultural contexts of America’s relations with Europe, as well as a discussion of the politics of transatlantic affairs which utilises evidence gleaned from a series of case-studies. In the concluding chapters, the author assesses the likelihood that the West can entrench its global dominance in the realms of "soft" and "hard" power, and by effecting a "controlled reform" that will see multilateral structures open up to emerging powers. This book will be of great interest to students of European Politics, EU integration, transatlantic relations, US foreign policy/diplomacy, International Security and IR in general.

When Ideas Fail

Economic Thought, the Failure of Transition and the Rise of Institutional Instability in Post-Soviet Russia
Author: Joachim Zweynert
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351363832
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 144
View: 6640

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In the history of Russian economic ideas, a peculiar mix of anthropocentrism and holism provided fertile breeding ground for patterns of thought that were in potential conflict with the market. These patterns, did not render the emergence of capitalism in Russia impossible. But they entailed a deep intellectual division between adherents and opponents of Russia’s capitalist transformation that made Russia’s social evolution unstable and vulnerable to external shocks. This study offers an ideational explanation of Russia’s relative failure to establish a functioning market economy and thus sets up a new and original perspective for discussion. In post-Soviet Russia, a clash between imported foreground ideas and deep domestic background ideas has led to an ideational division among the elite of the country. Within economic science, this led to the emergence of two thought collectives, (in the sense of Ludvik Fleck), with entirely different understandings of social reality. This ideational division translated into incoherent policy measures, the emergence of institutional hybrids and thus, all in all, into institutional instability. Empirically, the book is based on a systematic, qualitative analysis of the writings of Soviet/Russian economists between 1987 and 2012. This groundbreaking book makes an important contribution to Central Eastern and Eastern European area studies and to the current debate on ideas and institutions in the social sciences.

Class Theory and History

Capitalism and Communism in the USSR
Author: Stephen A. Resnick,Richard D. Wolff
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113670440X
Category: History
Page: 368
View: 1068

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First Published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?: Understanding Historical Change

Understanding Historical Change
Author: Robert Strayer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315503956
Category: Philosophy
Page: 240
View: 2865

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Taking the Soviet collapse - the most cataclysmic event of the recent past - as a case study, this text engages students in the exercise of historical analysis, interpretation and explanation. In exploring the question posed by the title, the author introduces and applies such organizing concepts as great power conflict, imperial decline, revolution, ethnic conflict, colonialism, economic development, totalitarian ideology, and transition to democracy in a most accessible way. Questions and controversies, and extracts from documentary and literary sources, anchor the text at key points. This book is intended for use in history and political science courses on the Soviet Union or more generally on the 20th century.

New Perspectives on the End of the Cold War

Unexpected Transformations?
Author: Bernhard Blumenau,Jussi M. Hanhimäki,Barbara Zanchetta
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351744909
Category: History
Page: 230
View: 573

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This collection of essays makes a significant contribution to the historiography of the end of the Cold War. Research on the causes and consequences of the end of the Cold War is constantly growing. Initially, it was dominated by fairly simplistic, and often politically motivated, debates revolving around the role played by major "winners" and "losers". This volume addresses a number of diverse issues and seeks to challenge several "common wisdoms" about the end of the Cold War. Together, the contributions provide insights on the role of personalities as well as the impact of transnational movements and forces on the unexpected political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Geographically, the chapters largely focus on the United States, Europe, with special emphasis on Germany, and the Soviet Union. The individual chapters are drawn together by the overarching theme relating to a particular "common wisdom": were the transformations that occurred truly "unexpected"? This collection of essays will make an important contribution to the growing literature on the developments that produced the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. This volume will be of much interest to students of Cold War Studies, International History, European Politics and International Relations in general.

The Soviet Union

Federation Or Empire?
Author: Tania Raffass
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415688337
Category: Social Science
Page: 397
View: 2178

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The Soviet Union is often characterised as nominally a federation, but really an empire, liable to break up when individual federal units, which were allegedly really subordinate colonial units, sought independence. This book questions this interpretation, revisiting the theory of federation, and discussing actual examples of federations such as the United States, arguing that many federal unions, including the United States, are really centralised polities. It also discusses the nature of empires, nations and how they relate to nation states and empires, and the right of secession, highlighting the importance of the fact that this was written in to the Soviet constitution. It examines the attitude of successive Soviet leaders towards nationalities, and the changing attitudes of nationalists towards the Soviet Union. Overall, it demonstrates that the Soviet attitude to nationalities and federal units was complicated, wrestling, in a similar way to many other states, with difficult questions of how ethno-cultural justice can best be delivered in a political unit which is bigger than the national state.

Routledge Handbook of Major Events in Economic History


Author: Randall E. Parker,Robert Whaples
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415677033
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 454
View: 6407

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The Handbook of Major Events in Economic History aims to introduce readers to the important macroeconomic events of the past two hundred years. The chapters endeavour to explain what went on and why during the most significant economic epochs of the nineteenth, twentieth and early twenty-first centuries and how where we are today fits in this historical timeline. Its short chapters reflect the most up-to-date research and are written by well-known economists who are authorities on their subjects. The Handbook of Major Events in Economic History was written with the intent of presenting the professional consensus in explaining the economics driving these historical events.

Russia in the Twentieth Century

The quest for stability
Author: David R. Marples
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317862287
Category: History
Page: 392
View: 2804

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The history of Russia, as the natural successor to the Soviet Union, is of crucial importance to understanding why communism ultimately lost out to Western democracy and the free market system. David Marples presents a balanced overview of 20th century Russian history and shows that although contemporary Russia has retained many of the practices and memories of the Soviet period, it is not about to revert back to the Soviet example.

