The Logistics and Politics of the British Campaigns in the Middle East, 1914-22


Author: Kristian Coates Ulrichsen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230297609
Category: History
Page: 262
View: 2994

Continue Reading →

An examination of how the logistical demands of the British military campaigns in Palestine and Mesopotamia led to a more intrusive and authoritarian form of imperial control in 1917-18. This early example of Western military intervention in the Middle East provoked a localized backlash in 1919-20 whose effects continue to be felt today.

Britain and a Widening War, 1915-1916

From Gallipoli to the Somme
Author: Dr Peter Liddle
Publisher: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 1473867193
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 9064

Continue Reading →

In a series of concise, thought-provoking chapters the authors summarize – and make accessible – the latest scholarship on the middle years of the Great War – 1915 and 1916 – and cover fundamental issues that are rarely explored outside the specialist journals. Their work is an important contribution to advancing understanding of Britain’s role in the war, and it will be essential reading for anyone who is keen to keep up with the fresh research and original interpretation that is transforming our insight into the impact of the global conflict. The principal battles and campaigns are reconsidered from a new perspective, but so are more general topics such as military leadership, the discord between Britain’s politicians and generals, conscientious objection and the part played by the Indian Army. The longer-term effects of the war are also considered – facial reconstruction, developments in communication, female support for men on active service, grief and bereavement, the challenge to religious belief, battlefield art, and the surviving vestiges of the war. Peter Liddle and his fellow contributors have compiled a volume that will come to be seen as a landmark in the field. Contributors: Andrew Bamji Clive Barrett Nick Bosanquet James Cooke Emily Glass Graeme Gooday Adrian Gregory Andrea Hetherington Robert Johnson Spencer Jones Peter Liddle Juliet Macdonald Jessica Meyer David Millichope NS Nash William Philpott James Pugh Duncan Redford Nicholas Saunders Gary Sheffield Jack Sheldon John Spencer Kapil Subramanian

British Policy and Strategy Towards Norway, 1941-45


Author: Chris Mann
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 0230210228
Category: History
Page: 299
View: 4551

Continue Reading →

After the German occupation of 1940, Britain was forced to reassess its relationship with Norway, a country largely on the periphery of the main theatres of the Second World War. Christopher Mann examines British military policy towards Norway, concentrating on the commando raids, deception planning and naval operations.

The Great War and the Middle East


Author: Rob Johnson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191506311
Category: History
Page: 400
View: 3912

Continue Reading →

The First World War in the Middle East swept away five hundred years of Ottoman domination. It ushered in new ideologies and radicalised old ones - from Arab nationalism and revolutionary socialism to impassioned forms of atavistic Islamism. It created heroic icons, like the enigmatic Lawrence of Arabia or the modernizing Atatürk, and destroyed others. And it completely re-drew the map of the region, forging a host of new nation states, including Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia - all of them (with the exception of Turkey) under the 'protection' of the victor powers, Britain and France. For many, the self-serving intervention of these powers in the region between 1914 and 1919 is the major reason for the conflicts that have raged there on and off ever since. Yet many of the most commonly accepted assertions about the First World War in the Middle East are more often stated than they are truly tested. Rob Johnson, military historian and former soldier, now seeks to put this right by examining in detail the strategic and operational course of the war in the Middle East. Johnson argues that, far from being a sideshow to the war in Europe, the Middle Eastern conflict was in fact the centre of gravity in a war for imperial domination and prestige. Moreover, contrary to another persistent myth of the First World War in the Middle East, local leaders and their forces were not simply the puppets of the Great Powers in any straightforward sense. The way in which these local forces embraced, resisted, succumbed to, disrupted, or on occasion overturned the plans of the imperialist powers for their own interests in fact played an important role in shaping the immediate aftermath of the conflict - and in laying the foundations for the troubled Middle East that we know today.

Planning Armageddon


Author: Nicholas A. Lambert
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674063066
Category: History
Page: 662
View: 2191

Continue Reading →

Before World War I, the British Admiralty conceived a plan to win rapid victory over Germany—economic warfare on an unprecedented scale. The secret strategy called for the state to exploit Britain's monopolies in banking, communications, and shipping to create an implosion of the world economic system. The plan was never fully implemented.

