The Limits of Free Will


Author: Paul Russell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190627603
Category: Philosophy
Page: 312
View: 5700

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The Limits of Free Will presents influential articles by Paul Russell concerning free will and moral responsibility. The problems arising in this field of philosophy, which are deeply rooted in the history of the subject, are also intimately related to a wide range of other fields, such as law and criminology, moral psychology, theology, and, more recently, neuroscience. These articles were written and published over a period of three decades, although most have appeared in the past decade. Among the topics covered: the challenge of skepticism; moral sentiment and moral capacity; necessity and the metaphysics of causation; practical reason; free will and art; fatalism and the limits of agency; moral luck, and our metaphysical attitudes of optimism and pessimism. Some essays are primarily critical in character, presenting critiques and commentary on major works or contributions in the contemporary scene. Others are mainly constructive, aiming to develop and articulate a distinctive account of compatibilism. The general theory advanced by Russell, which he describes as a form of "critical compatibilism", rejects any form of unqualified or radical skepticism; but it also insists that a plausible compatibilism has significant and substantive implications about the limits of agency and argues that this licenses a metaphysical attitude of (modest) pessimism on this topic. While each essay is self-standing, there is nevertheless a core set of themes and issues that unite and link them together. The collection is arranged and organized in a format that enables the reader to appreciate and recognize these links and core themes.

Human Nature and the Limits of Darwinism


Author: Whitley R.P. Kaufman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137592885
Category: Philosophy
Page: 222
View: 9505

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This book compares two competing theories of human nature: the more traditional theory espoused in different forms by centuries of western philosophy and the newer, Darwinian model. In the traditional view, the human being is a hybrid being, with a lower, animal nature and a higher, rational or “spiritual” component. The competing Darwinian account does away with the idea of a higher nature and attempts to provide a complete reduction of human nature to the evolutionary goals of survival and reproduction. Whitley Kaufman presents the case that the traditional conception, regardless of one's religious views or other beliefs, provides a superior account of human nature and culture. We are animals, but we are also rational animals. Kaufman explores the most fundamental philosophical questions as they relate to this debate over human nature—for example: Is free will an illusion? Is morality a product of evolution, with no objective basis? Is reason merely a tool for promoting reproductive success? Is art an adaptation for attracting mates? Is there any higher meaning or purpose to human life? Human Nature and the Limits of Darwinism aims to assess the competing views of human nature and present a clear account of the issues on this most pressing of questions. It engages in a close analysis of the numerous recent attempts to explain all human aims in terms of Darwinian processes and presents the arguments in support of the traditional conception of human nature.

Scham, Schuld und Notwendigkeit

Eine Wiederbelebung antiker Begriffe der Moral
Author: Bernard Williams
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3050077174
Category: Philosophy
Page: 232
View: 3325

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Wie aktuell ist die Antike? Können wir Modernen von Homer etwas lernen und können wir mit Hilfe der antiken Tragödien einige tiefsitzende Mißverständnisse unserer Zeit von uns abschütteln? Auf diese Fragen antwortet Bernard Williams in einer faszinierenden Studie, die als sein Hauptwerk gilt, indem er insbesondere die antike Literatur von einseitigen modernen Deutungen befreit. Die Antike ist uns nicht nur viel näher als wir glauben, sie verfügt auch über Begriffe, die unser moralisches Selbstverständnis und die damit verbundenen unausweichlichen Konflikte besser beschreiben als unsere eigenen Begriffe.

Jonathan Edwards and the Limits of Enlightenment Philosophy


Author: Leon Chai
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195353112
Category: History
Page: 192
View: 3776

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Jonathan Edwards has most often been considered in the context of the Puritanism of New England. In many ways, however, he was closer to the thinkers of the European Enlightenment. In this book. Leon Chai explores that connection, analyzing Edwards' thought in light of a number of the issues that preoccupied such Enlightenment figures as Locke, Descartes, Malebranche, and Leibniz. The book comprises three parts, each of which begins with a detailed analysis of a crucial passage from a classic Enlightenment text, and then turns to a major theological work of Jonathan Edwards' in which the same issue is explored.

The Hateful and the Obscene

Studies in the Limits of Free Expression
Author: L. W. Sumner
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 9780802080837
Category: Law
Page: 275
View: 1028

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In a series of landmark decisions since 1990, Canadian courts have shaped a distinctive approach to the regulation of obscenity, hate literature, and child pornography. Missing from the debate, however, has been any attempt to determine whether the legal status quo can be justified by reference to a framework of moral/political principles. The Hateful and the Obscene is intended to fill that gap. L.W. Sumner brings philosophical depth and theoretical rigour to some of the most important and difficult questions concerning free expression. Building on a framework set out by J.S. Mill - that a legal restriction of expression is justified only when the expression in question is harmful to others and when the benefits of the restriction will exceed its costs - Sumner shows how the Canadian courts have replicated Mill's framework in their interpretation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Hateful and the Obscene is a compelling interpretation of freedom of expression that combines serious philosophical thought with a focus on Canadian law, thus maintaining the breadth to deal with both obscenity and hate literature.

