The Global Political Economy of Israel

From War Profits to Peace Dividends
Author: Jonathan Nitzan,Shimshon Bichler
Publisher: Pluto Press
ISBN: 9780745316758
Category: History
Page: 407
View: 2565

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Leading writer Boris Kagarlitsky offers an ambitious account of 1000 years of Russian history.

The Global Political Economy of Israel

From War Profits to Peace Dividends
Author: Jonathan Nitzan,Shimshon Bichler
Publisher: Pluto Press
ISBN: 9780745316765
Category: Political Science
Page: 407
View: 8263

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Over the past century, Israel has been transformed from an agricultural colony, to a welfare-warfare state, to a globally integrated "market economy" characterised by great income disparities. What lies behind this transformation? In order to understand capitalist development, argue Bichler and Nitzan, we need to break the artificial separation between "economics" and "politics", and think of accumulation itself as "capitalisation of power". Applying this concept to Israel, they reveal the big picture that never makes it to the news. Diverse processes – such as regional conflicts and energy crises, ruling class formation and dominant ideology, militarism and dependency, inflation and recession, the politics of high-technology and the transnationalisation of ownership – are all woven into a single story. The result is a fascinating account of one of the world’s most volatile regions.

The Global Political Economy of Raúl Prebisch


Author: Matias E. Margulis
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1315414600
Category: Political Science
Page: 236
View: 559

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The Global Political Economy of Raúl Prebisch offers an original analysis of global political economy by examining it through the ideas, agency and influence of one of its most important thinkers, leaders and personalities. Prebisch’s ground-breaking ideas as an economist – the terms-of-trade thesis and the economic case for state-led industrialization – changed the world and guided economic policy across the global South. As the head of two UN bodies – the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and later the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) – he was at the frontline of key North–South political struggles for a fairer global distribution of wealth and the regulation of transnational corporations. Prebisch increasingly came to view political power, not just economic capabilities, as pivotal to shaping the institutions and rules of the world economy. This book contextualizes his ideas, exploring how they were used and their relevance to contemporary issues. The neoliberal turn in economics in North America, Western Europe and across the global South led to an active discrediting of Prebisch’s theories and this volume offers an important corrective, reintroducing current and future generations of scholars and students to this important body of work and allowing a richer understanding of past and ongoing political struggles.

Capital as Power

A Study of Order and Creorder
Author: Jonathan Nitzan,Shimshon Bichler
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134022298
Category: Political Science
Page: 464
View: 5586

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Conventional theories of capitalism are mired in a deep crisis: after centuries of debate, they are still unable to tell us what capital is. Liberals and Marxists both think of capital as an ‘economic’ entity that they count in universal units of ‘utils’ or ‘abstract labour’, respectively. But these units are totally fictitious. Nobody has ever been able to observe or measure them, and for a good reason: they don’t exist. Since liberalism and Marxism depend on these non-existing units, their theories hang in suspension. They cannot explain the process that matters most – the accumulation of capital. This book offers a radical alternative. According to the authors, capital is not a narrow economic entity, but a symbolic quantification of power. It has little to do with utility or abstract labour, and it extends far beyond machines and production lines. Capital, the authors claim, represents the organized power of dominant capital groups to reshape – or creorder – their society. Written in simple language, accessible to lay readers and experts alike, the book develops a novel political economy. It takes the reader through the history, assumptions and limitations of mainstream economics and its associated theories of politics. It examines the evolution of Marxist thinking on accumulation and the state. And it articulates an innovative theory of ‘capital as power’ and a new history of the ‘capitalist mode of power’.

The Political Economy of Food and Finance


Author: Ted P. Schmidt
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317561341
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 160
View: 976

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The financialization, globalization and industrialization of our food systems make it increasingly difficult to access quality fresh food. In fact, the industrialized global food system is creating products that are less food-like, engendering growing questions about the health and safety of our food supply. In addition, the bio-engineering of food commodities is another factor influencing the growth of industrial farming for an increasingly homogenized, globalized market. This book describes the financialization process in commodity futures markets which transformed commodities into an asset class. Incorporated into the portfolio decisions of investors, commodity prices now behave like all asset prices, becoming more volatile and subject to periodic bubbles. As commodity prices were driven higher in the 2000s, farmland became more valuable, setting off a global land grab by investors, nations, and corporations. More recently, under the financialization food regime, slow growth and low returns encouraged merger activity driven by private equity firms, with food industry corporations as prime targets, leading to increased industry concentration. With government policy focused on supporting corporate interests, there has been a global reaction to the current food system. The food sovereignty movement is taking on the interests behind the global land grab, and the regional food movement in cities across the U.S. is hitting corporations at the bottom line. Food corporations are listening. Is the food movement winning? This book is of interest to those who study political economy, financialization and agriculture and related studies, as well as food systems and commodity future markets.

