The Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy


Author: Alan Hájek,Christopher Hitchcock
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780199607617
Category:
Page: 880
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Probability theory is a key tool of the physical, mathematical, and social sciences. It has also been playing an increasingly significant role in philosophy: in epistemology, philosophy of science, ethics, social philosophy, philosophy of religion, and elsewhere. A case can be made that probability is as vital a part of the philosopher's toolkit as logic. Moreover, there is a fruitful two-way street between probability theory and philosophy: the theory informs much of the work of philosophers, and philosophical inquiry, in turn, has shed considerable light on the theory. This Handbook encapsulates and furthers the influence of philosophy on probability, and of probability on philosophy. Nearly forty articles summarise the state of play and present new insights in various areas of research at the intersection of these two fields. The articles will be of special interest to practitioners of probability who seek a greater understanding of its mathematical and conceptual foundations, and to philosophers who want to get up to speed on the cutting edge of research in this area. There is plenty here to entice philosophical readers who don't work especially on probability but who want to learn more about it and its applications. Indeed, this volume should appeal to the intellectually curious generally; after all, there is much here to be curious about. We do not expect all of this volume's audience to have a thorough training in probability theory. And while probability is relevant to the work of many philosophers, they often do not have much of a background in its formalism. With this in mind, we begin with 'Probability for Everyone--Even Philosophers', a primer on those parts of probability theory that we believe are most important for philosophers to know. The rest of the volume is divided into seven main sections: History; Formalism; Alternatives to Standard Probability Theory; Interpretations and Interpretive Issues; Probabilistic Judgment and Its Applications; Applications of Probability: Science; and Applications of Probability: Philosophy.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science


Author: Paul Humphreys
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190630701
Category: Science
Page: 960
View: 7848

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This handbook provides both an overview of state-of-the-art scholarship in philosophy of science, as well as a guide to new directions in the discipline. Section I contains broad overviews of the main lines of research and the state of established knowledge in six principal areas of the discipline, including computational, physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, as well as general philosophy of science. Section II covers what are considered to be the traditional topics in the philosophy of science, such as causation, probability, models, ethics and values, and explanation. Section III identifies new areas of investigation that show promise of becoming important areas of research, including the philosophy of astronomy and astrophysics, data, complexity theory, neuroscience, simulations, post-Kuhnian philosophy, post-empiricist epistemology, and emergence. Most chapters are accessible to scientifically educated non-philosophers as well as to professional philosophers, and the contributors - all leading researchers in their field -- bring diverse perspectives from the North American, European, and Australasian research communities. This volume is an essential resource for scholars and students.

The Oxford Handbook of Causation


Author: Helen Beebee,Christopher Hitchcock,Peter Menzies
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191629464
Category: Philosophy
Page: 816
View: 9431

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Causation is a central topic in many areas of philosophy. In metaphysics, philosophers want to know what causation is, and how it is related to laws of nature, probability, action, and freedom of the will. In epistemology, philosophers investigate how causal claims can be inferred from statistical data, and how causation is related to perception, knowledge and explanation. In the philosophy of mind, philosophers want to know whether and how the mind can be said to have causal efficacy, and in ethics, whether there is a moral distinction between acts and omissions and whether the moral value of an act can be judged according to its consequences. And causation is a contested concept in other fields of enquiry, such as biology, physics, and the law. This book provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of these and other topics, as well as the history of the causation debate from the ancient Greeks to the logical empiricists. The chapters provide surveys of contemporary debates, while often also advancing novel and controversial claims; and each includes a comprehensive bibliography and suggestions for further reading. The book is thus the most comprehensive source of information about causation currently available, and will be invaluable for upper-level undergraduates through to professional philosophers.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time


Author: Craig Callender
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0199298203
Category: Science
Page: 704
View: 6240

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This is the first comprehensive book on the philosophy of time. Leading philosophers discuss the metaphysics of time, our experience and representation of time, the role of time in ethics and action, and philosophical issues in the sciences of time, especially quantum mechanics and relativity theory.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science


Author: Harold Kincaid
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195392752
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 657
View: 1101

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The philosophy of the social sciences considers the underlying explanatory powers of the social (or human) sciences, such as history, economics, anthropology, politics, and sociology. The type of questions covered includes the methodological (the nature of observations, laws, theories, and explanations) to the ontological — whether or not these sciences can explain human nature in a way consistent with common-sense beliefs. This Handbook is a major, comprehensive look at the key ideas in the field, is guided by several principles. The first is that the philosophy of social science should be closely connected to, and informed by, developments in the sciences themselves. The second is that the volume should appeal to practicing social scientists as well as philosophers, with the contributors being both drawn from both ranks, and speaking to ongoing controversial issues in the field. Finally, the volume promotes connections across the social sciences, with greater internal discussion and interaction across disciplinary boundaries.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Literature