The Arming of Europe and the Making of the First World War


Author: David G. Herrmann
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691015958
Category: History
Page: 307
View: 4533

Continue Reading →

Europe's adoption of new 20th-century weaponry increased its land-based military power and influenced international affairs during the series of diplomatic crises that led to the First World War. Historian David Herrmann draws on documentary research in military and state archives in Germany, France, Austria, England, and Italy to provide the most complete study of this subject to date. Illus.

Insecure Gulf

The End of Certainty and the Transition to the Post-Oil Era
Author: Kristian Coates Ulrichsen
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190241578
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 6862

Continue Reading →

Insecure Gulf examines how the concept of Arabian/Persian Gulf 'security' is evolving in response to new challenges that are increasingly non-military and longer-term. Food, water and energy security, managing and mitigating the impact of environmental degradation and climate change, addressing demographic pressures and the youth bulge and reformulating structural economic deficiencies, in addition to dealing with the fallout from progressive state failure in Yemen, require a broad, global and multi-dimensional approach to Gulf security. While 'traditional' threats from Iraq, Iran, nuclear proliferation and trans-national terrorism remain robust, these new challenges to Gulf security have the potential to strike at the heart of the social contract and redistributive mechanisms that bind state and society in the Arab oil monarchies. Insecure Gulf explores the relationship between 'traditional' and 'new' security challenges and situates them within the changing political economy of the GCC states as they move toward post-oil structures of governance. It describes how regimes are anticipating and reacting to the shifting security paradigm, and contextualizes these changes within the broader political, economic, social and demographic framework. It also argues that a holistic approach to security is necessary for regimes to renew their sources of legitimacy in a globalizing world.

The British Empire and the First World War


Author: Ashley Jackson
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317374657
Category: History
Page: 480
View: 5963

Continue Reading →

The British Empire played a crucial part in the First World War, supplying hundreds of thousands of soldiers and labourers as well as a range of essential resources, from foodstuffs to minerals, mules, and munitions. In turn, many imperial territories were deeply affected by wartime phenomena, such as inflation, food shortages, combat, and the presence of large numbers of foreign troops. This collection offers a comprehensive selection of essays illuminating the extent of the Empire’s war contribution and experience, and the richness of scholarly research on the subject. Whether supporting British military operations, aiding the British imperial economy, or experiencing significant wartime effects on the home fronts of the Empire, the war had a profound impact on the colonies and their people. The chapters in this volume were originally published in Australian Historical Studies, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, First World War Studies or The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs.

The Air Campaign

Planning for Combat
Author: John A. Warden
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 1583481001
Category: History
Page: 180
View: 7604

Continue Reading →

"The Air Force staff quickly came up with an air campaign, the brainchild of Colonel John Warden, a brilliant, brash fighter pilot and a leading Air Force intellectual on the use of airpower... Warden's original plan would undergo numerous modifications…but his original concept remained the heart of the Desert Storm air war." Colin Powell Colin Powell, My American Journey Since its original publication The Air Campaign: Planning for Combat has been translated into more than a half dozen languages and is in use at military colleges throughout the world. This book would later serve as the basis for the planning of much of the Gulf War air campaign. Generals Schwarzkopf and Powell credited Col. Warden with creating the air campaign that defeated Iraq in the Gulf War. This new edition includes a new epilogue where Col. Warden has refined and extended many of the ideas presented in the original book. The most significant of these refinements is the development of the theory of the enemy as a system-which flows from the center of gravity concepts developed in the first edition.

Race to the Front

The Materiel Foundations of Coalition Strategy in the Great War
Author: Kevin D. Stubbs
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780275972998
Category: History
Page: 373
View: 9585

Continue Reading →

Traces the economic components of the trilateral struggle between the Entente, the Central Powers, and the United States to determine the outcome of the war.