The Rise and Fall of Communism


Author: Archie Brown
Publisher: Doubleday Canada
ISBN: 0307372243
Category: Political Science
Page: 736
View: 9336

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Published to coincide with the twentieth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall — a definitive and ground-breaking account of the revolutionary ideology that changed the modern world. The inexorable rise of Communism was the most momentous political phenomenon of the first half of the twentieth century. Its demise in Europe and its decline elsewhere have produced the most profound political changes of the last few decades. In this illuminating book, based on forty years of study and a wealth of new sources, Archie Brown provides a comprehensive history as well as an original and highly readable analysis of an ideology that has shaped the world and still rules over a fifth of humanity. A compelling new work from an internationally renowned specialist, The Rise and Fall of Communism promises to be the definitive study of the most remarkable political and human story of our times. From the Hardcover edition.

Handbook of the Economics and Political Economy of Transition


Author: Paul Hare,Gerard Turley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135080860
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 512
View: 9559

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Transition from central planning to a market economy, involving large-scale institutional change and reforms at all levels, is often described as the greatest social science experiment in modern times. As more than two decades have passed since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union, it is now an excellent time to take stock of how the transition process has turned out for the economies that have moved on from socialism and the command economy. This new handbook assembles a team of leading experts, many of whom were closely involved in the transition process as policymakers and policy advisors, to explore the major themes that have characterized the transition process. After identifying the nature of initial conditions and the strengths and weaknesses of institutions, the varying paths and reforms countries have taken are fully analyzed – from the shock therapy, privatization or gradualism of the early years to the burning issues of the present including global integration and sustainable growth. Topics covered include the socialist system pre-transition, economic reforms, institutions, the political economy of transition, performance and growth, enterprise restructuring, and people and transition. The country coverage is also extensive, from the former socialist countries of the USSR and the satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe to the Asian countries of China, Vietnam and others. The rise of China as a key actor in the drama is chronicled, along with the emergence of a new, more confident, oil-rich Russia. The comparative prosperity of the Central European countries such as Poland and the Czech Republic is contrasted with the mixed fortunes of the former USSR, where some countries are stagnating while others boom. This Handbook of the Economics and Political Economy of Transition is the definitive guide to this new order of things in the former Communist world.

Radical Islam in the Former Soviet Union


Author: Galina M. Yemelianova
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113518285X
Category: Religion
Page: 304
View: 5702

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This is the first comprehensive and comparative examination of Islamic radicalisation in the Muslim regions of the former Soviet Union since the end of Communism. Since the 1990s, the ex-Soviet Muslim Volga-Urals, Caucasus and Central Asia have been among the most volatile and dynamic zones of Islamic radicalisation in the Islamic East. Although partially driven by a wider Islamic resurgence which began in the late 1970s in the Middle East, the book argues that radicalisation is a post-Soviet phenomenon triggered by the collapse of Communism, and the break-up of the de facto unitary Soviet empire. The book considers the considerable differences in perceptions and manifestations of radical Islam in the republics, as well as the level of its doctrinal and political impact. It demonstrates how the particular histories of the regions’ Muslim peoples - especially the length and depth of their Islamisation - have influenced the nature and scope of their radicalisation. Other significant factors include the mobilising power of the global jihadist network, and most significantly the level of social and economic hardship. Based on extensive empirical research including interviews with leading members of the political and religious elite, the Islamist opposition as well as ordinary muslims, the book reveals how unofficial radical Islam has turned into a potent ideology of social mobilisation. It identifies the different dynamics at work and how these relate to each other, assesses the level of foreign involvement and evaluates the implications of the rise of Islamic radicalism for particular post-Soviet states, post-Soviet Eurasia and the wider international community.

Vladimir Putin and Russia? Imperial Revival


Author: DavidE. McNabb
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351537245
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 1029

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Discerning the early stages of the rebirth of a new Russian empire from the ashes of the Soviet Union, Vladimir Putin and Russia?s Imperial Revival argues that Russia?s recent overtly aggressive actions and foreign policy doctrines have signaled a renewal of the Cold War. At the least, Russia?s actions represent the potential for renewal. This book explains these developments in a historical context.The book begins by describing Russia?s initial policy of rapprochement after the collapse of the Soviet Union and its development into a foreign policy of threatened or actual armed aggression. It identifies today?s Russia as a nation determined to re-establish itself as a political and military force. As a prominent figure in the development and continuation of its current foreign policy, Vladimir Putin plays a central role in the topics covered.Previous literature often treats Putin as an individual phenomenon examining his connections to corruption or the secret police, but here David E. McNabb examines him as the latest in a long history of Russian despots who followed similar expansionist policies. He details some of the tactics Putin uses to instill fear and dominate political policies of republics newly independent from Russia. These tactics include the use of energy as a weapon, cyber terrorism, and military support for ethnic Russian separatists in other sovereign nations, most recently exemplified by Russia?s annexation of Crimea from Ukraine via armed invasion.In an attempt to demystify Russia?s re-emergence as an international political force, Vladimir Putin and Russia?s Imperial Revival grounds its analyses in history. It explores as far back as the establishment of the first Russian empire, and regards Putin as a leader determined to establish a fifth imperial incarnation. It provides a nuanced understanding of how Russia arrived at its current position through recent and distant internal and international events.

A History of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Beyond


Author: David MacKenzie,Michael W. Curran
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company
ISBN: N.A
Category: Education
Page: 776
View: 4165

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In this revision of their best-selling text, MacKenzie and Curran present a clear and objective account of the history of Russians and other eastern Slavs from its beginnings in ancient Rus to the demise of the Soviet Union and, most recently, the Putin presidency. Acclaimed in the field for its clarity, comprehensiveness, and accuracy, the text balances social/cultural history with political history. The authors' approach weaves the external geographic determinism of the Eurasian school and the organic, inner-oriented approach of Russian historians.