The New Evolutionary Sociology

Recent and Revitalized Theoretical and Methodological Approaches
Author: Jonathan H. Turner,Richard S. Machalek
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351173863
Category: Social Science
Page: 470
View: 3382

Continue Reading →

For decades, evolutionary analysis was overlooked or altogether ignored by sociologists. Fears and biases persisted nearly a century after Comte Auguste gave the discipline its name, as did concerns that its effect would only reduce sociology to another discipline – whether biology, psychology, or economics. Worse, apprehension that the application of evolutionary theory would encourage heightened perceptions of racism, sexism, ethnocentrism and reductionism pervaded. Turner and Machalek argue instead for a new embrace of biology and evolutionary analysis. Sociology, from its very beginnings in the early 19th century, has always been concerned with the study of evolution, particularly the transformation of societies from simple to ever-more complex forms. By comprehensively reviewing the original ways that sociologists applied evolutionary theory and examining the recent renewal and expansion of these early approaches, the authors confront the challenges posed by biology, neuroscience, and psychology to distinct evolutionary approaches within sociology. They emerge with key theoretical and methodological discoveries that demonstrate the critical – and compelling – case for a dramatically enriched sociology that incorporates all forms of comparative evolutionary analysis to its canon and study of sociocultural phenomena.

Handbook on Evolution and Society

Toward an Evolutionary Social Science
Author: Alexandra Maryanski,Richard Machalek,Jonathan H. Turner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317258339
Category: Political Science
Page: 580
View: 7323

Continue Reading →

"Handbook on Evolution and Society" brings together original chapters by prominent scholars who have been instrumental in the revival of evolutionary theorizing and research in the social sciences over the last twenty-five years. Previously unpublished essays provide up-to-date, critical surveys of recent research and key debates. The contributors discuss early challenges posed by sociobiology, the rise of evolutionary psychology, the more conflicted response of evolutionary sociology to sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology. Chapters address the application and limitations of Darwinian ideas in the social sciences. Prominent authors come from a variety of disciplines in ecology, biology, primatology, psychology, sociology, and the humanities. The most comprehensive resource available, this vital collection demonstrates to scholars and students the new ways in which evolutionary approaches, ultimately derived from biology, are influencing the diverse social sciences and humanities.

Handbook of Contemporary Sociological Theory


Author: Seth Abrutyn
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319322508
Category: Social Science
Page: 578
View: 9349

Continue Reading →

This Handbook provides the hidden common threads that tie sociological inquiry together and featuring eminent scholars, it separates itself from its predecessors in substance and organization. Rather than rehashing old debates or longingly gazing at the past, this book presents sociologists with new ways of conceptualizing the organization and presentation of sociological theory. At the heart of this Handbook’s vision is the twin goals of making theory a viable enterprise by reconceptualizing how we teach theory and keeping theory closely tied to its empirical applications. Three strategies are offered: (1) Elucidating how classic issues like integration or interaction are interrogated today; (2) Presenting a coherent vision of the social levels of reality that theorists work on such as communities, groups, and the self as well as how the coherence of these levels speaks to the macro-micro link; and, (3) Theorizing the social world rather than celebrating theorists or theories; that is, one can look at how theory is used holistically to understand the constraints the social world places on our lived experience or the dynamics of social change. Hence, in the second decade of the 21st century, it has become clear that sociology is at a crossroads as the number of theorists and amount of theory available is increasingly unmanageable and unknowable by the vast majority of professionals and students. As such, this Handbook of Contemporary Sociological Theory presents the novice and the expert with the a roadmap for traversing this crossroad and building a more coherent, robust, and cumulative sociology.

Forschungsprogramme. Beiträge zur Vereinheitlichung der soziologischen Theoriebildung


Author: Michael Schmid
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658176113
Category: Social Science
Page: 632
View: 1131

Continue Reading →

Der Band führt in die „Methodologie der wissenschaftlichen Forschungsprogramme“ ein und diskutiert hernach das Luhmannsche Programm der „soziologischen Aufklärung“, die forschungsleitenden Vorschläge der soziologisch gewendeten Evolutionstheorie, der soziobiologisch mikrofundierenden Konflikttheorie von Stephan Sanderson, der integrativen Handlungs- und Systemtheorie von Walter Bühl, des Neofunktionalismus von Jeffrey Alexander (und seiner Schule), der mikrofundierenden Solidaritätstheorie von Randall Collins und der Ulrich Beck‘schen Theorie der Reflexiven Modernisierung. Sodann untersucht der Band die (in einer Münchener Projektgruppe entwickelte) „Theorie der alltäglichen Lebensführung“ und das handlungstheoretisch fundierte Erklärungsprogramm von Andreas Balog; hernach wendet er sich der Habitus- und Gesellschaftstheorie Pierre Bourdieus und den Grundzügen der von Peter Hedström mitbegründeten „Analytischen Soziologie“ zu und thematisiert anschließend das sogenannte „weberianischen Forschungsprogramms“, wie es im Heidelberger Umkreis von M.R. Lepsius- und W. Schluchter entstanden ist. Am Ende steht eine vergleichende Untersuchung der „ökonomischen“ und „soziologischen“ Beiträge zur Korruptionstheorie.

