The Networking of Chaperones by Co-chaperones

Control of Cellular Protein Homeostasis
Author: Gregory Blatch,Adrienne Lesley Edkins
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319117319
Category: Medical
Page: 276
View: 2726

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Co-chaperones are important mediators of the outcome of chaperone assisted protein homeostasis, which is a dynamic balance between the integrated processes of protein folding, degradation and translocation. The Networking of Chaperones by Co-chaperones describes how the function of the major molecular chaperones is regulated by a cohort of diverse non-client proteins, known as co-chaperones. The second edition includes the current status of the field and descriptions of a number of novel co-chaperones that have been recently identified. This new edition has a strong focus on the role of co-chaperones in human disease and as putative drug targets. The book will be a resource for both newcomers and established researchers in the field of cell stress and chaperones, as well as those interested in cross-cutting disciplines such as cellular networks and systems biology.

Regulation of Heat Shock Protein Responses


Author: Alexzander A A Asea,Punit Kaur
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319747150
Category: Medical
Page: 472
View: 6881

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This books provides the most up-to-date reviews on current advances in our understanding of the regulation of heat shock protein responses. Key basic scientists and clinical research laboratories from major universities, academic medical centers and pharmaceutical companies around the world have contributed chapters that review present research activity and importantly project this field into the future. For easy readability, the book is sub divided into four sections, including, Section I - HSP and Stress Responses; Section II - Chaperone Functions of HSP; Section III - HSP in Human Diseases; Section IV - Prognosis & Diagnosis of HSP. The book is a must read for researchers involved in biomedical research, drug discovery and design to improve human health.

The Hsp70 Molecular Chaperone Machines


Author: Matthias P. Mayer,Pierre Goloubinoff
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889451259
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 9110

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Members of the HSP70 family form a central hub of the molecular chaperone network, controlling protein homeostasis in prokaryotes and in the ATP-containing compartments of the eukaryotic cells. The heat-inducible form HSPA1A (HSP70), its constitutive cytosolic cognate HSPA8 (Hsc70), its endoplasmic reticulum form HSPA5 (BiP), and its mitochondrial form HSPA9 (Mortalin), as well as the more distantly related HSPHs (HSP110s), make up 1-2 % of the total mass of proteins in human cells. They use the energy of ATP-hydrolysis to prevent and forcefully revert the process of protein misfolding and aggregation during and following various stresses, presumably by working as unfoldases to lift aberrant conformers out of kinetic traps. As such, HSP70s, in cooperation with their J-domain co-chaperones and nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) and co-disaggregases, form an efficient network of cellular defenses against the accumulation of cytotoxic misfolded protein conformers, which may cause degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and aging in general. In addition to their function in repair of stress-induced damage, HSP70s fulfill many housekeeping functions, including assisting the de novo folding and maturation of proteins, driving the translocation of protein precursors across narrow membrane pores into organelles, and by controlling the oligomeric state of key regulator protein complexes involved in signal transduction and vesicular trafficking. For reasons not well understood, HSP70s are also found on the surface of some animal cells, in particular cancer cells where they may serve as specific targets for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we gathered seven mini reviews, each presenting a complementary aspect of HSP70’s structure and function in bacteria and eukaryotes, under physiological and stressful conditions. These articles highlight how, the various members of this conserved family of molecular chaperones, assisted by their various J-domain and NEF cochaperones and co-disaggregases, harness ATP hydrolysis to perform a great diversity of life-sustaining cellular functions using a similar molecular mechanism.

Foldases

Enzymes Catalyzing Protein Folding
Author: Natalya K. Nagradova
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781604563894
Category: Science
Page: 235
View: 1255

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A great deal of talent has been called upon over the past decade to try and understand the structure and the function of different types of foldases; as a result, a remarkable insight into how these enzymes work has been gained. Recently the main focus of research has begun to shift to unveiling the precise role of these folding catalysts in many different processes in which they are involved inside the cell. It is becoming increasingly clear that the cellular functions of foldases go far beyond accelerating the folding of proteins. This is undoubtedly an area where one can expect significant research efforts in the next few years. The present book summarises the current state of knowledge as to the structural and functional properties of four major types of foldases listed above. In structuring the material the author has sought to maintain a balance between historical development and current understanding, while also trying to look to the future and anticipate where the field is likely to move.

