The Logistics and Politics of the British Campaigns in the Middle East, 1914-22


Author: Kristian Coates Ulrichsen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230297609
Category: History
Page: 262
View: 7135

Continue Reading →

An examination of how the logistical demands of the British military campaigns in Palestine and Mesopotamia led to a more intrusive and authoritarian form of imperial control in 1917-18. This early example of Western military intervention in the Middle East provoked a localized backlash in 1919-20 whose effects continue to be felt today.

The First World War in the Middle East


Author: Kristian Ulrichsen,Kristian Coates Ulrichsen
Publisher: Hurst & Company Limited
ISBN: 1849042748
Category: History
Page: 263
View: 2642

Continue Reading →

The First World War in the Middle East is an accessibly written military and social history of the clash of world empires in the Dardanelles, Egypt and Palestine, Mesopotamia, Persia and the Caucasus. Coates Ulrichsen demonstrates how wartime exigencies shaped the parameters of the modern Middle East, and describes and assesses the major campaigns against the Ottoman Empire and Germany involving British and imperial troops from the French and Russian Empires, as well as their Arab and Armenian allies. Also documented are the enormous logistical demands placed on host societies by the Great Powers' conduct of industrialised warfare in hostile terrain. The resulting deepening of imperial penetration, and the extension of state controls across a heterogeneous sprawl of territories, generated a powerful backlash both during and immediately after the war, which played a pivotal role in shaping national identities as the Ottoman Empire was dismembered. This is a multidimensional account of the many seemingly discrete yet interlinked campaigns that resulted in one to one and a half million casualties. It details not just their military outcome but relates them to intelligence-gathering, industrial organisation, authoritarianism and the political economy of empires at war.

Camp and Combat on the Sinai and Palestine Front

The Experience of the British Empire Soldier, 1916-18
Author: E. Woodfin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137264802
Category: History
Page: 220
View: 6885

Continue Reading →

Dunes, sandstorms, freezing crags and searing heat; these are not the usual images of World War I. For many men from all over the British Empire, this was the experience of the Great War. Based on soldiers' accounts, this book reveals the hardships and complexity of British Empire soldiers' lives in this oft-forgotten but important campaign.

Planning Armageddon


Author: Nicholas A. Lambert
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674063066
Category: History
Page: 662
View: 301

Continue Reading →

Before World War I, the British Admiralty conceived a plan to win rapid victory over Germany—economic warfare on an unprecedented scale. The secret strategy called for the state to exploit Britain's monopolies in banking, communications, and shipping to create an implosion of the world economic system. The plan was never fully implemented.

Insecure Gulf

The End of Certainty and the Transition to the Post-Oil Era
Author: Kristian Coates Ulrichsen
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190241578
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 2871

Continue Reading →

Insecure Gulf examines how the concept of Arabian/Persian Gulf 'security' is evolving in response to new challenges that are increasingly non-military and longer-term. Food, water and energy security, managing and mitigating the impact of environmental degradation and climate change, addressing demographic pressures and the youth bulge and reformulating structural economic deficiencies, in addition to dealing with the fallout from progressive state failure in Yemen, require a broad, global and multi-dimensional approach to Gulf security. While 'traditional' threats from Iraq, Iran, nuclear proliferation and trans-national terrorism remain robust, these new challenges to Gulf security have the potential to strike at the heart of the social contract and redistributive mechanisms that bind state and society in the Arab oil monarchies. Insecure Gulf explores the relationship between 'traditional' and 'new' security challenges and situates them within the changing political economy of the GCC states as they move toward post-oil structures of governance. It describes how regimes are anticipating and reacting to the shifting security paradigm, and contextualizes these changes within the broader political, economic, social and demographic framework. It also argues that a holistic approach to security is necessary for regimes to renew their sources of legitimacy in a globalizing world.

Far-flung Lines

Essays on Imperial Defence in Honour of Donald Mackenzie Schurman
Author: Greg Kennedy,Keith Neilson,Donald Mackenzie Schurman
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0714646830
Category: History
Page: 228
View: 2109

Continue Reading →

These studies show how the British Empire used its maritime supremacy to construct and maintain a worldwide defence for its imperial interests. They rebut the idea that British defence policy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was primarily concerned with the balance of power in Europe.

The Arming of Europe and the Making of the First World War


Author: David G. Herrmann
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691015958
Category: History
Page: 307
View: 7246

Continue Reading →

Europe's adoption of new 20th-century weaponry increased its land-based military power and influenced international affairs during the series of diplomatic crises that led to the First World War. Historian David Herrmann draws on documentary research in military and state archives in Germany, France, Austria, England, and Italy to provide the most complete study of this subject to date. Illus.