Oxford Handbook of Evolution, Biology, and Society


Author: Dr. Rosemary Hopcroft
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190299339
Category: Science
Page: 752
View: 5953

Continue Reading →

Evolution, biology, and society is a catch-all phrase encompassing any scholarly work that utilizes evolutionary theory and/or biological or behavioral genetic methods in the study of the human social group, and The Oxford Handbook of Evolution, Biology, and Society contains an much needed overview of research in the area by sociologists and other social scientists. The examined topics cover a wide variety of issues, including the origins of social solidarity; religious beliefs; sex differences; gender inequality; determinants of human happiness; the nature of social stratification and inequality and its effects; identity, status, and other group processes; race, ethnicity, and race discrimination; fertility and family processes; crime and deviance; and cultural and social change. The scholars whose work is presented in this volume come from a variety of disciplines in addition to sociology, including psychology, political science, and criminology. Yet, as the essays in this volume demonstrate, the potential of theory and methods from biology for illuminating social phenomena is clear, and sociologists stand to gain from learning more about them and using them in their own work. The theory focuses on evolution by natural selection, the primary paradigm of the biological sciences, while the methods include the statistical analyses sociologists are familiar with, as well as other methods that they may not be familiar with, such as behavioral genetic methods, methods for including genetic factors in statistical analyses, gene-wide association studies, candidate gene studies, and methods for testing levels of hormones and other biochemicals in blood and saliva and including these factors in analyses. This work will be of interest to any sociologist with an interest in exploring the interaction of biological and sociological processes. As an introduction to the field it is useful for teaching upper-level or graduate students in sociology or a related social science.

Social Neuroscience


Author: Russell K. Schutt,Larry J. Seidman,Matcheri S. Keshavan
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674728971
Category: Medical
Page: 436
View: 8233

Continue Reading →

Human beings evolved in the company of others. Mutually reinforcing connections between brains, minds, and societies have profound implications for physical and emotional health. Social Neuroscience offers a comprehensive new framework for studying human brain development and human behavior in their social context.

On the Origins of Human Emotions

A Sociological Inquiry Into the Evolution of Human Affect
Author: Jonathan Turner
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804764360
Category: Psychology
Page: 208
View: 2759

Continue Reading →

Language and culture are often seen as unique characteristics of human beings. In this book the author argues that our ability to use a wide array of emotions evolved long before spoken language and, in fact, constituted a preadaptation for the speech and culture that developed among later hominids. Long before humans could speak with words, they communicated through body language their emotional dispositions; and it is the neurological wiring of the brain for these emotional languages that represented the key evolutionary breakthrough for our species. How did natural selection work on the basic ape anatomy and neuroanatomy to create the hominid line? The author suggests that what distinguished our ancestors from other apes was the development of an increased capacity for sociality and organization, crucial for survival on the African savanna. All apes display a propensity for weak ties, individualism, mobility, and autonomy that was, and is today, useful in arboreal and woodland habitats but served them poorly when our ancestors began to move onto the African plain during the late Miocene. The challenge for natural selection was to enhance traits in the species that would foster the social ties necessary for survival in the new environment. The author suggests that the result was a development of certain areas of the primate brain that encouraged strong emotional ties, allowing our ancestors to build higher levels of social solidarity. Our basic neurological wiring continues to reflect this adaptive development. From a sociological perspective that is informed by evolutionary biology, primatology, and neurology, the book examines the current neurological bases of our emotional repertoire and their implications for our social actions.

New Evolutionary Social Science

Human Nature, Social Behavior, and Social Change
Author: Heinz-Jurgen Niedenzu,Tamas Meleghy,Peter Meyer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317255488
Category: Social Science
Page: 270
View: 5044

Continue Reading →

Social scientists have long declared their autonomy from the natural sciences, and in doing so have tended to neglect important biological constraints on human nature. Many sociological theories have suggested a nearly complete malleability of patterns of social life. The New Evolutionary Social Science challenges this view by building on Stephen K. Sanderson's 'Darwinian conflict theory' which sets out to synthesise sociological theories with key findings from biology into an overarching scientific paradigm. Configuring and expanding this groundbreaking theory, the contributors to this volume are well-known European and American experts in evolutionary science. The New Evolutionary Social Science develops a new basis for understanding social change and the world's future through a better integration of the natural and social sciences.

