The Human Lineage


Author: Matt Cartmill,Fred H. Smith
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118211456
Category: Social Science
Page: 624
View: 478

Continue Reading →

"This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduates and postgraduates in paleoanthropology courses, tackles a rather difficult task—that of presenting the substantial body of paleontological, genetic, geological and archaeological evidence regarding human evolution, and the associated scientific history, in a logical and readable way without sacrificing either clarity or detail... the sheer quality of the writing and explanatory synthesis in this book will undoubtedly make it a valuable resource for students for many years." —PaleoAnthropology, 2010 This book focuses on the last ten million years of human history, from the hominoid radiations to the emergence and diversification of modern humanity. It draws upon the fossil record to shed light on the key scientific issues, principles, methods, and history in paleoanthropology. The book proceeds through the fossil record of human evolution by historical stages representing the acquisition of major human features that explain the success and distinctive properties of modern Homo sapiens. Key features: Provides thorough coverage of the fossil record and sites, with data on key variables such as cranial capacity and body size estimates Offers a balanced, critical assessment of the interpretative models explaining pattern in the fossil record Each chapter incorporates a "Blind Alley" box focusing on once prevalent ideas now rejected such as the arboreal theory, seed-eating, single-species hypothesis, and Piltdown man Promotes critical thinking by students while allowing instructors flexibility in structuring their teaching Densely illustrated with informative, well-labelled anatomical drawings and photographs Includes an annotated bibliography for advanced inquiry Written by established leaders in the field, providing depth of expertise on evolutionary theory and anatomy through to functional morphology, this textbook is essential reading for all advanced undergraduate students and beginning graduate students in biological anthropology.

Human Ageing: A Unique Experience - Implications For The Disease Concept


Author: Singer Michael Alan
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814619140
Category: Medical
Page: 336
View: 5864

Continue Reading →

Human Ageing: A Unique Experience explores the biology of human ageing focusing on the individual. The book begins with the premature ageing disorder Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome and spins a web of interconnected biological domains involving lamins, telomeres, alternative splicing, genetics, epigenetics, and molecular clocks. The profound influence of culture is explored since cultural inheritance and genetic inheritance are the two intertwined processes driving human evolution. An empirical framework is developed to describe human ageing at the individual level and the implications of this framework on the whole concept of diseases are discussed.

Ancestors in Our Genome

The New Science of Human Evolution
Author: Eugene E. Harris
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199978034
Category: Science
Page: 226
View: 9604

Continue Reading →

In 2001, scientists were finally able to determine the full human genome sequence, and with the discovery began a genomic voyage back in time. Since then, we have sequenced the full genomes of a number of mankind's primate relatives at a remarkable rate. The genomes of the common chimpanzee (2005) and bonobo (2012), orangutan (2011), gorilla (2012), and macaque monkey (2007) have already been identified, and the determination of other primate genomes is well underway. Researchers are beginning to unravel our full genomic history, comparing it with closely related species to answer age-old questions about how and when we evolved. For the first time, we are finding our own ancestors in our genome and are thereby gleaning new information about our evolutionary past. In Ancestors in Our Genome, molecular anthropologist Eugene E. Harris presents us with a complete and up-to-date account of the evolution of the human genome and our species. Written from the perspective of population genetics, and in simple terms, the book traces human origins back to their source among our earliest human ancestors, and explains many of the most intriguing questions that genome scientists are currently working to answer. For example, what does the high level of discordance among the gene trees of humans and the African great apes tell us about our respective separations from our common ancestor? Was our separation from the apes fast or slow, and when and why did it occur? Where, when, and how did our modern species evolve? How do we search across genomes to find the genomic underpinnings of our large and complex brains and language abilities? How can we find the genomic bases for life at high altitudes, for lactose tolerance, resistance to disease, and for our different skin pigmentations? How and when did we interbreed with Neandertals and the recently discovered ancient Denisovans of Asia? Harris draws upon extensive experience researching primate evolution in order to deliver a lively and thorough history of human evolution. Ancestors in Our Genome is the most complete discussion of our current understanding of the human genome available.

Fish Development and Genetics

The Zebrafish and Medaka Models
Author: Zhiyuan Gong,Vladimir Korzh
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812388214
Category: Science
Page: 675
View: 3871

Continue Reading →

The zebrafish is the most important fish model in developmental and genetic analyses. This book contains 19 review articles covering a broad spectrum of topics, from development to genetic tools. The contents range from early development, the role of maternal factors and gastrulation, to tissue differentiation and organogenesis, such as development of the organizer, notochord, floor plate, nervous system, somites, muscle, skeleton and endoderm. The genetic tools cover morpholino knock-down, transgenics, fish cloning, transposons and genome evolution. The book also includes two chapters on genome mapping and embryonic stem cells in medaka, another important model fish. Summarizing the state-of-the-art studies of the zebrafish model and focusing on the molecular aspects of development, this book is a valuable reference for students learning the basic aspects of the zebrafish model, and for researchers seeking resources in zebrafish research.