The Molecular Chaperones Interaction Networks in Protein Folding and Degradation


Author: Walid A. Houry
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493911309
Category: Science
Page: 485
View: 404

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Molecular chaperones are a fundamental group of proteins that have been identified only relatively recently. They are key components of a protein quality machinery in the cell which insures that the folding process of any newly-synthesized polypeptide chain results in the formation of a properly folded protein and that the folded protein is maintained in an active conformation throughout its functional lifetime. Molecular chaperones have been shown to play essential roles in cell viability under both normal and stress conditions. Chaperones can also assist in the unfolding and degradation of misfolded proteins and in disaggregating preformed protein aggregates. Chaperones are also involved in other cellular functions including protein translocation across membranes, vesicle fusion events, and protein secretion. In recent years, tremendous advances have been made in our understanding of the biology, biochemistry, and biophysics of function of molecular chaperones. In addition, recent technical developments in the fields of proteomics and genomics allowed us to obtain a global view of chaperone interaction networks. Finally, there is now a growing interest in the role of molecular chaperones in diseases. This book will provide a comprehensive analysis of the structure and function of the diverse systems of molecular chaperones and their role in cell stress responses and in diseases from a global network perspective. ​

The Networking of Chaperones by Co-chaperones


Author: Gregory L. Blatch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387493107
Category: Science
Page: 140
View: 1816

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The Networking of Chaperones by Co-chaperones updates the current understanding of how chaperones are regulated and networked. It is a resource for those in the specialized field of cell stress and chaperones. The book will also be of interest to those in broader cross-cutting field such as cellular networks and systems biology.

The Hsp60 Chaperonin


Author: Peter Bross
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331926088X
Category: Science
Page: 85
View: 2008

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In this unique overview of the Hsp60 chaperonin, Peter Bross addresses molecular biologists, medical research scientists and individuals interested in molecular or general biology. First, Bross discusses the basics of the Hsp60 chaperonin in terms of its structure and the molecular mechanisms determining its function. Second, the author highlights the multiple roles of Hsp60 for cellular systems and regulatory pathways, especially in connection with neurodegenerative diseases caused by Hsp60 deficiency. Finally, the author highlights controversial observations suggesting additional, non-standard functions of Hsp60 in and outside mitochondria as well as possible gaps in our understanding of the chaperonin. This volume serves as a snapshot suitable for experienced researcher working in fields related to molecular chaperones yet still accessible to researchers entering the field.

Molecular Aspects of the Stress Response: Chaperones, Membranes and Networks


Author: Peter Csermely,László Vígh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387399755
Category: Science
Page: 201
View: 1964

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This book makes a novel synthesis of the molecular aspects of the stress response and long term adaptation processes with the system biology approach of biological networks. Authored by an exciting mixture of top experts and young rising stars, it provides a comprehensive summary of the field and identifies future trends.

Cellular Trafficking of Cell Stress Proteins in Health and Disease


Author: Brian Henderson,A. Graham Pockley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400747403
Category: Medical
Page: 298
View: 4289

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Since the beginning of the 21st Century there has been a rapid increase in our understanding of the cellular trafficking mechanisms of molecular chaperones in eukaryotes and in prokaryotes. In the former, molecular chaperone trafficking can occur between the various cellular compartments, with concomitant movement of other proteins. Such events can also result in the release of molecular chaperones from cells. In bacteria, molecular chaperones are involved in the trafficking of other proteins and are themselves released into the external milieu. The increasing appreciation of the role of molecular chaperones and Protein-Folding Catalysts in the interplay between bacteria and the cells of their hosts is now an important area of research for understanding the mechanisms of infectious diseases. This volume brings together experts in the biochemistry, cellular biology, immunology and molecular biology of molecular chaperones and Protein-Folding Catalysts with a focus on the mechanisms of cellular trafficking of these proteins and the role of these variegated trafficking mechanisms in both human and animal health and disease.