The Cambridge History of the Second World War


Author: John Robert Ferris,Evan Mawdsley,R. J. B. Bosworth,Michael Geyer,Joseph A. Maiolo,J. Adam Tooze
Publisher: Cambridge History of the Secon
ISBN: 9781107101777
Category: History
Page: 2025
View: 3602

Continue Reading →

Volume 1: The military events of the Second World War have been the subject of historical debate from 1945 to the present. It mattered greatly who won, and fighting was the essential determinant of victory or defeat. In Volume 1 of 'The Cambridge History of the Second World War' a team of twenty-five leading historians offer a comprehensive and authoritative new account of the war's military and strategic history. Part I examines the military cultures and strategic objectives of the eight major powers involved. Part II surveys the course of the war in its key theatres across the world, and assesses why one side or the other prevailed there. Part III considers, in a comparative way, key aspects of military activity, including planning, intelligence, and organisation of troops and material, as well as guerrilla fighting and treatment of prisoners of war.

A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Ataturk

From Osman to Ataturk
Author: Mesut Uyar Ph.D.,Edward J. Erickson
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 031305603X
Category: History
Page: 379
View: 1717

Continue Reading →

The Ottoman Army had a significant effect on the history of the modern world and particularly on that of the Middle East and Europe. This study, written by a Turkish and an American scholar, is a revision and corrective to western accounts because it is based on Turkish interpretations, rather than European interpretations, of events. As the world's dominant military machine from 1300 to the mid-1700's, the Ottoman Army led the way in military institutions, organizational structures, technology, and tactics. In decline thereafter, it nevertheless remained a considerable force to be counted in the balance of power through 1918. From its nomadic origins, it underwent revolutions in military affairs as well as several transformations which enabled it to compete on favorable terms with the best of armies of the day. This study tracks the growth of the Ottoman Army as a professional institution from the perspective of the Ottomans themselves, by using previously untapped Ottoman source materials. Additionally, the impact of important commanders and the role of politics, as these affected the army, are examined. The study concludes with the Ottoman legacy and its effect on the Republic and modern Turkish Army. This is a study survey that combines an introductory view of this subject with fresh and original reference-level information. Divided into distinct periods, Uyar and Erickson open with a brief overview of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire and the military systems that shaped the early military patterns. The Ottoman army emerged forcefully in 1453 during the siege of Constantinople and became a dominant social and political force for nearly two hundred years following Mehmed's capture of the city. When the army began to show signs of decay during the mid-seventeenth century, successive Sultans actively sought to transform the institution that protected their power. The reforms and transformations that began frist in 1606successfully preserved the army until the outbreak of the Ottoman-Russian War in 1876. Though the war was brief, its impact was enormous as nationalistic and republican strains placed increasing pressure on the Sultan and his army until, finally, in 1918, those strains proved too great to overcome. By 1923, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk emerged as the leader of a unified national state ruled by a new National Parliament. As Uyar and Erickson demonstrate, the old army of the Sultan had become the army of the Republic, symbolizing the transformation of a dying empire to the new Turkish state make clear that throughout much of its existence, the Ottoman Army was an effective fighting force with professional military institutions and organizational structures.

Two Roads to War

The French and British Air Arms from Versailles to Dunkirk
Author: Robin Higham
Publisher: Naval Institute Press
ISBN: 161251085X
Category: History
Page: 448
View: 6394

Continue Reading →

Two Roads to 1940 is a comparative study of the French and British air arms, from 1918 to 10 May 1940. Higham seeks the answer to the question “Why was the Armée de l’Air defeated in June 1940 whereas the Royal Air Force won the Battle Over Britain in September?” To reach a conclusion, the structure, the men and matériel, the government, and the economic infrastructure were analyzed. The story reveals that the French, dominated by the Armée de l’Terre, was hypnotized by “1918”; in contrast, the independent RAF evolved in the interwar years into a sophisticated, scientifically based force, which got the Air Defence of Great Britain (1924-1936) ready, was supported by government practices and consistency, as well as the necessary technical support for Fighter Command (1936-). Thus in 1940 the RAF could meet the Luftwaffe challenge. But the RAF also suffered from three major errors; no Air Officer Commander-in-Chief to control all the air commands, the almost fatal miscalculations of the power of Bomber Command, and the Army Ordnance’s refusal to develop the .50-caliber machine-gun instead of the .303. Serious historians and buffs should find the story salutary, as well as a detailed explanation of why air forces fail