The Global Political Economy of Intellectual Property Rights

The New Enclosures?
Author: Christopher May
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136361170
Category: Political Science
Page: 224
View: 9565

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It has become a commonplace that there has been an information revolution, transforming both society and the economy. In 1995 the Trade Related Intellectual Property (TRIPs) agreement aimed to harmonise protection for property in knowledge throughout the global system. This book considers the contemporary disputes about the ownership of knowledge resources - as in the cases of genetically modified foods, the music industry or the internet - and the problematic nature of the TRIPs agreement. In this highly topical book, Christopher May reveals that, because of such problems, at present the balance in intellectual property rights between public good and private reward is more often than not weighted towards the latter.

The Political Economy of Border Drawing

Arranging Legality in European Labor Migration Policies
Author: Regine Paul
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782385428
Category: Social Science
Page: 244
View: 1218

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The conditions for non-EU migrant workers to gain legal entry to Britain, France, and Germany are at the same time similar and quite different. To explain this variation this book compares the fine-grained legal categories for migrant workers in each country, and examines the interaction of economic, social, and cultural rationales in determining migrant legality. Rather than investigating the failure of borders to keep unauthorized migrants out, the author highlights the different policies of each country as "border-drawing" actions. Policymakers draw lines between different migrant groups, and between migrants and citizens, through considerations of both their economic utility and skills, but also their places of origin and prospects for social integration. Overall, migrant worker legality is arranged against the backdrop of the specific vision each country has of itself in an economically competitive, globalized world with rapidly changing welfare and citizenship models.

Political Economy of Tourism

A Critical Perspective
Author: Jan Mosedale
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136859519
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 288
View: 3984

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Political economy, in its various guises and transfigurations, is a research philosophy that presents both social commentary and theoretical progress and is concerned with a number of different topics: politics, regulation and governance, production systems, social relations, inequality and development amongst many others. As a critical theory, political economy seeks to provide an understanding of societies – and of the structures and social relations that form them – in order to evoke social change toward more equitable conditions. Despite the early influence of critical development studies and political economy on tourism research, political economy has received relatively little attention in tourism research. Political Economy and Tourism the first volume to bring together different theoretical perspectives and discourse in political economy related to tourism. Written by leading scholars, the text is organised into three sequential Parts, linked by the principle that ‘the political’ and ‘the economic’ are intimately connected. Part one presents different approaches to political economy, including Marxist political economy, regulation, comparative political economy, commodity chain research and alternative political economies; Part two links key themes of political economy, such as class, gender, labour, development and consumption, to tourism; and Part three examines the political economy at various geographical scales and focuses on the outcomes and processes of the political act of planning and managing tourism production. This engaging volume provides insights and alternative critical perspectives on political economy theory to expand discussions of tourism development and policy in the future. Political Economy and Tourism is a valuable text for students, researchers and academics interested in Tourism and related disciplines.

Neoliberalism As a State Project

Changing the Political Economy of Israel
Author: Asa Maron,Michael Shalev
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198793022
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 7380

