Author: Abdurahman M. Abdullahi (Baadiyow)
Publisher: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd
ISBN: 1912234033
Category: Reference
Page: 430
View: 9238

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There is very little scholarship on the history of political Islam in Somalia that takes seriously both historical forces as well as the very ideas and internal organization of the Islamic movements. This book reconstructs the history of modern and moderate Islamic movement in Somalia. It covers 50 years of turbulent Somali history, in which civilian governments, military dictatorships, armed opposition factions, and Islamic movements were interacting and shaping the Somali history. It divides Islamic development in Somalia into four historical periods: the Islamic revival (1800-1950), the Islamic consciousness ( 1950-1967), the Islamic awakening (1967-1978) and the Islamic movements (1978-2000).The book provides a detailed and empirically rich narrative of the Islah Movement as a case study which has influenced and made an impact on other Islamist organizations in recent decades. The author provides an insider's view of the Islamic Movement being one of the leaders of Islah.

Recovering the Somali State

The Role of Islam, Islamism and Transitional Justice
Author: Abdullahi, Abdurahman
Publisher: Adonis and Abbey Publishers
ISBN: 1909112623
Category: Religion
Page: 278
View: 8683

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Somalia is often used as an emblem of a collapsed state. This is somewhat of a paradox given that in previous decades the country was one of the most unified states in Africa and one of the first democracies on the continent. In the last three decades however the country has faced enormous challenges including civil wars and extremism in the name of Islam. The book - probably one of the first to link Islam, Islamism and Transitional Justice with the Somali State recovery project - offers unique analyses of these themes and argues that recovering the Somali state will largely be contingent upon the skillful reconciliation between tradition and modernity, Islam and state and between the secular and the sacred.

Somalia between Jihad and Restoration

Author: Shaul Shay
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412812100
Category: Political Science
Page: 213
View: 6018

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Since 1991 Somalia has been defined as a failing state, one that lacks an effective central government. The vacuum of power in Somalia, in turn, enabled Al Qaida and other radical Islamic organizations to find allies and refuge in there. Shay’s account shows how the presence of radical Islamic entities in the area, alongside local problems and conflicts, has turned Somalia into a focal point in the global war against terror. On June 5, 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) declared victory in its struggle against the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter Terrorism (ARPCT), a coalition of U.S. backed warlords. Shortly after their victory announcement, the ICU implemented a Taliban-style radical Islamic rule. The rule of the ICU was brief. In December 2006 they were defeated by a coalition of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Ethiopian forces. In spite of the ICU’s defeat, internal conflict in Somalia between the ICU and the interim government of Somalia (TFG), backed by Ethiopia, is still far from concluded. Shay shows how the internal conflict may spill over into other nations, creating a larger regional theater of Jihad. He also provides some ideas on how to prevent the foundation of a new radical Islamic state that could become a haven of the Islamic terror in the Horn of Africa. This volume is instructive in demonstrating the consequences of destabilization. It will be of interest to foreign policy analysts, regional specialists, and strategists in the war against terror.

The Root Causes of the United Nations’ Failure in Somalia

The Role of Neighboring Countries in the Somali Crisis
Author: Othman O. Mahmood
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 1462053947
Category: Antiques & Collectibles
Page: 148
View: 8740

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When the Somali crisis broke out in the 1990s and the Somali central government collapsed, the United Nations made several attempts to mediate the conflicting parties. The crisis reached its highest climax, leading to the successful US-led Operation Restore Hope. Unfortunately, when the leadership of the operation was transferred to the United Nations, the UN-led intervention failed miserably leading to further unrest and destabilization. The Root Causes of the United Nations’ Failure in Somalia, examines the events of the Somali crisis and dissects the reasons behind the failure. Author Mahmood focuses on three crucial factors that led to this turn of events often overlooked by many other scholarly studies. One, the UN representatives lacked the knowledge and understanding of the Somali clan system and peacemaking leadership in the Somali society. Two, neighboring countries, especially Ethiopia and Kenya, fueled and manipulated Somali’s internal animosities. Three, international aid agencies had multiple layers of interests in the region and some of them had veiled interests in the continuation of the Somali crisis. Mahmood definitively shows that the United Nations had numerous golden opportunities to stabilize Somalia and reestablish governmental structures, yet still failed. The Root Causes of the United Nations’ Failure in Somalia provides a much-needed contribution to the scholarship of this critical subject.

