The Globalisation of Modern Architecture

The Impact of Politics, Economics and Social Change on Architecture and Urban Design since 1990
Author: Robert Adam
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443839485
Category: Architecture
Page: 360
View: 9469

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Taking the break-up of the Soviet Union and the entry of Russia, China and India into the global market as the start of a new era of globalisation, Robert Adam compares new developments in architecture and urban design with major shifts in the balance of power since 1990. Based on the principle that design unavoidably follows social change, politics and economics, this analysis casts a new light on recent architecture. Starting with the lead up to events in the 1990s, links are established between the global dominance of the North Atlantic economies, architectural style and a dramatic increase in international architectural practice. The widely-observed homogeneity of the global consumer economy is examined in relation to branding, tourism and international competition between cities, and parallels are drawn with universal architectural and urban types, iconic architecture and the rise of the star architect. Contrasting pressures to maintain differences are identified in the break-up of nation states, identity politics, targeted marketing and environmentalism, and these are related to attempts to reinforce local identity through architecture and urban design. Using social, political and economic change as a guide to new directions in architecture and urban design, the book ends by tracing the changes in global power revealed by the 2008 Western financial crash and its immediate impact on the built environment. By comparing past patterns of cultural influence, the book speculates on how architecture and urban design may come to reflect wider global trends.

The Globalisation of Modern Architecture

The Impact of Politics, Economics and Social Change on Architecture and Urban Design Since 1990
Author: Robert Adam
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Pub
ISBN: 9781443848244
Category: Architecture
Page: 338
View: 6546

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Taking the break-up of the Soviet Union and the entry of Russia, China and India into the global market as the start of a new era of globalisation, Robert Adam compares new developments in architecture and urban design with major shifts in the balance of power since 1990. Based on the principle that design unavoidably follows social change, politics and economics, this analysis casts a new light on recent architecture. Starting with the lead up to events in the 1990s, links are established between the global dominance of the North Atlantic economies, architectural style and a dramatic increase in international architectural practice. The widely-observed homogeneity of the global consumer economy is examined in relation to branding, tourism and international competition between cities, and parallels are drawn with universal architectural and urban types, iconic architecture and the rise of the star architect. Contrasting pressures to maintain differences are identified in the break-up of nation states, identity politics, targeted marketing and environmentalism, and these are related to attempts to reinforce local identity through architecture and urban design. Using social, political and economic change as a guide to new directions in architecture and urban design, the book ends by tracing the changes in global power revealed by the 2008 Western financial crash and its immediate impact on the built environment. By comparing past patterns of cultural influence, the book speculates on how architecture and urban design may come to reflect wider global trends.

Architecture and Globalisation in the Persian Gulf Region


Author: Nasser Golzari
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317179447
Category: Architecture
Page: 494
View: 996

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This is the first book ever to examine the architecture and urbanism of the Persian Gulf as a complete entity, dealing equally with conditions on the eastern Iranian shoreline as in Arabic countries on the western side. By inviting a range of architects and scholars to write about historical and contemporary influences on 14 cities along both Gulf coastlines, the book traces the changes in architecture and human settlement in relation to environmental factors and particularity of place. It provides an innovative contribution to the study of architecture and globalisation through a detailed investigation of this particular region, investigating how buildings and cities are being shaped as a result. A set of thematic essays at the end offer important insights into issues of globalisation, urbanism and environmental design, drawing from the experience of the Persian Gulf. The outcome is a unique record of the Gulf in the early-21st century at a point when global capitalism is making major inroads and yet questions of architectural design, climate change, ecological sustainability, cultural identity and so-called 'Facebook Democracy' are likewise shaking up the Middle Eastern region. The book thus offers a fresh reading of the architecture and urbanism of a fascinating and often contradictory region, while also showing how globalisation can be analysed in a more engaged and integrated manner.

Time Frames

Conservation Policies for Twentieth-Century Architectural Heritage
Author: Ugo Carughi,Massimo Visone
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1351980351
Category: Architecture
Page: 532
View: 5269

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Time Frames provides a reconnaissance on the conservation rules and current protection policies of more than 100 countries, with particular attention to the emerging nations and twentieth-century architecture. The contributions illustrate the critical issues related to architectural listings, with a brief history of national approaches, a linkography and a short bibliography. The book also provides a short critical lexicography, with 12 papers written by scholars and experts including topics on identities, heritages, conservation, memories and the economy. By examining the methods used to designate building as heritage sites across the continents, this book provides a comprehensive overview of current protection policies of twentieth-century architecture as well as the role of architectural history.