Natural Resource Use and Global Change

New Interdisciplinary Perspectives in Social Ecology
Author: K. Bruckmeier
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137303158
Category: Political Science
Page: 290
View: 6882

Continue Reading →

Building on recent developments in social ecology, this book advances a new critical theory of society and nature, exploring social metabolism and global resource flows in contemporary society. Barriers to global sustainability are identified and conditions for transforming industrial economies towards new sustainable resource use are described.

The New Sociological Imagination


Author: Steve Fuller
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1847877354
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 8249

Continue Reading →

C. Wright Mills' classic The Sociological Imagination has inspired generations of students to study Sociology. However, the book is nearly half a century old. What would a book address, aiming to attract and inform students in the 21st century? This is the task that Steve Fuller sets himself in this major new invitation to study Sociology. The book: Critically examines the history of the social sciences to discover what the key contributions of sociology have been and how relevant they remain. Demonstrates how biological and sociological themes have been intertwined from the beginning of both disciplines, from the 19th century to the present day. Covers virtually all of sociology's classic theorists and themes. Provides a glossary of key thinkers and concepts. This book sets the agenda for imagining sociology in the 21st century and will attract students and professionals alike.

Evolutionäre Psychologie


Author: David M. Buss
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783827370945
Category: Evolution
Page: 599
View: 2891

Continue Reading →

In den verschiedenen Verhaltenswissenschaften hat sich ein Ansatz etabliert, der als "Neodarwinische Renaissance" angesehen werden kann. Dieser evolutionäre Ansatz breitet sich in jüngster Zeit auch in der Psychologie zunehmend aus. David Buss gilt als einer der Pioniere der evolutionären Psychologie. Die inhaltlichen Schwerpunkte in dem Standardwerk von Buss liegen auf Fragen zu Liebe und Partnerschaft sowie zur Persönlichkeit. Es orientiert sich an den grundlegenden Anpassungsproblemen der Psychologie. Die verschiedenen Teilbereiche der Psychologie werden aus einer evolutionären Perspektive betrachtet.

Market Relations and the Competitive Process


Author: J. Stanley Metcalfe,Alan Warde
Publisher: Manchester University Press
ISBN: 9780719064685
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 214
View: 3471

Continue Reading →

There has been increasing interest and debate in recent years on the nature of economic processes in general and the related ideas of the market, in particular the competitive process. This study lies at the interface between two largely independent disciplines, economics and sociology, and reflects an attempt to bring the two fields of discourse more closely together. It explores this interface in a number of ways, looking at the competitive process and market relations from a number of different perspectives. A wide range of contributors are included, most of whom are leading writers and thinkers in the field.

Contemporary Sociological Theory


Author: Jonathan H. Turner
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483307204
Category: Social Science
Page: 768
View: 1379

Continue Reading →

Written by award-winning scholar, Jonathan Turner, Contemporary Sociological Theory covers the range of diversity of theory in nine theoretical traditions, and variants of theoretical approaches in these traditions. The result is a comprehensive review of present-day theorizing in sociology covering functional, evolutionary, ecological, conflict, interactionist, exchange, structuralist, cultural, and critical theories and the major proponents of these theories. Moreover, for each theoretical tradition, it origins are examined in a separate chapter with an eye to how classical theorists influenced the work of key contemporary scholars. This book will serve as a valuable resource for those readers seeking in-depth and comprehensive coverage of contemporary traditions in their historical contexts. Unlike many texts, coverage is comprehensive and deep. The theories and their origins are examined in detail so that readers can fully understand the origins and present profile of theories in present-day sociology. Unlike many texts that skim over theories on the surface, this book seeks to unlock for the reader their underlying structure of each theory. The book is written in a modular format so that theories and traditions can be examined in any order, and in many diverse combinations. If desired, only the contemporary theories can be read without attention to their historical contexts, or the reverse is true if readers want to understand the historical origins of a particular theoretical tradition. Since Jonathan Turner is an active theorist in his own right, he brings to the book an appreciation of how theories are created as an insider rather than as only a commentator on theory. As such, he is able to bring out the underlying assumptions, structure, and form of a theory in new and interesting ways for casual readers and scholars alike.

Revisiting Institutionalism in Sociology

Putting the “Institution” Back in Institutional Analysis
Author: Seth Abrutyn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134463499
Category: Social Science
Page: 228
View: 4744