Making Sense of Somali History

Volume 1
Author: Abdullahi, Abdurahman
Publisher: Adonis and Abbey Publishers
ISBN: 1909112798
Category: History
Page: 222
View: 2260

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In the last three decades, Somalia has been associated with such horrible terms as 'state collapse', 'civil wars', 'foreign intervention', 'warlordism', 'famine', 'piracy' and 'terrorism'. This depiction was in contradiction to its earlier images as the cradle of the human race, the kernel of ancient civilizations, the land of Punt, a homogeneous nation-state and the first democratic state in Africa. So how did things fall apart in the country? This Volume 1 of a two-volume narrative, Dr. Abdullahi explores the history of the people of Somali peninsula since ancient times, the advent of Islam and colonialism, the rise and fall of Somali nationalism and the perspectives of the Somali state collapse. The book uses a unique thematic approach and analysis to make sense of Somali history by emphasizing the responsibility of Somali political elites in creating and perpetuating the disastrous conditions in their country.

Movers and Shakers

Social Movements in Africa
Author: Stephen Ellis,Ineke Van Kessel
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004180133
Category: History
Page: 257
View: 1754

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This collection of empirical and theoretical studies of social movements in Africa is a corrective to a literature that has largely ignored that continent. It shows that Africa s social movements have distinctive features that are related to its specific history.

Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Terrorism

Author: Ken Menkhaus
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136049924
Category: History
Page: 120
View: 4369

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This work explores Somalia's state collapse and the security threats posed by Somalia's prolonged crisis. Communities are reduced to lawlessness, and the interests of commercial elites have shifted towards rule of law, but not a revived central state. Terrorists have found Somalia inhospitable, using it mainly for short-term transshipment.

Africa and International Relations in the 21st Century

Author: S. Cornelissen,F. Cheru,T. Shaw
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230355749
Category: History
Page: 248
View: 1336

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This book examines key emergent trends related to aspects of power, sovereignty, conflict, peace, development, and changing social dynamics in the African context. It challenges conventional IR precepts of authority, politics and society, which have proven to be so inadequate in explaining African processes. Rather, this edited collection analyses the significance of many of the uncharted dimensions of Africa's international relations, such as the respatialisation of African societies through migration, and the impacts this process has had on state power; the various ways in which both formal and informal authority and economies are practised; and the dynamics and impacts of new transnational social movements on African politics. Finally, attention is paid to Africa's place in a shifting global order, and the implications for African international relations of the emergence of new world powers and/or alliances. This edition includes a new preface by the editors, which brings the findings of the book up-to-date, and analyses the changes that are likely to impact upon global governance and human development in policy and practice in Africa and the wider world post-2015.

The Red Sea Terror Triangle

Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, and Islamic Terror
Author: Shaul Shay
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412809703
Category: Political Science
Page: 234
View: 2997

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In the aftermath of the terror campaign launched on Sep- tember 11, 2001, the United States declared war against global terror. It identified the al-Qaida organization and Afghanistan under the Taliban regime as the initial targets of the offensive, and Iraq as the next. However, aside from the countries included by President Bush in the "Axis of Evil" (Iraq, Iran, and North Korea), a triangle of countries in the Red Sea region are also potential targets in the war against terror—Sudan, Somalia, and Yemen. This assessment is based on the historical record: Each of these countries has in one form or another provided refuge for Islamic terror organizations. Sudan, Somalia, and Yemen are Muslim states, situated at the periphery of the heart of Islam, which is generally identified as the Arab Peninsula, Egypt, and the Fertile Crescent. This area is of strategic significance to both sides of the vital shipping route that connects the Arabian Sea (the Indian Ocean) and the Red Sea. Osama Bin Laden, al-Qaida, and members of other radical Islamic organizations have found allies and safe havens in both the heart of Islam and its periphery. The presence of radical Islamic entities in the region, alongside local problems and conflicts rooted in national, ethnic, and tribal issues, has turned the Red Sea countries into a nucleus of instability and dissension, one that threatens the security and peace of both neighboring and more distant countries. Shay examines the three countries designated as the Red Sea Terror Triangle, and explores the ties each maintains with Islamic terror, as well as the reciprocal links between them. Understanding these countries is of critical importance, since all or some of them may constitute a base for Islamic terror organizations in the future.