Architecture, Mentalities and Meaning


Author: Patrick Malone
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1351675362
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 9542

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In order to function, architectural theory and practice must be shaped to suit current cultural, economic, and political forces. Thus, architecture embodies reductive logic that conditions the treatment of human and social processes – which raises the question of how to define objectivity for architectural mentalities that must conform to a set of immediate conditions. This book focuses on meaning, and on the physical and mental processes that define life in built environments. The potential to draw knowledge from aesthetics, psychology, political economy, philosophy, geography, and sociology is offset by the fact that architectural logic is inevitably reductive, cultural, socio-economic, and political. However, despite the duty to conform, it is argued that the treatment of human processes, and the understanding of architectural mentalities, can benefit from interdisciplinary linkages, small freedoms, and cracks in a system of imperatives that can yield the means of greater objectivity. This is valuable reading for students and researchers interested in architectural theory as a working reality, and in the relationships between architecture and other fields.

The Greening of Architecture

A Critical History and Survey of Contemporary Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design
Author: Phillip James Tabb,A. Senem Deviren
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351888617
Category: Architecture
Page: 216
View: 3319

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Contemporary architecture, and the culture it reflects dependent as it is on fossil fuels, has contributed to the cause and necessity of a burgeoning green process that emerged over the past half century. This text is the first to offer a comprehensive critical history and analysis of the greening of architecture through accumulative reduction of negative environmental effects caused by buildings, urban designs and settlements. Describing the progressive development of green architecture from 1960 to 2010, it illustrates how it is ever evolving and ameliorated through alterations in form, technology, materials and use and it examines different places worldwide that represent a diversity of cultural and climatic contexts. The book is divided into seven chapters: with an overview of the environmental issues and the nature of green architecture in response to them, followed by an historic perspective of the pioneering evolution of green technology and architectural integration over the past five decades, and finally, providing the intransigent and culturally pervasive current examples within a wide range of geographic territories. The greening of architecture is seen as an evolutionary process that is informed by significant world events, climate change, environmental theories, movements in architecture, technological innovations, and seminal works in architecture and planning throughout each decade over the past fifty years. This time period is bounded on one end by the awareness of environmental problems beginning in the 1960's, the influential texts by Rachel Carson, E.F. Schumacher, Buckminster Fuller and Steward Brand, and the impact of the OPEC Oil Embargo of 1973, and on the other end the pervasiveness of the necessary greening of architecture that includes, systemic reforms in architectural and urban design, land use planning, transportation, agriculture, and energy production found in the 2000's. The greening process moves from remediation to holistic models of architecture. Geographical landscapes give a global account of the greening process where some examples are parallel and sympathetic, and others are in clear contrast to one another with very individuated approaches. Certain events, like the Rio Summit in 1992 and Kyoto Protocol in 1997, and themes, such as the Hannover Principles in 2000, provide a dynamic ideological critique as well as a formal and technical discussion of the embodied and accumulative content of greening principles in architecture.

Cities in a Globalizing World

Global Report on Human Settlements 2001
Author: United Nations Centre for Human Settlements
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1853838055
Category: Social Science
Page: 344
View: 715

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'The world has entered the urban millennium. Nearly half the world's people are now city dwellers, and the rapid increase in urban population is expected to continue, mainly in developing countries. This historic transition is being further propelled by the powerful forces of globalization. The central challenge for the international community is clear: to make both urbanization and globalization work for all people, instead of leaving billions behind or on the margins...Cities in a Globalizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements 2001 is a comprehensive review of conditions in the world's cities and the prospects for making them better, safer places to live in an age of globalization. I hope that it will provide all stakeholders - foremost among them the urban poor themselves - with reliable and timely information with which to set our policies right and get the machinery of urban life moving in a constructive direction.'From the Foreword by Kofi Annan, Secretary-General, United Nations.Cities in a Globalizing World presents a comprehensive review of the world's cities and analyses the positive and negative impacts on human settlements of the global trends towards social and economic integration and the rapid changes in information and communication technologies. In this Global Report, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) draws on specially commissioned and contributed background papers from more than 80 leading international specialists. The report focuses on recent trends in human settlements and their implications for poverty, inequity and social polarization. It develops advance knowledge for urban planning and management policies in support and promotion of inclusive cities and good urban governance. This major and influential report is the most authoritative and up-to-date assessment of human settlements conditions and trends. Written in clear, non-technical language and supported by informative graphics, case studies and extensive statistical data, it should be an essential tool and reference for academics, researchers, planners, public authorities and civil society organizations around the world.