Author: Richard Eldridge
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199724105
Category: Philosophy
Page: 536
View: 8850

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The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Literature contains twenty-three newly commissioned essays by major philosophers and literary scholars that investigate literature as a form of attention to human life. Various forms of attention are considered under the headings of Genres (from Ancient Epic to the Novel and Contemporary Experimental Writing), Periods (from Realism and Romanticism to Postcolonialism), Devices and Powers (Imagination, Plot, Character, Style, and Emotion), and Contexts and Uses (in relation to inquiry, morality, and politics). In each case, the effort is to track and evaluate how specific modes and works of imaginative literature answer to important needs of human subjects for orientation, the articulation of interest in life, and the working through of emotion, within situations that are both sociohistorical and human. Hence these essays show how and why literature matters in manifold ways in and for human cultural life, and they show how philosophers and imaginative literary writers have continually both engaged with and criticized each other.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Physics


Author: Robert Batterman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195392043
Category: Philosophy
Page: 688
View: 583

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This Oxford Handbook provides an overview of many of the topics that currently engage philosophers of physics. It surveys new issues and the problems that have become a focus of attention in recent years. It also provides up-to-date discussions of the still very important problems that dominated the field in the past. In the late 20th Century, the philosophy of physics was largely focused on orthodox Quantum Mechanics and Relativity Theory. The measurement problem, the question of the possibility of hidden variables, and the nature of quantum locality dominated the literature on the quantum mechanics, whereas questions about relationalism vs. substantivalism, and issues about underdetermination of theories dominated the literature on spacetime. These issues still receive considerable attention from philosophers, but many have shifted their attentions to other questions related to quantum mechanics and to spacetime theories. Quantum field theory has become a major focus, particularly from the point of view of algebraic foundations. Concurrent with these trends, there has been a focus on understanding gauge invariance and symmetries. The philosophy of physics has evolved even further in recent years with attention being paid to theories that, for the most part, were largely ignored in the past. For example, the relationship between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics—-once thought to be a paradigm instance of unproblematic theory reduction—-is now a hotly debated topic. The implicit, and sometimes explicit, reductionist methodology of both philosophers and physicists has been severely criticized and attention has now turned to the explanatory and descriptive roles of "non-fundamental,'' phenomenological theories. This shift of attention includes "old'' theories such as classical mechanics, once deemed to be of little philosophical interest. Furthermore, some philosophers have become more interested in "less fundamental'' contemporary physics such as condensed matter theory. Questions abound with implications for the nature of models, idealizations, and explanation in physics. This Handbook showcases all these aspects of this complex and dynamic discipline.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion


Author: William Wainwright
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199881359
Category: Reference
Page: 560
View: 3919

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The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion contains newly commissioned chapters by 21 prominent experts who cover the field in a comprehensive but accessible manner. Each chapter is expository, critical, and representative of a distinctive viewpoint.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education


Author: Harvey Siegel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195312880
Category: Education
Page: 548
View: 1843

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A general introduction to key issues in the philosophy of education. The chapters are accessible to readers with no prior exposure to philosophy of education, and provide both surveys of the general domain they address, and advance the discussion in those domains.

The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning


Author: Michael Waldmann
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199399557
Category: Psychology
Page: 768
View: 3348

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Causal reasoning is one of our most central cognitive competencies, enabling us to adapt to our world. Causal knowledge allows us to predict future events, or diagnose the causes of observed facts. We plan actions and solve problems using knowledge about cause-effect relations. Although causal reasoning is a component of most of our cognitive functions, it has been neglected in cognitive psychology for many decades. The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning offers a state-of-the-art review of the growing field, and its contribution to the world of cognitive science. The Handbook begins with an introduction of competing theories of causal learning and reasoning. In the next section, it presents research about basic cognitive functions involved in causal cognition, such as perception, categorization, argumentation, decision-making, and induction. The following section examines research on domains that embody causal relations, including intuitive physics, legal and moral reasoning, psychopathology, language, social cognition, and the roles of space and time. The final section presents research from neighboring fields that study developmental, phylogenetic, and cultural differences in causal cognition. The chapters, each written by renowned researchers in their field, fill in the gaps of many cognitive psychology textbooks, emphasizing the crucial role of causal structures in our everyday lives. This Handbook is an essential read for students and researchers of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive, developmental, social, comparative, and cross-cultural psychology; philosophy; methodology; statistics; artificial intelligence; and machine learning.

The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning


Author: Keith J. Holyoak,Robert G. Morrison
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199313792
Category: Psychology
Page: 864
View: 7168

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The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning brings together the contributions of many of the leading researchers in thinking and reasoning to create the most comprehensive overview of research on thinking and reasoning that has ever been available.