The Great War and the Middle East


Author: Rob Johnson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019968328X
Category: History
Page: 384
View: 7516

Continue Reading →

The First World War in the Middle East swept away five hundred years of Ottoman domination. It ushered in new ideologies and radicalised old ones - from Arab nationalism and revolutionary socialism to impassioned forms of atavistic Islamism. It created heroic icons, like the enigmatic Lawrence of Arabia or the modernizing Ataturk, and destroyed others. And it completely re-drew the map of the region, forging a host of new nation states, including Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia - all of them (with the exception of Turkey) under the 'protection' of the victor powers, Britain and France. For many, the self-serving intervention of these powers in the region between 1914 and 1919 is the major reason for the conflicts that have raged there on and off ever since. Yet many of the most commonly accepted assertions about the First World War in the Middle East are more often stated than they are truly tested. Robert Johnson, military historian and former soldier, now seeks to put this right by examining in detail the strategic and operational course of the war in the Middle East. Johnson argues that, far from being a sideshow to the war in Europe, the Middle Eastern conflict was in fact the centre of gravity in a war for imperial domination and prestige. Moreover, contrary to another persistent myth of the First World War in the Middle East, local leaders and their forces were not simply the puppets of the Great Powers in any straightforward sense. The way in which these local forces embraced, resisted, succumbed to, disrupted, or on occasion overturned the plans of the imperialist powers for their own interests in fact played an important role in shaping the immediate aftermath of the conflict - and in laying the foundations for the troubled Middle East that we know today.

Supplying War

Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton
Author: Martin van Creveld
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521546577
Category: History
Page: 313
View: 4451

Continue Reading →

Uses unpublished sources to examine the problems of transportation and administration and movement and supply, analyzing operations from a variety of wars and including a discussion of the role of logistics in high-tech warfare.

The Air Campaign

Planning for Combat
Author: John A. Warden
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 1583481001
Category: History
Page: 180
View: 4199

Continue Reading →

"The Air Force staff quickly came up with an air campaign, the brainchild of Colonel John Warden, a brilliant, brash fighter pilot and a leading Air Force intellectual on the use of airpower... Warden's original plan would undergo numerous modifications…but his original concept remained the heart of the Desert Storm air war." Colin Powell Colin Powell, My American Journey Since its original publication The Air Campaign: Planning for Combat has been translated into more than a half dozen languages and is in use at military colleges throughout the world. This book would later serve as the basis for the planning of much of the Gulf War air campaign. Generals Schwarzkopf and Powell credited Col. Warden with creating the air campaign that defeated Iraq in the Gulf War. This new edition includes a new epilogue where Col. Warden has refined and extended many of the ideas presented in the original book. The most significant of these refinements is the development of the theory of the enemy as a system-which flows from the center of gravity concepts developed in the first edition.

The British Empire and the First World War


Author: Ashley Jackson
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317374657
Category: History
Page: 480
View: 1982

Continue Reading →

The British Empire played a crucial part in the First World War, supplying hundreds of thousands of soldiers and labourers as well as a range of essential resources, from foodstuffs to minerals, mules, and munitions. In turn, many imperial territories were deeply affected by wartime phenomena, such as inflation, food shortages, combat, and the presence of large numbers of foreign troops. This collection offers a comprehensive selection of essays illuminating the extent of the Empire’s war contribution and experience, and the richness of scholarly research on the subject. Whether supporting British military operations, aiding the British imperial economy, or experiencing significant wartime effects on the home fronts of the Empire, the war had a profound impact on the colonies and their people. The chapters in this volume were originally published in Australian Historical Studies, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, First World War Studies or The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs.

With Our Backs to the Wall


Author: David Stevenson
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674063198
Category: History
Page: 752
View: 1896

Continue Reading →

Why did World War I end with a whimper—an arrangement between two weary opponents to suspend hostilities? Why did the Allies reject the option of advancing into Germany and taking Berlin? Most histories of the Great War focus on the avoidability of its beginning. This book focuses on Germany’s inconclusive defeat and its ominous ramifications.

The American Revolution 1774–1783


Author: Daniel Marston
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472810112
Category: History
Page: 96
View: 1576

Continue Reading →

The American Revolution has been characterized politically as a united political uprising of the American colonies and militarily as a guerrilla campaign of colonists against the inflexible British military establishment. Daniel Marston argues that this belief, though widespread, is a misconception. He contends that the American Revolution, in reality, created deep political divisions in the population of the Thirteen Colonies, while militarily pitting veterans of the Seven Years' War against one another, in a conflict that combined guerrilla tactics and classic eighteenth century campaign techniques on both sides. The peace treaty of 1783 that brought an end to the war marked the formal beginning of the United States of America as an independent political entity.