Human Biology

An Evolutionary and Biocultural Perspective
Author: Sara Stinson,Barry Bogin,Dennis H. O'Rourke
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118108043
Category: Social Science
Page: 780
View: 4671

Continue Reading →

This comprehensive introduction to the field of human biology covers all the major areas of the field: genetic variation, variation related to climate, infectious and non-infectious diseases, aging, growth, nutrition, and demography. Written by four expert authors working in close collaboration, this second edition has been thoroughly updated to provide undergraduate and graduate students with two new chapters: one on race and culture and their ties to human biology, and the other a concluding summary chapter highlighting the integration and intersection of the topics covered in the book.

From Monkey Brain to Human Brain

A Fyssen Foundation Symposium
Author: Fondation Fyssen. Symposium
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262042239
Category: Medical
Page: 400
View: 8747

Continue Reading →

Leaders in cognitive psychology, comparative biology, and neuroscience discuss patterns of convergence and divergence seen in studies of human and nonhuman primate brains. The extraordinary overlap between human and chimpanzee genomes does not result in an equal overlap between human and chimpanzee thoughts, sensations, perceptions, and emotions; there are considerable similarities but also considerable differences between human and nonhuman primate brains. From Monkey Brain to Human Brain uses the latest findings in cognitive psychology, comparative biology, and neuroscience to look at the complex patterns of convergence and divergence in primate cortical organization and function. Several chapters examine the use of modern technologies to study primate brains, analyzing the potentials and the limitations of neuroimaging as well as genetic and computational approaches. These methods, which can be applied identically across different species of primates, help to highlight the paradox of nonlinear primate evolution--the fact that major changes in brain size and functional complexity resulted from small changes in the genome. Other chapters identify plausible analogs or homologs in nonhuman primates for such human cognitive functions as arithmetic, reading, theory of mind, and altruism; examine the role of parietofrontal circuits in the production and comprehension of actions; analyze the contributions of the prefrontal and cingulate cortices to cognitive control; and explore to what extent visual recognition and visual attention are related in humans and other primates. The Fyssen Foundation is dedicated to encouraging scientific inquiry into the cognitive mechanisms that underlie animal and human behavior and has long sponsored symposia on topics of central importance to the cognitive sciences.

Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics


Author: Masatoshi Nei,Sudhir Kumar
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195350517
Category: Science
Page: 352
View: 3602

Continue Reading →

During the last ten years, remarkable progress has occurred in the study of molecular evolution. Among the most important factors that are responsible for this progress are the development of new statistical methods and advances in computational technology. In particular, phylogenetic analysis of DNA or protein sequences has become a powerful tool for studying molecular evolution. Along with this developing technology, the application of the new statistical and computational methods has become more complicated and there is no comprehensive volume that treats these methods in depth. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics fills this gap and present various statistical methods that are easily accessible to general biologists as well as biochemists, bioinformatists and graduate students. The text covers measurement of sequence divergence, construction of phylogenetic trees, statistical tests for detection of positive Darwinian selection, inference of ancestral amino acid sequences, construction of linearized trees, and analysis of allele frequency data. Emphasis is given to practical methods of data analysis, and methods can be learned by working through numerical examples using the computer program MEGA2 that is provided.

Ancestors and Relatives

Genealogy, Identity, and Community
Author: Eviatar Zerubavel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199912319
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 5672

Continue Reading →

Genealogy has long been one of humanity's greatest obsessions. But with the rise of genetics, and increasing media attention to it through programs like Who Do You Think You Are? and Faces of America, we are now told that genetic markers can definitively tell us who we are and where we came from. The problem, writes Eviatar Zerubavel, is that biology does not provide us with the full picture. After all, he asks, why do we consider Barack Obama black even though his mother was white? Why did the Nazis believe that unions of Germans and Jews would produce Jews rather than Germans? In this provocative book, he offers a fresh understanding of relatedness, showing that its social logic sometimes overrides the biological reality it supposedly reflects. In fact, rather than just biological facts, social traditions of remembering and classifying shape the way we trace our ancestors, identify our relatives, and delineate families, ethnic groups, nations, and species. Furthermore, genealogies are more than mere records of history. Drawing on a wide range of evidence, Zerubavel introduces such concepts as braiding, clipping, pasting, lumping, splitting, stretching, and pruning to shed light on how we manipulate genealogies to accommodate personal and collective agendas of inclusion and exclusion. Rather than simply find out who our ancestors were and identify our relatives, we actually construct the genealogical narratives that make them our ancestors and relatives. An eye-opening re-examination of our very notion of relatedness, Ancestors and Relatives offers a new way of understanding family, ethnicity, nationhood, race, and humanity.

