Author: Abdurahman M. Abdullahi (Baadiyow)
Publisher: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd
ISBN: 1912234033
Category: Reference
Page: 430
View: 5576

Continue Reading →

There is very little scholarship on the history of political Islam in Somalia that takes seriously both historical forces as well as the very ideas and internal organization of the Islamic movements. This book reconstructs the history of modern and moderate Islamic movement in Somalia. It covers 50 years of turbulent Somali history, in which civilian governments, military dictatorships, armed opposition factions, and Islamic movements were interacting and shaping the Somali history. It divides Islamic development in Somalia into four historical periods: the Islamic revival (1800-1950), the Islamic consciousness ( 1950-1967), the Islamic awakening (1967-1978) and the Islamic movements (1978-2000).The book provides a detailed and empirically rich narrative of the Islah Movement as a case study which has influenced and made an impact on other Islamist organizations in recent decades. The author provides an insider's view of the Islamic Movement being one of the leaders of Islah.

Somalia between Jihad and Restoration

Author: Shaul Shay
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412812100
Category: Political Science
Page: 213
View: 2286

Continue Reading →

Since 1991 Somalia has been defined as a failing state, one that lacks an effective central government. The vacuum of power in Somalia, in turn, enabled Al Qaida and other radical Islamic organizations to find allies and refuge in there. Shay’s account shows how the presence of radical Islamic entities in the area, alongside local problems and conflicts, has turned Somalia into a focal point in the global war against terror. On June 5, 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) declared victory in its struggle against the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter Terrorism (ARPCT), a coalition of U.S. backed warlords. Shortly after their victory announcement, the ICU implemented a Taliban-style radical Islamic rule. The rule of the ICU was brief. In December 2006 they were defeated by a coalition of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Ethiopian forces. In spite of the ICU’s defeat, internal conflict in Somalia between the ICU and the interim government of Somalia (TFG), backed by Ethiopia, is still far from concluded. Shay shows how the internal conflict may spill over into other nations, creating a larger regional theater of Jihad. He also provides some ideas on how to prevent the foundation of a new radical Islamic state that could become a haven of the Islamic terror in the Horn of Africa. This volume is instructive in demonstrating the consequences of destabilization. It will be of interest to foreign policy analysts, regional specialists, and strategists in the war against terror.

Recovering the Somali State

The Role of Islam, Islamism and Transitional Justice
Author: Abdullahi, Abdurahman
Publisher: Adonis and Abbey Publishers
ISBN: 1909112623
Category: Religion
Page: 278
View: 9929

Continue Reading →

Somalia is often used as an emblem of a collapsed state. This is somewhat of a paradox given that in previous decades the country was one of the most unified states in Africa and one of the first democracies on the continent. In the last three decades however the country has faced enormous challenges including civil wars and extremism in the name of Islam. The book - probably one of the first to link Islam, Islamism and Transitional Justice with the Somali State recovery project - offers unique analyses of these themes and argues that recovering the Somali state will largely be contingent upon the skillful reconciliation between tradition and modernity, Islam and state and between the secular and the sacred.

Making Sense of Somali History

Volume 1
Author: Abdullahi, Abdurahman
Publisher: Adonis and Abbey Publishers
ISBN: 1909112798
Category: History
Page: 222
View: 7316

Continue Reading →

In the last three decades, Somalia has been associated with such horrible terms as 'state collapse', 'civil wars', 'foreign intervention', 'warlordism', 'famine', 'piracy' and 'terrorism'. This depiction was in contradiction to its earlier images as the cradle of the human race, the kernel of ancient civilizations, the land of Punt, a homogeneous nation-state and the first democratic state in Africa. So how did things fall apart in the country? This Volume 1 of a two-volume narrative, Dr. Abdullahi explores the history of the people of Somali peninsula since ancient times, the advent of Islam and colonialism, the rise and fall of Somali nationalism and the perspectives of the Somali state collapse. The book uses a unique thematic approach and analysis to make sense of Somali history by emphasizing the responsibility of Somali political elites in creating and perpetuating the disastrous conditions in their country.

The Root Causes of the United Nations’ Failure in Somalia

The Role of Neighboring Countries in the Somali Crisis
Author: Othman O. Mahmood
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 1462053947
Category: Antiques & Collectibles
Page: 148
View: 5231

Continue Reading →

When the Somali crisis broke out in the 1990s and the Somali central government collapsed, the United Nations made several attempts to mediate the conflicting parties. The crisis reached its highest climax, leading to the successful US-led Operation Restore Hope. Unfortunately, when the leadership of the operation was transferred to the United Nations, the UN-led intervention failed miserably leading to further unrest and destabilization. The Root Causes of the United Nations’ Failure in Somalia, examines the events of the Somali crisis and dissects the reasons behind the failure. Author Mahmood focuses on three crucial factors that led to this turn of events often overlooked by many other scholarly studies. One, the UN representatives lacked the knowledge and understanding of the Somali clan system and peacemaking leadership in the Somali society. Two, neighboring countries, especially Ethiopia and Kenya, fueled and manipulated Somali’s internal animosities. Three, international aid agencies had multiple layers of interests in the region and some of them had veiled interests in the continuation of the Somali crisis. Mahmood definitively shows that the United Nations had numerous golden opportunities to stabilize Somalia and reestablish governmental structures, yet still failed. The Root Causes of the United Nations’ Failure in Somalia provides a much-needed contribution to the scholarship of this critical subject.