State, Society and Mobilization in Europe During the First World War


Author: John Horne
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521522663
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 2548

Continue Reading →

This volume examines political and cultural mobilisation in the face of industrialised mass death during the First World War. Comparing Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary, it generates arguments on mobilisation and 'total war' which have wider relevance. It explores 'national ideals' which cast the war as a crusade, the inclusive 'self-mobilisation' of sectional identities and private organisations behind national efforts, and the exclusion of suspect groups (the 'enemy within') from the mobilisation process. It also highlights the importance, and difficulty, of assessing the limits of mobilisation as well as the differing capacities of the state to sustain it, factors related to prior degrees of national integration and political legitimacy. Mobilisation in this sense was an important factor which determined the outcome and legacy of the war.

Hitler's Pre-emptive War

The Battle for Norway, 1940
Author: Henrik O. Lunde
Publisher: Casemate Publishers
ISBN: 1932033920
Category: History
Page: 590
View: 2282

Continue Reading →

In this thorough examination of one of history's revolutionary campaigns--the battle for Norway--Henrik Lunde, a native Norwegian and a former U.S. Special Operations colonel, has written perhaps the most objective account to date of a campaign in which 20th century military innovation found its first fertile playing field.

With Our Backs to the Wall


Author: David Stevenson
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674063198
Category: History
Page: 752
View: 8739

Continue Reading →

Why did World War I end with a whimper—an arrangement between two weary opponents to suspend hostilities? Why did the Allies reject the option of advancing into Germany and taking Berlin? Most histories of the Great War focus on the avoidability of its beginning. This book focuses on Germany’s inconclusive defeat and its ominous ramifications.

The Plan That Broke the World

The "Schlieffen Plan" and World War I
Author: William D. O'Neil
Publisher: William D. O'Neil
ISBN: 1481955853
Category: History
Page: 204
View: 4665

Continue Reading →

As July turned to August in 1914, all the Great Powers of Europe mobilized their armies and then went to war with one another. It would take more than 50 months for peace to return, and the better part of a century to heal many of the wounds. Germany acted only near the end of a chain of actions by other nations, but German troops moved first and set the pattern for the war. They smashed through neutral Belgium before thrusting deeply into France, coming close to knocking France out of the war, and soon were making huge inroads in Russia as well. It was a remarkable performance for an army outnumbered by its foes. Yet four years later the German Empire was swept away, its army a shell, its people starving, its government in chaos. How did the leaders of Imperial Germany come to make the decisions that committed their nation to an all-or-nothing war based on a highly risky strategy? This book explores the background of the decisions, what those who made them knew and thought, what they failed to look at and why. It explains the Prussian Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab) and the part it played in planning and preparing for war. It follows the action of August and the first part of September 1914 to show where they went wrong and how other options could have achieved Germany’s aims with far lower risk and cost. These options were realistically available and the book probes why the nation’s leaders failed to consider or rejected them. The German leaders in 1914 weren’t Hitler. They valued security over conquest and didn’t go to war to expand their empire. They weren't the first to light the fuze that led to war. They thought and acted as leaders very often do. We can understand them in terms of patterns we see all around us, patterns we even see in ourselves. Their decisions had results that were uniquely catastrophic, but the way they were reached was quite ordinary. The Plan That Broke the World explains it all briefly and crisply, in non-technical terms, drawing on the latest research. There are 35 images, many unique to this book, to illustrate specific aspects of the story. Four charts and thirteen high-quality maps, all but one drawn especially for this book, present complex information in forms that are immediately understandable. There’s no other book like it. The book Web site is whatweretheythinking.williamdoneil.com/theplanthatbroketheworld The Plan That Broke the World is a case study in the What Were They Thinking? series. The series Web site is whatweretheythinking.williamdoneil.com/