The Story of the Human Body

Evolution, Health and Disease
Author: Daniel Lieberman
Publisher: Penguin UK
ISBN: 1846143934
Category: Science
Page: 480
View: 9650

Continue Reading →

Story of the Human Body explores how the way we use our bodies is all wrong. From an evolutionary perspective, if normal is defined as what most people have done for millions of years, then it's normal to walk and run 9 -15 kilometers a day to hunt and gather fresh food which is high in fibre, low in sugar, and barely processed. It's also normal to spend much of your time nursing, napping, making stone tools, and gossiping with a small band of people. Our 21st-century lifestyles, argues Dan Lieberman, are out of synch with our stone-age bodies. Never have we been so healthy and long-lived - but never, too, have we been so prone to a slew of problems that were, until recently, rare or unknown, from asthma, to diabetes, to - scariest of all - overpopulation. Story of the Human Body asks how our bodies got to be the way they are, and considers how that evolutionary history - both ancient and recent - can help us evaluate how we use our bodies. How is the present-day state of the human body related to the past? And what is the human body's future? Daniel Lieberman is the Chair of the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology at Harvard and a leader in the field. He has written nearly 100 articles, many appearing in the journals Nature and Science, and his cover story on barefoot running in Nature was picked up by major media the world over. His research and discoveries have been highlighted in newspapers and magazines, including The New York Times, The Boston Globe, Discover, and National Geographic.

Hominid Adaptations and Extinctions


Author: David W. Cameron
Publisher: UNSW Press
ISBN: 9780868407166
Category: Science
Page: 260
View: 3099

Continue Reading →

Looking at a period of history 22 to 2.5 million years ago, this title examines the record of the Neogene fossil apes: their adaptive trends, their morphologies and their relationships to the environment, their evolution and their extinctions, to provideinsights into the evolution of our most distant and our most immediate fossil ancestors.

Darwin's Gift to Science and Religion


Author: Francisco J. Ayala
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309102316
Category: Science
Page: 250
View: 3784

Continue Reading →

With the publication in 1859 of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, Charles Darwin established evolution by common descent as the dominant scientific explanation for nature's diversity. This was to be his gift to science and society; at last, we had an explanation for how life came to be on Earth. Scientists agree that the evolutionary origin of animals and plants is a scientific conclusion beyond reasonable doubt. They place it beside such established concepts as the roundness of the earth, its revolution around the sun, and the molecular composition of matter. That evolution has occurred, in other words, is a fact. Yet as we approach the bicentennial celebration of Darwin's birth, the world finds itself divided over the truth of evolutionary theory. Consistently endorsed as "good science" by experts and overwhelmingly accepted as fact by the scientific community, it is not always accepted by the public, and our schools continue to be battlegrounds for this conflict. From the Tennessee trial of a biology teacher who dared to teach Darwin's theory to his students in 1925 to Tammy Kitzmiller's 2005 battle to keep intelligent design out of the Dover district schools in Pennsylvania, it's clear that we need to cut through the propaganda to quell the cacophony of raging debate. With the publication of Darwin's Gift, a voice at once fresh and familiar brings a rational, measured perspective to the science of evolution. An acclaimed evolutionary biologist with a background in theology, Francisco Ayala offers clear explanations of the science, reviews the history that led us to ratify Darwin's theories, and ultimately provides a clear path for a confused and conflicted public.

Primate Origins of Human Cognition and Behavior


Author: Tetsuro Matsuzawa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431094237
Category: Science
Page: 587
View: 2607

Continue Reading →

Biologists and anthropologists in Japan have played a crucial role in the development of primatology as a scientific discipline. Publication of Primate Origins of Human Cognition and Behavior under the editorship of Tetsuro Matsuzawa reaffirms the pervasive and creative role played by the intellectual descendants of Kinji Imanishi and Junichiro Itani in the fields of behavioral ecology, psychology, and cognitive science. Matsuzawa and his colleagues-humans and other primate partners- explore a broad range of issues including the phylogeny of perception and cognition; the origin of human speech; learning and memory; recognition of self, others, and species; society and social interaction; and culture. With data from field and laboratory studies of more than 90 primate species and of more than 50 years of long-term research, the intellectual breadth represented in this volume makes it a major contribution to comparative cognitive science and to current views on the origin of the mind and behavior of humans.