Globalization and Cultural Trends in China


Author: Kang Liu
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 9780824827595
Category: Political Science
Page: 208
View: 6112

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In this timely work, Liu Kang argues that globalization in China is both a historical condition in which the country's gaige kaifang (reform and opening up) has unfolded and a set of values or ideologies by which it and the rest of the globe are judged. Moreover, globalization signals a significant ascendancy of culture. Liu examines China's current ideological struggles in political discourse, intellectual debate, popular culture, avant-garde literature, the news media, and the internet. With careful textual analysis and observation informed by critical theories and cultural studies, he offers a forceful critique of the Chinese version of globalism that privileges economic development at the expense of social justice and equality.

The Changing of the Avant-garde

Visionary Architectural Drawings from the Howard Gilman Collection
Author: Terence Riley,Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)
Publisher: The Museum of Modern Art
ISBN: 9780870700033
Category: Architectural drawing
Page: 192
View: 5302

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What would it be like to live in R. Buckminster Fuller's hexagonal Dymaxion House? To visit Arata Isozaki's project for Hiroshima? To grow up in John Hejduk's Wall House? There are only fictional answers to questions such as these, but what imagination wouldn't ponder them upon seeing the drawings assembled in The Changing of the Avant Garde? Featuring 165 expertly reproduced visionary architectural drawings from The Museum of Modern Art's Howard Gilman Archive, this collection brings together a selection of idealized, fantastic, and utopian architectural drawings mainly from the 1960s and 70s. This publication, the first to consider the drawings since the archive was established in 1998, is accompanied by essays exploring the significance of the works, and an interview with Pierre Apraxine, the former curator of the collection.

Landscape and Society in Contemporary Ireland


Author: Brendan McGrath
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781909005716
Category: Architecture
Page: 238
View: 7517

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Nearby, over several days, a landowner, with the help of a JCB, razed level a limestone outcrop and its hazel thicket to make way for a brand new field that was topped off with truck-loads of imported soil. Meanwhile, on the other sideof the Burren an ugly array of signage, most of it unauthorised, became the backdrop for another 'welcome' sign. These various bits of new development in the last dozen years are unexceptional in themselves. But they drew my attention because of their proximity to that simple and unequivocal declaration of landscape protection. The contrast between the public message and what was happening around the signs is just one illustration of the unsatisfactory relationship that exists between contemporary Irish society and the places that it inhabits. This book is an examination of that relationship. The book is about both special places like the Burren and the everyday landscape experience. My aim is to give an account of contemporary Irish landscape and to describe and to explain how and why it has changed over the last forty years.

Women's Activism and Globalization

Linking Local Struggles and Global Politics
Author: Nancy A. Naples,Manisha Desai
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135955166
Category: Social Science
Page: 352
View: 1491

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First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

The Political Economy of Contemporary Spain

From Miracle to Mirage
Author: Luis Buendía,Ricardo Molero-Simarro
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351394886
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 160
View: 4378

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The so-called ‘Spanish miracle’, beginning in the mid-1990s, eventually became a nightmare for the majority of the population, culminating in the present-day economic and political crisis. This book explores the main features of the Spanish political-economic model during both the growth and crisis periods. Analyzing the causes and consequences of the continuing economic crisis in Spain, this book delves into five analytical axes: the evolution of the growth model; the role of Spain in the international division of labor; the financial sector and its influence on the rest of the economy; changes in the labor market; and the distributional consequences of both the expansive phase and the later crisis. Furthermore, contributors examine the formation of a triangle of actors (the government sector, building sector, and financial capital) that shaped the Spanish growth model, together with the effects of Spain’s membership in the Economic and Monetary Union. Also considering ecological problems, gender issues, and the immigration question, this book challenges the alleged recovery of living conditions during recent years, as well as the explanation of the crisis as the result of irrational behaviors or the greedy nature of certain actors. The Political Economy of Contemporary Spain provides a coherent explanation of the Spanish economic crisis based on a pluralistic approach, while proposing several measures that could contribute to a transformation of Spain’s economic and social models.