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This book explores the politics, institutional dynamics, and outcomes of neoliberal restructuring in Israel. It puts forward a bold proposition: that the very creation of a neoliberal political economy may be largely a state project. Correspondingly, it argues that key political conflicts surrounding the realization of this project may occur within the state. Neoliberal restructuring and the institutionalization of permanent austerity are dependent on reconfigured power relations between state actors and are manifested in a new institutional architecture of the state. This architecture, in turn, is the context in which efforts to change social and employment policies play themselves out. The volume frames the coming of neoliberalism in Israel as a set of concrete and far-reaching changes in the power and modes of operation of the key players in the political economy. These changes undermined and neutralized veto players and enabled the ascendance of two state agencies - the Ministry of Finance and the Central Bank - which gained greatly augmented authority and autonomy. These reconfigurations were set in motion by state initiatives that combined punctuated and incremental change. The volume comprises case studies of changes in specific social and labor market policies, revealing a close elective affinity between programmatic neoliberal changes on the one hand, and on the other the proactive drive of the Ministry of Finance to enhance its control over public spending and policy design. The book explores successful neoliberal reforms but also reforms that were blocked, undermined, or overturned by opposition, emphasizing the importance of reformers' capacity to translate temporary achievements into entrenched strategic advantages.

The Political Economy of Development and Underdevelopment in Africa


Author: Toyin Falola,Jessica Achberger
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136683879
Category: Social Science
Page: 452
View: 6120

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While Africa is too often regarded as lying on the periphery of the global political arena, this is not the case. African nations have played an important historical role in world affairs. It is with this understanding that the authors in this volume set out upon researching and writing their chapters, making an important collective contribution to our understanding of modern Africa. Taken as a whole, the chapters represent the range of research in African development, and fully tie this development to the global political economy. African nations play significant roles in world politics, both as nations influenced by the ebbs and flows of the global economy and by the international political system, but also as actors, directly influencing politics and economics. It is only through an understanding of both the history and present place of Africa in global affairs that we can begin to assess the way forward for future development.

China's Global Political Economy

Managerial Perspectives
Author: Robert Taylor,Jacques Jaussaud
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351592432
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 316
View: 3010

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Much has been written about China’s economy, as well as its business management system. China's Global Political Economy, however, is designed to bring together these two perspectives, serving to enhance our understanding of China’s growing global role. Examining changes in the management strategies of foreign companies investing in China and Chinese enterprises doing business overseas, this book analyses China’s political economy in the context of the Communist Party’s changing policies. The introductory section begins by studying the aspects of Chinese economic growth as it impacts on domestic social issues and the projection of Chinese power abroad. Within this overall framework, it then goes on to critically assess the effects of foreign investment, business management strategies, human resource management, corporate social responsibility and the financial services sector. Arguing that the encouragement of consumption is a significant objective of the Chinese leadership, the last section is concerned with the importance of the food industry. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of Chinese business, management and international political economy, as well as policymakers and business practitioners.

The Political Economy of Trade Finance

Export Credit Agencies, the Paris Club and the IMF
Author: Pamela Blackmon
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317672917
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 140
View: 9263

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Export Credit Agencies provide insurance and guarantees to domestic firms in the event that payment is not received from an importer. Thus, ECAs reduce uncertainties domestic firms face in exporting their goods. Most countries have ECAs that operate as official or quasi-official branches of their governments and they therefore represent an important part of government strategies to facilitate trade, promote domestic industry and distribute foreign aid. The Political Economy of Trade Finance provides a detailed analysis as to how firms use the medium and longer-term financing provided by ECAs to export goods to developing countries. It also explains how ECA arrears have contributed to the debt of developing countries and illustrates how the commercial interests of ECA activity are evident in decisions about IMF arrangements and related to Paris Club debt rescheduling agreements. Finally, the book documents how the medium and longer-term export credit insurance support provided by the G-7 ECAs was a central component in mitigating steep declines in international trade during the 2008 Global Financial Crisis. This book is of great interest to both academics and students in the field of political economy, finance and politics of international trade. It is also of importance to policy makers.

The Unmaking of Arab Socialism


Author: Ali Kadri
Publisher: Anthem Press
ISBN: 1783085525
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 250
View: 423

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Conditions of malnutrition, conflict, or a combination of both characterize many Arab countries, but this was not always so. As in much of the developing world, the immediate post-independence period represented an age of hope and relative prosperity. But imperialism did not sleep while these countries developed, and it soon intervened to destroy these post-independence achievements. The two principal defeats and losses of territory to Israel in 1967 and 1973, as well as the others that followed, left in their wake more than the destruction of assets and the loss of human lives: the Arab World lost its ideology of resistance. The Unmaking of Arab Socialism is an attempt to understand the reasons for Arab world's developmental descent from the pinnacle of Arab socialism to its present desolate conditions through an examination of the post-colonial histories of Egypt, Syria, and Iraq.