Human Evolutionary Genetics, Second Edition


Author: Mark Jobling,Edward Hollox,Matthew Hurles,Toomas Kivisild,Chris Tyler-Smith
Publisher: Garland Science
ISBN: 131795226X
Category: Science
Page: 650
View: 4135

Continue Reading →

Now in full-color, the Second Edition of Human Evolutionary Genetics has been completely revised to cover the rapid advances in the field since publication of the highly regarded First Edition. Written for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it is the only textbook to integrate genetic, archaeological, and linguistic perspectives on human evolution, and to offer a genomic perspective, reflecting the shift from studies of specific regions of the genome towards comprehensive genomewide analyses of human genetic diversity. Human Evolutionary Genetics is suitable for courses in Genetics, Evolution, and Anthropology. Those readers with a background in anthropology will find that the streamlined genetic analysis material contained in the Second Edition is more accessible. The new edition also integrates new technologies (including next-generation sequencing and genome-wide SNP typing) and new data analysis methods, including recent data on ancient genomes and their impact on our understanding of human evolution. The book also examines the subject of personal genomics and its implications.

Genetics of Populations


Author: Philip W. Hedrick
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
ISBN: 9780763747725
Category: Science
Page: 737
View: 9853

Continue Reading →

Ideal for allied health and pre-nursing students, Alcamos Fundamentals of Microbiology, Body Systems Edition, retains the engaging, student-friendly style and active learning approach for which award-winning author and educator Jeffrey Pommerville is known. It presents diseases, complete with new content on recent discoveries, in a manner that is directly applicable to students and organized by body system. A captivating art program, learning design format, and numerous case studies draw students into the text and make them eager to learn more about the fascinating world of microbiology.

The Evolution of Thought

Evolutionary Origins of Great Ape Intelligence
Author: Anne E. Russon,David R. Begun
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139451383
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 5980

Continue Reading →

Research on the evolution of higher intelligence rarely combines data from fields as diverse as paleontology and psychology. In this volume we seek to do just that, synthesizing the approaches of hominoid cognition, psychology, language studies, ecology, evolution, paleoecology and systematics toward an understanding of great ape intelligence. Leading scholars from all these fields have been asked to evaluate the manner in which each of their topics of research inform our understanding of the evolution of intelligence in great apes and humans. The ideas thus assembled represent a comprehensive survey of the various causes and consequences of cognitive evolution in great apes. The Evolution of Thought will therefore be an essential reference for graduate students and researchers in evolutionary psychology, paleoanthropology and primatology.

Babel's Dawn

A Natural History of the Origins of Speech
Author: Edmund Blair Bolles
Publisher: Counterpoint Press
ISBN: 1582438994
Category: History
Page: 224
View: 4424

Continue Reading →

Babel’s Dawn is a saga covering six million years. Like a walk through a natural history museum, Bolles demonstrates how members of the human lineage came to speak. Beginning with a scene of the last common ancestor ignoring a bird as it flies by, he guides us through generations, illuminating how it became possible for two Homo sapiens to not only acknowledge the songbird, but to also discuss the meaning of its song. Tracing the rise of voluntary vocalizations as well as the first word, phrases, and sentences, Bolles works against the common belief that the reason apes cannot speak is they are not smart enough. In this groundbreaking work, Bolles purposes that we now have substantial evidence that this age-old idea can no longer stand. With concrete portrayals of living individuals interwoven with evidence, data, and theory, Babel’s Dawn is a powerful account of a great scientific revolution

Integrative Neuroscience

Bringing Together Biological, Psychological and Clinical Models of the Human Brain
Author: Evian Gordon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203304764
Category: Science
Page: 272
View: 4659

Continue Reading →

Most brain related activity has focussed on specialized interests within individual disciplines. Recent multidisciplinary activity has provided the impetus to break down these boundaries and encourage a freer exchange of information across disciplines. This text reflects these developments. It spans the landscape of brain science to provide core information from 12 disciplines (including evolution, philosophy, anatomy, chemistry, computer science, brain dynamics, psychology, neurology, psychiatry, psychotherapy and brain imaging). In outlining how and why it is now possible to realistically model aspects of the brain's dynamics from such a wide range of intellectual endeavors, this book will prove itself useful to undergraduates, postgraduates and all those seeking a contemporary perspective and evaluation of the current status and future directions in the brain sciences.

Neogene Paleontology of the Manonga Valley, Tanzania

A Window into the Evolutionary History of East Africa
Author: Terry Harrison
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306454714
Category: Science
Page: 418
View: 558

Continue Reading →

Contributions to this volume detail paleontologic research in Manonga Valley, and shed important light on the evolutionary development of eastern Africa. Chapters provide novel insights into the taxonomy, paleobiology, ecology, and zoogeographic relationships of African faunas, as well as lay the foundation for future geological, paleontological, and paleoecological studies in this important area. The book concludes with a discussion of the importance of investigations on broader geographical sites, including the Manonga Valley, for human evolution research. The text is supported by 143 illustrations.