Globalization, Growth, and Poverty

Building an Inclusive World Economy
Author: Paul Collier,David Dollar
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821350485
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 174
View: 8435

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Globalization - the growing integration of economies and societies around the world, is a complex process. The focus of this research is the impact of economic integration on developing countries and especially the poor people living in these countries. Whether economic integration supports poverty reduction and how it can do so more effectively are key questions asked. The research yields 3 main findings with bearings on current policy debates about globalization. Firstly, poor countries with some 3 billion people have broken into the global market for manufactures and services, and this successful integration has generally supported poverty reduction. Secondly, inclusion both across countries and within them is important as a number of countries (pop. 2 billion) are failing as states, trading less and less, and becoming marginal to the world economy. Thirdly, standardization or homogenization is a concern - will economic integration lead to cultural or institutional homogenization?

A Better Globalization

Legitimacy, Governance, and Reform
Author: Kemal Derviş
Publisher: Ctr for Global Development
ISBN: 9780815717638
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 301
View: 8125

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"Discusses the two broad dimensions of the globalization debate--economic, including finance, trade, poverty, and health; and political, covering security, the fight against terrorism, and the role of international institutions--and the significance of democratic consent in the twenty-first century"--Provided by publisher.

Building and Dwelling

Ethics for the City
Author: Richard Sennett
Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
ISBN: 0374716242
Category: Social Science
Page: 368
View: 5634

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A preeminent thinker redefines the meaning of city life and charts a way forward Building and Dwelling is the definitive statement on cities by the renowned public intellectual Richard Sennett. In this sweeping work, he traces the anguished relation between how cities are built and how people live in them, from ancient Athens to twenty-first-century Shanghai. He shows how Paris, Barcelona, and New York City assumed their modern forms; rethinks the reputations of Jane Jacobs, Lewis Mumford, and others; and takes us on a tour of emblematic contemporary locations, from the backstreets of Medellín, Colombia, to the Google headquarters in Manhattan. Through it all, he laments that the “closed city”—segregated, regimented, and controlled—has spread from the global North to the exploding urban agglomerations of the global South. As an alternative, he argues for the “open city,” where citizens actively hash out their differences and planners experiment with urban forms that make it easier for residents to cope. Rich with arguments that speak directly to our moment—a time when more humans live in urban spaces than ever before—Building and Dwelling draws on Sennett’s deep learning and intimate engagement with city life to form a bold and original vision for the future of cities.

Demystifying Doha

On Architecture and Urbanism in an Emerging City
Author: Dr Florian Wiedmann,Professor Ashraf M Salama
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409466361
Category: Architecture
Page: 300
View: 4859

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Over the past decade or so, the wealth produced by Qatar's oil and gas exports has generated a construction development boom in its capital city of Doha and the surrounding vicinity. Since the late 1990s, the number of inhabitants has grown from less than 400,000 to more than 1.7 million today. In many respects, Doha is portrayed as an important emerging global capital in the Gulf region, which has been positioning and re-inventing itself on the map of international architecture and urbanism, with a global image of building clusters of glass office towers, as well as cultural and educational facilities. While focusing on the architectural and planning aspects of Doha's intensive urbanization, this first comprehensive examination of the city sets this within the socio-political and economic context of the wider Arabian Peninsula. 'Demystifying Doha - On Architecture and Urbanism in an Emerging City' features a comprehensive discussion on contemporary architecture and urbanism of Doha as an emerging regional metropolis. It provides a critical analysis of the evolution of architecture and urbanism as products of the contemporary global condition. Issues that pertain to emerging service hubs, decentralised urban governance, integrated urban development strategies, image-making practices, urban identity, the dialectic relations between the city and its society and sustainable urbanism are all examined to elucidate the urban evolution and the contemporary condition of Doha. 'Demystifying Doha - On Architecture and Urbanism in an Emerging City' concludes by suggesting a framework for future studies of the city as well as for investigating the future of similar cities, setting out an agenda for sustainable urban growth, while invigorating the multiple roles urban planners and architects can play in shaping this future.