The BRICS and Beyond

The International Political Economy of the Emergence of a New World Order
Author: Li Xing
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317040007
Category: Political Science
Page: 246
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The world is in an era of great transformations. Globalization, transnational capitalism, September 11, the 2008 global financial crises, and the emergence of the ’second world’ in general and the BRICS in particular are characterized by a diffusion of power away from the traditional North Western powers and towards the global South. Such great transformations have reshaped the terrain and parameters of social, economic and political relations both at the national and the global levels and have exerted pressure on the exiting international order in terms of both opportunities and constraints. This new era also urges the need for re-conceptualizing the changing world order especially with regard to one of the core conceptual categories and analytical apparatus in the studies of IR and IPE - hegemony. The world will witness a new era of interdependent hegemony, in which both the existing ’First World’ and the emerging ’Second World’ are intertwined in a constant process of shaping and reshaping the international order in the nexus of national interest, regional orientation, common economic and political agenda, political alliance and potential conflicts. This collection juxtaposes, from different perspectives and approaches, the discussion on the political economy of the emerging world order with a focus on the rising powers.

Governing the Global Economy

Politics, Institutions and Economic Development
Author: Dag Harald Claes,Carl Henrik Knutsen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136702253
Category: Political Science
Page: 384
View: 7386

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Overview of the study of international political economy analysing key questions in the discipline.

The Political Economy of Contemporary Spain

From Miracle to Mirage
Author: Luis Buendía,Ricardo Molero-Simarro
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351394886
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 160
View: 9703

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The so-called ‘Spanish miracle’, beginning in the mid-1990s, eventually became a nightmare for the majority of the population, culminating in the present-day economic and political crisis. This book explores the main features of the Spanish political-economic model during both the growth and crisis periods. Analyzing the causes and consequences of the continuing economic crisis in Spain, this book delves into five analytical axes: the evolution of the growth model; the role of Spain in the international division of labor; the financial sector and its influence on the rest of the economy; changes in the labor market; and the distributional consequences of both the expansive phase and the later crisis. Furthermore, contributors examine the formation of a triangle of actors (the government sector, building sector, and financial capital) that shaped the Spanish growth model, together with the effects of Spain’s membership in the Economic and Monetary Union. Also considering ecological problems, gender issues, and the immigration question, this book challenges the alleged recovery of living conditions during recent years, as well as the explanation of the crisis as the result of irrational behaviors or the greedy nature of certain actors. The Political Economy of Contemporary Spain provides a coherent explanation of the Spanish economic crisis based on a pluralistic approach, while proposing several measures that could contribute to a transformation of Spain’s economic and social models.

Cultural Political Economy


Author: Jacqueline Best,Matthew Paterson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135173893
Category: Political Science
Page: 264
View: 8462

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The global political economy is inescapably cultural. Whether we talk about the economic dimensions of the "war on terror", the sub-prime crisis and its aftermath, or the ways in which new information technology has altered practices of production and consumption, it has become increasingly clear that these processes cannot be fully captured by the hyper-rational analysis of economists or the slogans of class conflict. This book argues that culture is a concept that can be used to develop more subtle and fruitful analyses of the dynamics and problems of the global political economy. Rediscovering the unacknowledged role of culture in the writings of classical political economists, the contributors to this volume reveal its central place in the historical evolution of post-war capitalism, exploring its continued role in contemporary economic processes that range from the commercialization of security practices to the development of ethical tourism. The book shows that culture plays a role in both constituting different forms of economic life and in shaping the diverse ways that capitalism has developed historically – from its earliest moments to its most recent challenges. Providing valuable insights to a wide range of disciplines, this volume will be of vital interest to students and scholars of International Political Economy, Cultural and Economic Geography and Sociology, and International Relations.