Ubiquitin Family Modifiers and the Proteasome

Reviews and Protocols
Author: R. Jürgen Dohmen,Martin Scheffner
Publisher: Humana Press
ISBN: 9781617794735
Category: Science
Page: 666
View: 6706

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The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and ubiquitin-related modifiers are not only involved in cellular protein quality control but also in the regulation of many fundamental cellular processes/pathways as well as in their disease-relevant aberrations. Ubiquitin Family Modifiers and Proteasome: Reviews and Protocols presents both novel developments in UPS research and important methods related to the main recent advances in the field of ubiquitin family modifiers. Divided into five convenient sections, this volume focuses on the enzymology and substrate identification of ubiquitin family modifiers, the recognition and chain formation of these modifiers, the analysis of proteasome biogenesis and function, protein quality control, and finally the use of small molecules and strategies to study or manipulate the function of the UPS and of ubiquitin family modifiers, respectively. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and easily accessible, Ubiquitin Family Modifiers and Proteasome: Reviews and Protocols will be of great use to investigators and students engaged in both basic and applied research in life sciences.

Immunity, Tumors and Aging: The Role of HSP70


Author: Igor Malyshev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400759436
Category: Medical
Page: 141
View: 6237

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The book is dedicated to the topical area of biology and medicine and the role of stress proteins HSP70 in the regulation of intracellular protein homeostasis, signaling transduction and cell protection. The book is divided into chapters, which describe the discovery of HSP70 and its molecular structure, the mechanism of the synthesis and function in normal and damaged cells, examine the role of HSP70 in immunity, cancerogenesis, aging, Alzheimer's disease and cardiac surgery. In this book, the author looks at HSP70 as a factor which prevents the transformation of homeostasis mechanisms of intracellular proteins into a link in the pathogenesis of a disease.

The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook

A Comprehensive Guide to Biology and Laboratory Use
Author: Elizabeth H. Harris
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483288609
Category: Science
Page: 780
View: 8920

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The green alga Chlamydomonas is widely used as an experimental model system for studies in cellular and molecular biology, and in particular plant molecular biology. This book is the only single modern compendium of information on its biology and in particular its molecular biology and genetics. Included in addition to much information on the basic biology is material of a very practical nature, namely, methods for culture, preservation of cultures, preparation of media, lists of inhibitors and other additives to culture media, help with common laboratory problems such as contamination, student demonstrations, and properties of particular strains and mutants. Casual users as well as specialists will find the book to be useful in many ways. Key Features * Provides access to previously unpublished data from genetic analysis * Provides descriptions of mutant strains * Depicts summary tables comparing properties of different species and their mutant strains * Explains detailed methods for laboratory procedures of general utility * Furnishes comparisons of culture media * Presents lists of inhibitors, mutagens, and other additives to culture media * Assists with common laboratory problems such as contamination and storage of strains * Demonstrates protocols for laboratory demonstrations available for undergraduate teaching.

The Chaperonopathies

Diseases with Defective Molecular Chaperones
Author: Alberto J.L. Macario,Everly Conway de Macario,Francesco Cappello
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400746679
Category: Medical
Page: 116
View: 3873