The Oxford Handbook of Computational and Mathematical Psychology


Author: Jerome R. Busemeyer,Zheng Wang,James T. Townsend,Ami Eidels
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199958009
Category: Psychology
Page: 528
View: 944

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This Oxford Handbook offers a comprehensive and authoritative review of important developments in computational and mathematical psychology. With chapters written by leading scientists across a variety of subdisciplines, it examines the field's influence on related research areas such as cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience. The Handbook emphasizes examples and applications of the latest research, and will appeal to readers possessing various levels of modeling experience. The Oxford Handbook of Computational and mathematical Psychology covers the key developments in elementary cognitive mechanisms (signal detection, information processing, reinforcement learning), basic cognitive skills (perceptual judgment, categorization, episodic memory), higher-level cognition (Bayesian cognition, decision making, semantic memory, shape perception), modeling tools (Bayesian estimation and other new model comparison methods), and emerging new directions in computation and mathematical psychology (neurocognitive modeling, applications to clinical psychology, quantum cognition). The Handbook would make an ideal graduate-level textbook for courses in computational and mathematical psychology. Readers ranging from advanced undergraduates to experienced faculty members and researchers in virtually any area of psychology--including cognitive science and related social and behavioral sciences such as consumer behavior and communication--will find the text useful.

Oxford Handbook of Medical Statistics


Author: Janet Peacock,Janet L. Peacock,Philip Peacock
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199551286
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 544
View: 5588

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The majority of medical research involves quantitative methods and so it is essential to be able to understand and interpret statistics. This book shows readers how to develop the skills required to critically appraise research evidence effectively, and how to conduct research and communicate their findings.

The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century


Author: Peter R. Anstey
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199549990
Category: History
Page: 651
View: 5791

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The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century comprises twenty-six new essays by leading experts in the field. This unique scholarly resource provides advanced students and scholars with a comprehensive overview of the current issues that are informing research on the subject, while at the same time offering new lines of research. The volume is ambitious in scope and far reaching in impact. It covers the whole of the seventeenthcentury, ranging from Francis Bacon, who flourished early in the century, to John Locke and Isaac Newton, who rose to prominence as the century drew to a close. In addition to dealing with canonical authors and celebrated texts, such as Thomas Hobbes and his Leviathan, the Handbook discusses many lesser knownfigures and debates from the period, whose importance is only now being appreciated.

Philosophy of Probability

Contemporary Readings
Author: Antony Eagle
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780415483872
Category: Mathematics
Page: 543
View: 748

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`The philosophy of probability has had a venerable history, but recently it has especially stepped into the limelight, and it is flourishing nowadays. This volume brings together both classics and cutting-edge contributions to its literature. Antony Eagle does an excellent job of orienting the reader by grouping these articles thematically, and by providing a panoramic and incisive introduction to each of the themes. A terrific resource --- that's a certainty'. Alan Hajek, The Australian National University, Australia The book features a useful primer on the mathematics of probability, and each section includes an introduction by the editor, as well as a guide to further reading. A broad-ranging and highly accessible exploration of the subject, Philosophy of Probability is ideal for any student of formal epistemology, philosophy of science, metaphysics, or philosophy of mathematics.

Probability in the Philosophy of Religion


Author: Jake Chandler,Victoria S. Harrison
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199604762
Category: Philosophy
Page: 253
View: 551

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These specially written essays show that philosophy of religion is fertile ground for the application of probabilistic thinking. The authors examine central topics in the field: the status of evidence relating to the question of the existence of God; the rationality of religious belief; and the epistemic significance of religious disagreement.

The Oxford Handbook of Applied Nonparametric and Semiparametric Econometrics and Statistics


Author: Jeffrey Racine,Liangjun Su,Aman Ullah
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199857946
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 539
View: 1873

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This volume, edited by Jeffrey Racine, Liangjun Su, and Aman Ullah, contains the latest research on nonparametric and semiparametric econometrics and statistics. Chapters by leading international econometricians and statisticians highlight the interface between econometrics and statistical methods for nonparametric and semiparametric procedures.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Cognitive Science


Author: Eric Margolis,Stephen P. Stich
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195309790
Category: Philosophy
Page: 562
View: 7953

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This volume offers an overview of the philosophy of cognitive science that balances breadth and depth, with chapters covering every aspect of the psychology and cognitive anthropology.

Decision Theory as Philosophy


Author: Mark Kaplan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521624961
Category: Philosophy
Page: 248
View: 8529

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Kaplan presents an accessible new variant on Bayesian decision theory.

The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory


Author: David Copp
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195147790
Category: Philosophy
Page: 665
View: 5946

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The Handbook is a comprehensive reference work in ethical theory consisting of commissioned articles by leading scholars. The first part treats meta-ethics and the second part normative ethical theory. As with all the Oxford Handbooks, the collection is designed to achieve three goals: exposition of central ideas, criticism of other approaches, and defenses of distinct points of view.