Movers and Shakers

Social Movements in Africa
Author: Stephen Ellis,Ineke Van Kessel
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004180133
Category: History
Page: 257
View: 8756

Continue Reading →

This collection of empirical and theoretical studies of social movements in Africa is a corrective to a literature that has largely ignored that continent. It shows that Africa s social movements have distinctive features that are related to its specific history.

The African Jihad

Bin Laden's Quest for the Horn of Africa
Author: Gregory Alonso Pirio
Publisher: Africa World Press
ISBN: 9781569022788
Category: Political Science
Page: 227
View: 1334

Continue Reading →

The African Jihad is a fascinating examination of the efforts by international jihadists to bring about their grand vision of Islamist hegemony in the greater Horn of Africa region. These efforts began with the collaboration between Al Qaeda and the National Islamic Front (NIF) government of Sudan. The NIF under the ideological leadership of Hasan al-Turabi and Al Qaeda under Osama bin Laden sought to channel the social, political and economic grievances of Muslim communities into a global jihadist narrative, and the NIF and Al Qaeda worked hand in glove to set up and/or support several, coordinated jihadist movements in the countries of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda. The combined Al Qaeda-NIF regional onslaught bequeathed a legacy of proxy wars and terrorism against Eritrea, Ethiopia and Uganda and Al Qaeda terror operations in Kenya and Tanzania. Dr. Gregory Alonso Pirio takes the story of Horn of Africa jihadism up to the defeat of Union of Islamic Courts in Somalia by the combined forces of Ethiopia and the Somali Transitional Federal Government in early 2007; Dr. Pirio demonstrates how a faction within Somalia's Islamic Courts movement with historic ties to Al Qaeda had come to dominate the Islamic Court's movement and threatened wider regional insecurity and the expansion of the Middle East conflict into Africa.“The radicalization of Islam is a convergence of two contradictory forces – petroleum in one part of the Muslim world and poverty in another. This volume identifies the shadow of the petro-center (Usama bin Laden) upon the African periphery – the Horn of Africa. Has the Horn become Al Qaeda's third most important constituency after the Middle East and South Asia? This book may convince you of that.” --Ali A. Mazrui, Director, Institute of Global Cultural Studies, State University of New York, Binghamton “Upon reading the African Jihad, you come away with a clearer understanding of the relentless cycle of violence engulfing the Horn of Africa region. We need leaders to emerge who can articulate a vision of justice, truth and reconciliation that can lead to peace and regional integration. In this way, we Africans can start to put the ways of violence behind us once and for all.” --Paul Rusesabagina, the man whose story of courageous defiance to the Rwandan genocide inspired the film "Hotel Rwanda”

Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Terrorism

Author: Ken Menkhaus
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136049924
Category: History
Page: 120
View: 1546

Continue Reading →

This work explores Somalia's state collapse and the security threats posed by Somalia's prolonged crisis. Communities are reduced to lawlessness, and the interests of commercial elites have shifted towards rule of law, but not a revived central state. Terrorists have found Somalia inhospitable, using it mainly for short-term transshipment.

Islamic Reform in Twentieth-Century Africa

Author: Roman Loimeier
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748695443
Category: Religion
Page: 560
View: 479

Continue Reading →

The first comprehensive analysis of Muslim movements of reform in modern sub-Saharan AfricaBased on twelve case studies (Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zanzibar and the Comoros), this book looks at patterns and peculiarities of different traditions of Islamic reform. Considering both Sufi- and Salafi-oriented movements in their respective historical contexts, it stresses the importance of the local context to explain the different trajectories of development.The book studies the social, religious and political impact of these reform movements in both historical and contemporary times and asks why some have become successful as popular mass movements, while others failed to attract substantial audiences. It also considers jihad-minded movements in contemporary Mali, northern Nigeria and Somalia and looks at modes of transnational entanglement of movements of reform. Against the background of a general inquiry into what constitutes areform, the text responds to the question of what areform actually means for Muslims in contemporary Africa.Key featuresBiographies of reformist scholars complement the textCase studies are placed in the context of the dynamics of areform in the larger world of IslamAddresses the importance of trans-national entanglements and their formative powerFocuses on the dynamics of social and religious development, the political dynamics of Islamic areform and issues of youth, generational change and gender

Islamism and Its Enemies in the Horn of Africa

Author: Alexander De Waal
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 9780253344038
Category: Religion
Page: 279
View: 2627

Continue Reading →

Militant Islam is a powerful force in the Horn of Africa, and the U.S. war on terrorism has thrown the region and its politics into the international spotlight. Since the 1990s, when a failed U.S. military mission was called in to maintain order, Islamist organizations, with heavy sponsorship from Saudi Arabia, have multiplied and established much-needed health and education services in the region. However, despite the good that they are clearly providing, these organizations are labeled "terrorist" by the U.S. Islamist extremists have been found to be responsible for the deadly embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania and the attack on an Israeli jet in Mombasa. Since September 11, 2001, global effort has been concentrated on bringing these groups to their knees. Focusing on how Islamist movements have been viewed post-9/11 and how the U.S. agenda is being translated into local struggles in the region, this book is an important step toward understanding the complex dynamics that enfold the region. Contributors are Roland Marchal, A. H. Abdel Salam, M. A. Mohamed Salih, and Alex de Waal.