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This Brief provides a concise review of chaperonopathies, i.e., diseases in which molecular chaperones play an etiologic-pathogenic role. Introductory chapters deal with the chaperoning system and chaperoning teams and networks, HSP-chaperone subpopulations, the locations and functions of chaperones, and chaperone genes in humans. Other chapters present the chaperonopathies in general, including their molecular features and mechanistic classification into by defect, excess, or mistake. Subsequent chapters discuss the chaperonopathies in more detail, focusing on their distinctive characteristics: primary or secondary; quantitative and/or qualitative; structural and hereditary or acquired; genetic polymorphisms; gene dysregulation; age-related; associated with cancer, chronic inflammatory conditions, and autoimmune diseases. The interconnections between the chaperoning and the immune systems in cancer development, chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, and ageing are outlined, which leads to a discussion on the future prospects of chaperonotherapy. The latter may consist of chaperone gene and protein replacement/supplementation in cases of deficiency and of gene or protein blocking when the chaperone actively promotes disease. The last chapter presents the extracellular chaperones and details on how the chaperone Hsp60 is secreted into the extracellular space and, thus, appears in the blood of cancer patients with potential to participate in carcinogenesis and chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Chaperones as clinically useful biomarkers are mentioned when pertinent. Likewise, guidelines for clinical evaluation of chaperonopathies and for their histopathological and molecular identification are provided throughout. The book also provides extensive bibliography organized by chapter and topic with comments.

Prokaryotic Cytoskeletons

Filamentous Protein Polymers Active in the Cytoplasm of Bacterial and Archaeal Cells
Author: Jan Löwe,Linda A. Amos
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331953047X
Category: Science
Page: 450
View: 9330

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This book describes the structures and functions of active protein filaments, found in bacteria and archaea, and now known to perform crucial roles in cell division and intra-cellular motility, as well as being essential for controlling cell shape and growth. These roles are possible because the cytoskeletal and cytomotive filaments provide long range order from small subunits. Studies of these filaments are therefore of central importance to understanding prokaryotic cell biology. The wide variation in subunit and polymer structure and its relationship with the range of functions also provide important insights into cell evolution, including the emergence of eukaryotic cells. Individual chapters, written by leading researchers, review the great advances made in the past 20-25 years, and still ongoing, to discover the architectures, dynamics and roles of filaments found in relevant model organisms. Others describe one of the families of dynamic filaments found in many species. The most common types of filament are deeply related to eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins, notably actin and tubulin that polymerise and depolymerise under the control of nucleotide hydrolysis. Related systems are found to perform a variety of roles, depending on the organisms. Surprisingly, prokaryotes all lack the molecular motors associated with eukaryotic F-actin and microtubules. Archaea, but not bacteria, also have active filaments related to the eukaryotic ESCRT system. Non-dynamic fibres, including intermediate filament-like structures, are known to occur in some bacteria.. Details of known filament structures are discussed and related to what has been established about their molecular mechanisms, including current controversies. The final chapter covers the use of some of these dynamic filaments in Systems Biology research. The level of information in all chapters is suitable both for active researchers and for advanced students in courses involving bacterial or archaeal physiology, molecular microbiology, structural cell biology, molecular motility or evolution. Chapter 3 of this book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.

Protein Homeostasis


Author: Richard I. Morimoto,Dennis J. Selkoe,Jeffery W. Kelly
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781936113064
Category: Science
Page: 349
View: 6503

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Proper expression, folding, transport, and clearance of proteins is critical for cell function. Chaperones and enzymes that posttranslationally assist newly synthesized proteins help ensure that they fold correctly or are degraded. Translocation machineries, proteasomes, and autophagic activities help to localize and degrade proteins as necessary. Stress and aging can cause such mechanisms to become dysfunctional or overloaded, resulting in the accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins a feature of numerous neurodegenerative conditions. Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology covers the entire spectrum of protein homeostasis in healthy cells and the diseases that result when control of protein production, protein folding, and protein degradation goes awry. The contributors examine the physical biochemistry of protein folding and the roles of the various cellular compartments in protein quality control, as well as approaches for ameliorating protein misfolding and aggregation diseases. Including discussions of specific disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and prion diseases, this book is an essential reference for not only molecular and cellular biologists but also medical scientists wishing to understand the pathological consequences of and potential therapies for protein homeostasis deficiencies in common human diseases.

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


Author: David L. Nelson,Albert L. Lehninger,Michael M. Cox
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 071677108X
Category: Science
Page: 1158
View: 7411

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Authors Dave Nelson and Mike Cox combine the best of the laboratory and best of the classroom, introducing exciting new developments while communicating basic principles of biochemistry.