Pendulum Of War

Three Battles at El Alamein
Author: Niall Barr
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1446413705
Category: History
Page: 592
View: 3388

Continue Reading →

In late June 1942, the dispirited and defeated British Eighth Army was pouring back towards the tiny railway halt of El Alamein in the western desert of Egypt. Tobruk had fallen and Eighth Army had suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of Rommel's Panzerarmee Afrika. Yet just five months later, the famous bombardment opened the Eighth Army's own offensive which destroyed the Axis threat to Egypt. Explanations for the remarkable change of fortune have generally been sought in the abrasive personality of the new army commander Lieutenant-General Bernard Law Montgomery. But the long running controversies surrounding the commanders of Eighth Army - Generals Auchinleck and Montgomery - and that of their legendary opponent, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, have often been allowed to obscure the true nature of the Alamein campaign. Pendulum of War provides a vivid and fresh perspective on the fighting at El Alamein from the early desperate days of July to the final costly victory in November.

The Cambridge History of the Second World War


Author: John Robert Ferris,Evan Mawdsley,R. J. B. Bosworth,Michael Geyer,Joseph A. Maiolo,J. Adam Tooze
Publisher: Cambridge History of the Secon
ISBN: 9781107101777
Category: History
Page: 2025
View: 4801

Continue Reading →

Volume 1: The military events of the Second World War have been the subject of historical debate from 1945 to the present. It mattered greatly who won, and fighting was the essential determinant of victory or defeat. In Volume 1 of 'The Cambridge History of the Second World War' a team of twenty-five leading historians offer a comprehensive and authoritative new account of the war's military and strategic history. Part I examines the military cultures and strategic objectives of the eight major powers involved. Part II surveys the course of the war in its key theatres across the world, and assesses why one side or the other prevailed there. Part III considers, in a comparative way, key aspects of military activity, including planning, intelligence, and organisation of troops and material, as well as guerrilla fighting and treatment of prisoners of war.

A Land of Aching Hearts

The Middle East in the Great War
Author: Leila Tarazi Fawaz
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674735498
Category: History
Page: 384
View: 352

Continue Reading →

A century after the Great War, the experiences of civilians and soldiers in the Middle East during those years have faded from memory. A Land of Aching Hearts traverses ethnic, class, and national borders to recover the personal stories of those who endured this cataclysmic event, and their profound sense of sacrifices made in vain.

A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Ataturk

From Osman to Ataturk
Author: Mesut Uyar Ph.D.,Edward J. Erickson
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 031305603X
Category: History
Page: 379
View: 426

Continue Reading →

The Ottoman Army had a significant effect on the history of the modern world and particularly on that of the Middle East and Europe. This study, written by a Turkish and an American scholar, is a revision and corrective to western accounts because it is based on Turkish interpretations, rather than European interpretations, of events. As the world's dominant military machine from 1300 to the mid-1700's, the Ottoman Army led the way in military institutions, organizational structures, technology, and tactics. In decline thereafter, it nevertheless remained a considerable force to be counted in the balance of power through 1918. From its nomadic origins, it underwent revolutions in military affairs as well as several transformations which enabled it to compete on favorable terms with the best of armies of the day. This study tracks the growth of the Ottoman Army as a professional institution from the perspective of the Ottomans themselves, by using previously untapped Ottoman source materials. Additionally, the impact of important commanders and the role of politics, as these affected the army, are examined. The study concludes with the Ottoman legacy and its effect on the Republic and modern Turkish Army. This is a study survey that combines an introductory view of this subject with fresh and original reference-level information. Divided into distinct periods, Uyar and Erickson open with a brief overview of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire and the military systems that shaped the early military patterns. The Ottoman army emerged forcefully in 1453 during the siege of Constantinople and became a dominant social and political force for nearly two hundred years following Mehmed's capture of the city. When the army began to show signs of decay during the mid-seventeenth century, successive Sultans actively sought to transform the institution that protected their power. The reforms and transformations that began frist in 1606successfully preserved the army until the outbreak of the Ottoman-Russian War in 1876. Though the war was brief, its impact was enormous as nationalistic and republican strains placed increasing pressure on the Sultan and his army until, finally, in 1918, those strains proved too great to overcome. By 1923, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk emerged as the leader of a unified national state ruled by a new National Parliament. As Uyar and Erickson demonstrate, the old army of the Sultan had become the army of the Republic, symbolizing the transformation of a dying empire to the new Turkish state make clear that throughout much of its existence, the Ottoman Army was an effective fighting force with professional military institutions and organizational structures.