Somalia in Transition since 2006

Author: Shaul Shay
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412854385
Category: History
Page: 317
View: 1316

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This book picks up where its predecessor, Somalia between Jihad and Restoration, left off, examining international efforts to stabilize war-torn Somalia. It analyzes major political events in Somalia in the years since 2006, examining opportunities for restoration of the country based on the United Nations-backed plan known as the "Roadmap for the End of the Transition," improved security conditions, and international economics and financial support. The author notes that the time of transition may be over, according to the timetable of the United Nations, but it is clear that the work of transformation is just beginning. In considering whether political and social chaos in Somalia is ending, Shay sees two possible futures. One possibility is the establishment of a reform government that unifies Somali society; another is continued strife that accelerates Somalia’s descent into the endless violence of a failed state. Shay believes the international approach to Somalia requires a thorough reassessment. He argues it has been limited to two Western priorities—terrorism and piracy—while largely ignoring domestic issues of critical concern to Somalis. As a result, many Somalis have come to view those participating in the international effort as a foreign occupation.

A History of Islamic Societies

Author: Ira M. Lapidus
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139991507
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 3051

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This new edition of one of the most widely used course books on Islamic civilizations around the world has been substantially revised to incorporate the new scholarship and insights of the last twenty-five years. Ira Lapidus' history explores the beginnings and transformations of Islamic civilizations in the Middle East and details Islam's worldwide diffusion. The history is divided into four parts. Part I is a comprehensive account of pre-Islamic late antiquity; the beginnings of Islam; the early Islamic empires; and Islamic religious, artistic, legal and intellectual cultures. Part II deals with the construction in the Middle East of Islamic religious communities and states to the fifteenth century. Part III includes the history to the nineteenth century of Islamic North Africa and Spain; the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires; and other Islamic societies in Asia and Africa. Part IV accounts for the impact of European commercial and imperial domination on Islamic societies and traces the development of the modern national state system and the simultaneous Islamic revival from the early nineteenth century to the present.

Conflict Resolution and Nation-Building in Somalia

Author: Mohamed Ali Abdi
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1469166070
Category: Political Science
Page: 144
View: 6510

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A B S T R A C T ABDI, MOHAMED A: BA WHITTIER COLLEGE, 1966 MPA SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY, 1969 MPH FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY, 1996 CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND NATION-BUILDING IN SOMALIA Publication Scheduled for January 2012 The research concentrated on the current as well as the past quagmire of the Somali conflict. Political, social and economic triggers have been identified to resolve or reduce violent conflict and disorder. The research used primary as well as secondary sources to study the issues and explore the problems inherent in an environment of scarce resources. Confrontations between the state and society were brought to a higher level of violence since the late 1970s following the Somali-Ethiopian war. The author explored avenues for reconciliation and nation-building and introduced several models as possible strategies for nation-building. Conclusively, a home-grown, traditional mechanisms model was recommended which entails the following policy prescriptions to achieve long-lasting peace and security for Somalia: 1. Governance structures of law and order. 2. Resources: De-escalating conflicts by opening up negotiating opportunities of land and property. 3. Complete demilitarization of society. 4. International cooperation. A plan by the international community to reconstruct and rehabilitate Somalia is essential if we have to avoid a relapse into a chaotic, violent situation in Somalia.

Islamism and Its Enemies in the Horn of Africa

Author: Alexander De Waal
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 9780253344038
Category: Religion
Page: 279
View: 9987

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Militant Islam is a powerful force in the Horn of Africa, and the U.S. war on terrorism has thrown the region and its politics into the international spotlight. Since the 1990s, when a failed U.S. military mission was called in to maintain order, Islamist organizations, with heavy sponsorship from Saudi Arabia, have multiplied and established much-needed health and education services in the region. However, despite the good that they are clearly providing, these organizations are labeled "terrorist" by the U.S. Islamist extremists have been found to be responsible for the deadly embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania and the attack on an Israeli jet in Mombasa. Since September 11, 2001, global effort has been concentrated on bringing these groups to their knees. Focusing on how Islamist movements have been viewed post-9/11 and how the U.S. agenda is being translated into local struggles in the region, this book is an important step toward understanding the complex dynamics that enfold the region. Contributors are Roland Marchal, A. H. Abdel Salam, M. A. Mohamed Salih, and Alex de Waal.


countering terrorism in a failed state
Author: International Crisis Group
Publisher: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: 37
View: 7303

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