Planning Middle Eastern Cities

An Urban Kaleidoscope
Author: Yasser Elsheshtawy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134410093
Category: Architecture
Page: 224
View: 7335

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Middle Eastern cities cannot be lumped together as a single group. Rather they make up the urban kaleidoscope of the title, as the diversity of the six cities included here shows. They range from cities rich in tradition (Cairo, Tunis, and Baghdad), to neglected cities (Algiers and Sana'a), to newly emerging 'oil-rich' Gulf cities (Dubai). The authors are all young Arab scholars and architects local to the cities they describe, providing an authentic voice with an understanding no outsider could achieve. These contributors move away from an exclusively 'Islamic' reading of Arab cities - which they regard as outdated and counterproductive. Instead, they explore issues of identity and globalization in the context of the struggles and solutions offered by each city from the late nineteenth century to the present day. Their focus is on how the built environment has changed over time and under different influences.

China and Globalization

The Social, Economic and Political Transformation of Chinese Society
Author: Doug Guthrie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136327444
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 360
View: 4782

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Choice Outstanding Academic Title 2009! In its quarter-century-long shift from communism to capitalism, China has transformed itself from a desperately poor nation into a country with one of the fastest-growing and largest economies in the world. Doug Guthrie examines the reforms driving the economic genesis in this compact and highly readable introduction to contemporary China. He highlights the social, cultural and political factors fostering this revolutionary change and interweaves a broad structural analysis with a consideration of social changes at the micro and macro levels. In this new, revised edition author Guthrie updates his story on modern China and provides the latest authoritative data and examples from current events to chart where this dynamically changing society is headed and what the likely consequences for the rest of the world will be.

The Earth in the Attic


Author: Fady Joudah
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300134304
Category: Poetry
Page: 77
View: 3599

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Fady Joudah’s The Earth in the Attic is the 2007 winner of the Yale Series of Younger Poets competition. In his poems Joudah explores big themes—identity, war, religion, what we hold in common—while never losing sight of the quotidian, the specific. Contest judge Louise Glück describes the poet in her Foreword as “that strange animal, the lyric poet in whom circumstance and profession . . . have compelled obsession with large social contexts and grave national dilemmas.” She finds in his poetry an incantatory quality and concludes, “These are small poems, many of them, but the grandeur of conception is inescapable. The Earth in the Attic is varied, coherent, fierce, tender; impossible to put down, impossible to forget.”

Globalization and Social Policy


Author: Nicola Yeates
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781446228876
Category: Globalization
Page: 195
View: 9687

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'This book exhibits the characteristics of all good social policy texts. It is fired by a commitment to welfare. It is informed by extensive multidisciplinary scholarship. It debunks fashionable myths. Nicola Yeates argues convincingly that while globalization in its many manifestations and dimensions (economic, cultural and political) has to be built into the analytical framework used by social policy scholars, globalizing pressures are not immutable nor guaranteed success in overriding local and national social and political forces . Essential reading on all social policy courses'- "Bob Deacon, Professor of Social Policy, University of Sheffield/STAKES, Finland " 'Many social scientists have not yet woken up to the fact that globalization has transformed the nature of social policy. The severity and the causes of many problems are harder to pin down; research and teaching programmes have to be re-cast. This book offers a penetrating assessment of the changes that have to be made'-" Peter Townsend, Professor of International Social Policy, LSE " This timely textbook critically evaluates the relevance and implications of globalisation in relation to both the academic study of social policy and social welfare provision. Globalisation and Social Policy: . Examines the implications of globalization for social policy analysis and provision . Analyses how social policies and politics contribute to and shape globalizing strategies . Argues that the degree to which globalization gives rise to systematic changes in the funding, regulation and provision of welfare has been overestimated and . Demonstrates that national and local forces remain decisive in understanding the development of social policy Globalization and Social Policy provides an invaluable guide to the expanding field. It provides a refreshing antidote to 'victorious' and defeatist' accounts of globalization and its implications for social welfare, and argues that politics matter now as much as they ever did. It will be welcomed by all students of social policy, and will also be of interest to other social science students engaged in issues of globalization.