Continue Reading →

There may not be a concept so central to sociology, yet so vaguely defined in its contemporary usages, than institution. In Revisiting Institutionalism in Sociology, Abrutyn takes an in-depth look at what institutions are by returning to some of the insights of classical theorists like Max Weber and Herbert Spencer, the functionalisms of Talcott Parsons and S.N. Eisenstadt, and the more recent evolutionary institutionalisms of Gerhard Lenski and Jonathan Turner. Returning to the idea that various levels of social reality shape societies, Abrutyn argues that institutions are macro-level structural and cultural spheres of action, exchange, and communication. They have emergent properties and dynamics that are not reducible to other levels of social reality. Rather than fall back on old functionalist solutions, Abrutyn offers an original and synthetic theory of institutions like religion or economy; the process by which they become autonomous, or distinct cultural spaces that shape the color and texture of action, exchange, and communication embedded within them; and how they gain or lose autonomy by theorizing about institutional entrepreneurship. Finally, Abrutyn lays bare the inner workings of institutions, including their ecology, the way structure and culture shape lower-levels of social reality, and how they develop unique patterns of stratification and inequality founded on their ecology, structure, and culture. Ultimately, Abrutyn offers a refreshing take on macrosociology that brings functionalist, conflict, and cultural sociologies together, while painting a new picture of how the seemingly invisible macro-world influences the choices humans make and the goals we set.

Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior


Author: Robert J. Richards
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226712001
Category: Psychology
Page: 718
View: 1399

Continue Reading →

With insight and wit, Robert J. Richards focuses on the development of evolutionary theories of mind and behavior from their first distinct appearance in the eighteenth century to their controversial state today. Particularly important in the nineteenth century were Charles Darwin's ideas about instinct, reason, and morality, which Richards considers against the background of Darwin's personality, training, scientific and cultural concerns, and intellectual community. Many critics have argued that the Darwinian revolution stripped nature of moral purpose and ethically neutered the human animal. Richards contends, however, that Darwin, Herbert Spencer, and their disciples attempted to reanimate moral life, believing that the evolutionary process gave heart to unselfish, altruistic behavior. "Richards's book is now the obvious introduction to the history of ideas about mind and behavior in the nineteenth century."—Mark Ridley, Times Literary Supplement "Not since the publication of Michael Ghiselin's The Triumph of the Darwinian Method has there been such an ambitious, challenging, and methodologically self-conscious interpretation of the rise and development and evolutionary theories and Darwin's role therein."—John C. Greene, Science "His book . . . triumphantly achieves the goal of all great scholarship: it not only informs us, but shows us why becoming thus informed is essential to understanding our own issues and projects."—Daniel C. Dennett, Philosophy of Science

Sociology and the New Systems Theory

Toward a Theoretical Synthesis
Author: Kenneth D. Bailey
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791417430
Category: Social Science
Page: 372
View: 5626

Continue Reading →

After providing a review of classical theory, this book carefully sketches the chief contributions of living systems theory, social entropy theory, autopoiesis, and other approaches. It shows that these approaches are without flaws of earlier functionalism, yet they retain the breadth and integrative potential needed by mainstream theorists concerned about the threat of hyperspecialization and fragmentation within sociology.

The New Political Sociology of Science

Institutions, Networks, and Power
Author: Scott Frickel,Kelly Moore
Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
ISBN: 0299213331
Category: Science
Page: 500
View: 8552

Continue Reading →

In the twenty-first century, the production and use of scientific knowledge is more regulated, commercialized, and participatory than at any other time. The stakes in understanding those changes are high for scientist and nonscientist alike: they challenge traditional ideas of intellectual work and property and have the potential to remake legal and professional boundaries and transform the practice of research. A critical examination of the structures of power and inequality these changes hinge upon, this book explores the implications for human health, democratic society, and the environment.

Crisis in Sociology

The Need for Darwin
Author: Joseph Lopreato,Timothy Crippen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351320181
Category: Social Science
Page: 344
View: 6451

Continue Reading →

Crisis in Sociology presents a compelling portrait of sociology's current troubles and proposes a controversial remedy. In the authors' view, sociology's crisis has deep roots, traceable to the over-ambitious sweep of the discipline's founders. Generations of sociologists have failed to focus effectively on the tasks necessary to build a social science. The authors see sociology's most disabling flaw in the failure to discover even a single general law or principle. This makes it impossible to systematically organize empirical observations, guide inquiry by suggesting falsifiable hypotheses, or form the core of a genuinely cumulative body of knowledge. Absent such a theoretical tool, sociology can aspire to little more than an amorphous mass of hunches and disconnected facts. The condition engenders confusion and unproductive debate. It invites fragmentation and predation by applied social disciplines, such as business administration, criminal justice, social work, and urban studies. Even more dangerous are incursions by prestigious social sciences and by branches of evolutionary biology that constitute the frontier of the current revolution in behavioral science. Lopreato and Crippen argue that unless sociology takes into account central developments in evolutionary science, it will not survive as an academic discipline. Crisis in Sociology argues that participation in the "new social science," exemplified by thriving new fields such as evolutionary psychology, will help to build a vigorous, scientific sociology. The authors analyze research on such subjects as sex roles, social stratification, and ethnic conflict, showing how otherwise disconnected features of the sociological landscape can in fact contribute to a theoretically coherent and cumulative body of knowledge.