Israel and the World Economy

The Power of Globalization
Author: Assaf Razin
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262037343
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 232
View: 4443

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This book provides rigorous analysis of some of the major episodes during Israel's economic transition and spells out, empirically, how globalization played a crucial role in advancing Israel's economic progress. Economists and policy makers can gain insights as to how a globalized economy can take advantage of international trade, labor mobility, its international financial links, while at the same time navigate shocks like the 2008 global financial crisis. It discusses the collapse of the Soviet Union and the massive wave of high skill immigration to Israel which followed; the Great Moderation in inflation and employment fluctuations in the advanced economies, and the convergence of Israel's inflation to the low world inflation rates; the 2008 Global Financial Crisis and the surprising robust performance of the Israeli economy; the rise of the Asian markets, recently opened up to Israel's exports, which became abundant source of outward foreign direct investments; the global information technology surge and its spillovers to the emerging high-tech sector in Israel; brain drain facilitated by Israel's higher education system; and the economic implications of the Palestinian-Israeli crisis. In addition to analyzing the past and current state of Israel, the book compares developments within the Israeli economy to developed and emerging-market economies in similar circumstances. It combines economic theory with empirical evidence, and includes a review of the literature covering earlier stages of Israel's economic development.

The Political Economy of Transitions to Peace


Author: Galia Press-Barnathan
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
ISBN: 0822973588
Category: Political Science
Page: 304
View: 6917

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Much attention has focused on the ongoing role of economics in the prevention of armed conflict and the deterioration of relations. In The Political Economy of Transitions to Peace, Galia Press-Barnathan focuses on the importance of economics in initiating and sustaining peaceful relations after conflict. Press-Barnathan provides in-depth case studies of several key relationships in the post-World War II era: Israel and Egypt; Israel and Jordan; Japan, the Philippines, and Indonesia; Japan and South Korea; Germany and France; and Germany and Poland. She creates an analytical framework through which to view each of these cases based on three factors: the domestic balance between winners and losers from transition to peace; the economic disparity between former enemies; and the impact of third parties on stimulating new cooperative economic initiatives. Her approach provides both a regional and cross-regional comparative analysis of the degree of success in maintaining and advancing peace, of the challenges faced by many nations in negotiating peace after conflict, and of the unique role of economic factors in this highly political process. Press-Barnathan employs both liberal and realist theory to examine the motivations of these states and the societies they represent. She also weighs their power relations to see how these factor into economic interdependence and the peace process. She reveals the predominant role of the state and big business in the initial transition phase ("cold" peace), but also identifies an equally vital need for a subsequent broader societal coalition in the second, normalizing phase ("warm" peace). Both levels of engagement, Press-Barnathan argues, are essential to a durable peace. Finally, she points to the complex role that third parties can play in these transitions, and the limited long-term impact of direct economic side-payments to the parties.

The Political Economy of Financial Transformation in Turkey


Author: Galip Yalman,Thomas Marois,Ali R?za Güngen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317364694
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 304
View: 2460

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This volume provides a comprehensive study of Turkey’s financial transformation into one of the most dynamic, if not trouble-free, emerging capitalisms. While this financial evolution has underwritten Turkey’s dramatic economic growth, it has done so without ameliorating the persistently exploitative and unequal social structures that characterize neoliberalism today. This edited volume, written by an interdisciplinary range of political economists, critically examines Turkey’s financial transformation, contributing to debates on the nature of peripheral financialization. Eschewing economistic interpretations, The Political Economy of Financial Transformation in Turkey underscores both the quantitative significance of exponential growth in financial flows and investments, and the qualitative importance of the state’s institutional restructuring around financial imperatives. The book presents today’s reality as historically rooted. By understanding the choices made under the new Republic (from 1923 onwards), one can better locate the changes launched as a newly liberalizing society (since 1980). Likewise, the decisions made in response to Turkey’s 2001 financial crisis spurred a tectonic break in state–market–society financial relations. The waves of change have reached far and wide: from corporate strategies of accumulation and growth to small- and medium-sized enterprises’ strategies of financial survival; from how finance has penetrated the provisioning of housing to how households have become financialized. Put together, one grasps the complexity and historicity of the power of contemporary finance. One also sees that the changes made have not been class-neutral, but have entailed elevating the interests of major capital groups, particularly financial capital, above the interests of the poor and workers in Turkey. Nor are these changes constrained to its national borders, as what transpires domestically contributes to the making of a financialized world market. Through this ‘Made in Turkey’ approach the contributions in this volume thus challenge dominant understandings of financialization, which are derived from the advanced capitalisms, by sharing the specificity of emerging capitalisms such as Turkey.