Augustine and the Limits of Virtue


Author: James Wetzel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316582469
Category: Religion
Page: N.A
View: 7310

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Augustine's moral psychology was one of the richest in late antiquity, and in this book James Wetzel evaluates its development, indicating that the insights offered by Augustine on free-will have been prevented from receiving full appreciation as the result of an anachronistic distinction between theology and philosophy. He shows that it has been commonplace to divide Augustine's thought into earlier and later phases, the former being more philosophically informed than the latter. Wetzel's contention is that this division is less pronounced than it has been made out to be. The author shows that, while Augustine clearly acknowledges his differences with philosophy, he never loses his fascination with the Stoic concepts of happiness and virtue, and of the possibility of their attainment by human beings. This fascination is seen by Wetzel to extend to Augustine's writings on grace, where freedom and happiness are viewed as a recovery of virtue. The notorious dismissal of pagan virtue in 'The City of God' is part of Augustine's family quarrel with philosophers, not a rejection of philosophy per se. Augustine the theologian is thus seen to be a Platonist philosopher with a keen sense of the psychology of moral struggle.

Time, Will, and Mental Process


Author: Jason W. Brown
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0585346542
Category: Medical
Page: 257
View: 2939

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In this volume, distinguished neurologist Jason W. Brown extends the microgenetic theory of the mind by offering a new approach to the problem of time and free will. Brown bases his work on a unitary process model of brain and behavior. He examines the problem of subjective time and free will, the experiential present, the nature of intentionality, and the creative properties of physical growth and mental process.

Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?


Author: Immanuel Kant
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3954552043
Category: Philosophy
Page: 60
View: 4386

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Immanuel Kant verfasste seinen bahnbrechenden Essay 1784 für die »Berlinische Monatsschrift«. Mit dem berühmten ersten Satz »Aufklärung ist der Ausgang des Menschen aus seiner selbst verschuldeten Unmündigkeit« formulierte Kant dabei die bis heute gültige Definition der Aufklärung, mit der im eigentliche Sinne die Moderne begann. Neben dem Aufsatz enthält der Band die ebenfalls für die Aufklärung zentralen Texte »Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht« und »Was heißt: Sich im Denken orientieren?«

Anleitung zum Müßiggang


Author: Tom Hodgkinson
Publisher: Kein & Aber AG
ISBN: 3954030403
Category: Psychology
Page: 382
View: 6398

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Tom Hodgkinson weiß, warum selbstvergessene Angler die größten Karpfen fangen. Er weiß, wie sich die Bürotoilette umfunktionieren läßt, um einen kurzen Mittagsschlaf zu ermöglichen. Und er weiß, dass René Descartes sein »cogito ergo sum« nicht am Schreibtisch, sondern im Bett erdacht hat. Hodgkinson ist nämlich Chefredakteur der Zeitschrift »The Idler« und damit Experte für alles, was mit dem Schlaraffenleben zu tun hat. »Anleitung zum Müßiggang« ist gleichzeitig eine liebevoll recherchierte Kulturgeschichte und eine praktische Anleitung zum Müßiggang. Und natürlich ist ein Buch, das zur Faulheit aufruft, unweigerlich politisch: Eine Gesellschaftskritik, die, obgleich amüsant und ironisch überspitzt, durchaus ernstgenommen werden will. Hodgkinson tritt für mehr Produktivität durch entspanntere Arbeit ein und plädiert für einen gelassenen Umgang mit der Arbeitslosigkeit. Er hat ein Herz für Streiks, für Träumer, Absinth und Walter Benjamin. Von Konsumkapitalismus, Weckern und protestantischer Pflichtethik á la Thomas Edison hingegen hält er nichts. Hodgkinsons Buch ist eine Fundgrube für kuriose Zitate und Anekdoten aus der Geistesgeschichte. Er führt Lessing und Dr. Johnson ebenso ins Feld wie vergessene viktorianische Humoristen und obskure Punkmusiker, und das alles, ohne je die chronologische Struktur des Buchs aus den Augen zu verlieren. Die folgt nämlich den Stunden des Tages, die, eine jede für sich, besondere Herausforderungen an den Faulenzer stellen: Das morgendliche Aufstehen (oder Nicht-Aufstehen), die Frühstückspause, das lange Mittagessen, das Pfeiferauchen, das Trinken - sogar Mond und Sternen ist ein eigenes Kapitel gewidmet, bis dann im Morgengrauen der letzten Kapitel wieder die Vögel zwitschern.