Reformiert euch!

Warum der Islam sich ändern muss
Author: Ayaan Hirsi Ali
Publisher: Albrecht Knaus Verlag
ISBN: 3641174627
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 9296

Continue Reading →

Das wichtigste Buch zur Islam-Debatte: Ayaan Hirsi Ali und ihr Plädoyer für eine Reformation des Islam Ihre eigene Biographie und intime Kenntnis der islamischen Gesellschaften und Kultur sowie ihre Forschungen machen Ayaan Hirsi Ali zu einer der wichtigsten Stimmen in der Debatte über den Islam. Ihr neues, von Optimismus getragenes Buch, an dem sie seit Jahren arbeitet, kommt im richtigen Moment: Es nimmt die Terroranschläge in Paris zum Ausgangspunkt, bietet fundierte Einordnung und Hintergründe, vor allem aber bezieht Hirsi Ali klar Stellung: gegen einen erstarrten Islam und dessen Tolerierung durch den Westen. Und für eine Reformation ihrer Religion durch die Muslime, die sie bereits auf dem Weg sieht.

Africa and International Relations in the 21st Century

Author: S. Cornelissen,F. Cheru,T. Shaw
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230355749
Category: History
Page: 248
View: 4481

Continue Reading →

This book examines key emergent trends related to aspects of power, sovereignty, conflict, peace, development, and changing social dynamics in the African context. It challenges conventional IR precepts of authority, politics and society, which have proven to be so inadequate in explaining African processes. Rather, this edited collection analyses the significance of many of the uncharted dimensions of Africa's international relations, such as the respatialisation of African societies through migration, and the impacts this process has had on state power; the various ways in which both formal and informal authority and economies are practised; and the dynamics and impacts of new transnational social movements on African politics. Finally, attention is paid to Africa's place in a shifting global order, and the implications for African international relations of the emergence of new world powers and/or alliances. This edition includes a new preface by the editors, which brings the findings of the book up-to-date, and analyses the changes that are likely to impact upon global governance and human development in policy and practice in Africa and the wider world post-2015.

The Red Sea Terror Triangle

Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, and Islamic Terror
Author: Shaul Shay
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412809703
Category: Political Science
Page: 234
View: 2677

Continue Reading →

In the aftermath of the terror campaign launched on Sep- tember 11, 2001, the United States declared war against global terror. It identified the al-Qaida organization and Afghanistan under the Taliban regime as the initial targets of the offensive, and Iraq as the next. However, aside from the countries included by President Bush in the "Axis of Evil" (Iraq, Iran, and North Korea), a triangle of countries in the Red Sea region are also potential targets in the war against terror—Sudan, Somalia, and Yemen. This assessment is based on the historical record: Each of these countries has in one form or another provided refuge for Islamic terror organizations. Sudan, Somalia, and Yemen are Muslim states, situated at the periphery of the heart of Islam, which is generally identified as the Arab Peninsula, Egypt, and the Fertile Crescent. This area is of strategic significance to both sides of the vital shipping route that connects the Arabian Sea (the Indian Ocean) and the Red Sea. Osama Bin Laden, al-Qaida, and members of other radical Islamic organizations have found allies and safe havens in both the heart of Islam and its periphery. The presence of radical Islamic entities in the region, alongside local problems and conflicts rooted in national, ethnic, and tribal issues, has turned the Red Sea countries into a nucleus of instability and dissension, one that threatens the security and peace of both neighboring and more distant countries. Shay examines the three countries designated as the Red Sea Terror Triangle, and explores the ties each maintains with Islamic terror, as well as the reciprocal links between them. Understanding these countries is of critical importance, since all or some of them may constitute a base for Islamic terror organizations in the future.

US Foreign Policy and the Horn of Africa

Author: Peter Woodward
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317003284
Category: Political Science
Page: 192
View: 6046

Continue Reading →

Examining US involvement in the Horn of Africa, this volume addresses the relationship between the US and the Islamic movement in this region. Peter Woodward explores the interests of the United States in the region through two cases: Sudan and Somalia. He also discusses the effects of the Eritrean-Ethiopian war on US policy and posture in the region, along with the effects of other regional wars. The book looks at the relationship between US perceptions of Islamism and brings a unique perspective to the ongoing debate over US policy in the Islamic world. It will be of interest to those working in or researching foreign policy, as well as peace, security and conflict issues.