Encyclopedia of Cell Biology


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123947960
Category: Science
Page: 3008
View: 6558

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The Encyclopedia of Cell Biology offers a broad overview of cell biology, offering reputable, foundational content for researchers and students across the biological and medical sciences. This important work includes 285 articles from domain experts covering every aspect of cell biology, with fully annotated figures, abundant illustrations, videos, and references for further reading. Each entry is built with a layered approach to the content, providing basic information for those new to the area and more detailed material for the more experienced researcher. With authored contributions by experts in the field, the Encyclopedia of Cell Biology provides a fully cross-referenced, one-stop resource for students, researchers, and teaching faculty across the biological and medical sciences. Fully annotated color images and videos for full comprehension of concepts, with layered content for readers from different levels of experience Includes information on cytokinesis, cell biology, cell mechanics, cytoskeleton dynamics, stem cells, prokaryotic cell biology, RNA biology, aging, cell growth, cell Injury, and more In-depth linking to Academic Press/Elsevier content and additional links to outside websites and resources for further reading A one-stop resource for students, researchers, and teaching faculty across the biological and medical sciences

Heat Shock Factor


Author: Akira Nakai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431558527
Category: Science
Page: 301
View: 6364

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This book presents a large amount of information related to the heat shock response and heat shock factor (HSF), describes core observations about molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological roles, and provides fundamental concepts on the basis of information from diverse aspects. This adaptive response to high temperature or protein misfolding is a fundamental mechanism to maintain the capacity of protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, and is evolutionally conserved among all living organisms, including bacteria and humans, on the earth. Furthermore, physiological and pathological roles of HSF have been extensively studied in fruit fly, worm, and mouse models. It has been revealed that HSF plays roles in development of the brain, reproductive and sensory organs, and in ageing, inflammation, and circadian rhythm. Analysis of the mechanisms have uncovered that HSF exerts a wide range of effects on gene expression and epigenetic status on the whole genome. Moreover, loss or gain of HSF function is also closely related to protein-misfolding diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric diseases, heart diseases, and cancers. Therefore, HSF is now thought to be a promising therapeutic target for treatment of these refractory diseases.div For undergraduate students, this is a highly understandable source of information on heart shock response and HSF, covering the basis of HSF biology, the physiological role of HSF, and disease associated with HSF function. This book not only serves as a guide to the heat shock response and HSF for students and young researchers in other fields, but also is a cornerstone for future work in the field related to the heat shock response and HSF.

Heat Shock Protein-Based Therapies


Author: Alexzander A. A. Asea,Naif N. Almasoud,Sunil Krishnan,Punit Kaur
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319172115
Category: Medical
Page: 385
View: 3393

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The book Heat Shock Protein-Based Therapies provides the most up-to-date review on new heat shock protein-based mechanisms used in the therapy and treatment of various human disorders and diseases, including cancer, muscular atrophy, neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis) and infectious diseases (HIV, periodontal disease). Written by leaders in the field of heat shock protein research, the chapters systematically and in a step wise fashion takes the reader through the fascinating sequence of events by which mechanisms dependent on heat shock proteins are targeted. The chapters also provide answers as to HSP biological significance to the host. This book is a must read for graduate and postgraduates in the field of Drug Development, Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical Industry, Phytomedicine, Biology (plant and mammal), Biochemistry (pro- and eukaryotic), Oncology, Immunology, Microbiology, Exercise Medicine, Physiology, Inflammatory diseases, Autoimmunity, Pharmacology and Pathology.

Plant Proteomics


Author: Jozef Samaj,Jay J. Thelen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540726179
Category: Science
Page: 369
View: 8212

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Plant Proteomics highlights rapid progress in this field, with emphasis on recent work in model plant species, sub-cellular organelles, and specific aspects of the plant life cycle such as signaling, reproduction and stress physiology. Several chapters present a detailed look at diverse integrated approaches, including advanced proteomic techniques combined with functional genomics, bioinformatics, metabolomics and molecular cell biology, making this book a valuable resource for a broad spectrum of readers.