Die rothaarige Frau

Roman
Author: Orhan Pamuk
Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
ISBN: 3446257683
Category: Fiction
Page: 272
View: 7612

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Als er die Schauspielerin zum ersten Mal im Theaterzelt sieht, ist Cem nur der einfache Lehrling des Brunnenbauers Murat. Sie ist schön, ihr rotes Haar leuchtet wie Feuer. Je mehr der Lehrling sich zu der Rothaarigen hingezogen fühlt, desto mehr entfremdet er sich von Meister Murat, der für ihn wie ein Vater geworden war. Als ein schrecklicher Unfall passiert, flieht Cem nach Istanbul. Jahrzehnte später kehrt er an jenen Brunnen zurück, wo er etwas Ungeheures entdeckt. – Orhan Pamuk erzählt mit klassischer Wucht eine Geschichte von Vätern und Söhnen, von Liebe und Verrat, von Schuld und Sühne in der Türkei, einem Land, das noch immer zwischen Tradition und Moderne zerrissen ist.

Die Verfassung der Freiheit


Author: Friedrich August von Hayek
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161486289
Category: Social Science
Page: 575
View: 6048

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English summary: In the first part of what is probably his most significant work, Nobel Prize winner Friedrich A. von Hayek provides a comprehensive systematic description of the fundamental principles of a liberal social philosophy which has formed the basis for the development of European civilization in the last centuries. In the second part of the book, the author deals with the origin of the rule of law and its significance for safeguarding personal freedom. In the third part, Hayek shows, using relevant examples, how important principles of the rule of law have been violated with the emergence of the welfare state and how this could lead to the destruction of personal freedom. German description: Wenn alte Wahrheiten ihren Einfluss auf das Denken der Menschen behalten sollen, mussen sie von Zeit zu Zeit in der Sprache und den Begriffen der nachfolgenden Generationen neu formuliert werden. (Hayek). Dies unternimmt F. A. von Hayek in der Verfassung der Freiheit, die nunmehr in 4. Auflage als Band B 3 der deutschen Ausgabe des Hayekschen Werks ( Gesammelte Schriften ) erscheint. Dieses wohl bedeutendste Werk des Nobelpreistragers bietet im ersten Teil eine umfassende systematische Darstellung der wesentlichen Prinzipien einer freiheitlichen Sozialphilosophie - der Grundlage fur die Entwicklung der europaischen Zivilisation in den letzten Jahrhunderten. Der zweite Teil befasst sich mit der Entstehung der rechtsstaatlichen Grundsatze - der rule of law - und ihrer Bedeutung fur die Sicherung der personlichen Freiheit. Im dritten Teil zeigt Hayek, wie mit dem Aufkommen des Wohlfahrtsstaates wichtige rechtsstaatliche Prinzipien verletzt werden und damit die personliche Freiheit zerstort zu werden droht. Dies verdeutlicht er anhand aufschlussreicher Beispiele aus den Bereichen Gewerkschaften und Beschaftigung, soziale Sicherheit, Besteuerung und Umverteilung, Landwirtschaft und Naturschatze, Erziehung und Forschung.

The Sovereignty of God in Salvation

Biblical Essays
Author: E. Earle Ellis
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 0567606643
Category: Religion
Page: 142
View: 7522

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In his new work The Sovereignty of God in Salvation E. Earle Ellis sets out to explore God's sovereign purpose both in individual salvation and in the salvation history within which the Bible has been authored, transmitted, interpreted and communicated. In the process he touches on such themes as the nature of free will; the manifestation God's sovereignty in the life and ministry of the Apostle Paul; the presence of God's hand in the transmission and interpretation of the biblical texts; and new perspectives on both the modern inclination to emphasise Paul's use of Graeco-Roman rhetoric as well as the contemporary reception of the biblical message. The sovereignty of God forms an overarching theme throughout.

Judging and Understanding

Essays on Free Will, Narrative, Meaning and the Ethical Limits of Condemnation
Author: Pedro Alexis Tabensky
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351154788
Category: Philosophy
Page: 300
View: 5683

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This collection embodies a debate that explores what could be characterised as the tension between judging and understanding. It seems that after a particular threshold of understanding of the basic facts leading to a given moral transgression, the more we understand the context and motives leading to crime, the more likely we are to abstain from harsh retributive judgement. Martha Nussbaum?s essay ?Equity and Mercy?, included in this collection, is the philosophical starting point of this debate, and Bernhard Schlink?s novel The Reader - a novel exploring the tension between judging and understanding, among other things - is used as a case study by most contributors. Some contributors, situated at one end of the spectrum of views represented in this collection, argue for the wholesale elimination of our practices of retribution in the light of the tension between judging and understanding, while contributors on the other side of the spectrum argue that the tension does not actually exist. A whole array of intermediate positions, including Nussbaum?s, are represented. This anthology is comprised of nearly all specially commissioned essays bringing together work dealing with the moral, metaphysical, epistemological and phenomenological issues required for properly understanding whether in fact there is a tension between judging and understanding and what the moral and legal implications may be of accepting or rejecting this tension.

Die Grenzen des Wachstums

Bericht des Club of Rome zur Lage der Menschheit
Author: Dennis Meadows,Donella H. Meadows
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Economic history
Page: 183
View: 8099

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