The Global Gender Gap Report 2009

Author: N.A
Publisher: World Economic Forum
ISBN: 9295044282
Category: Sex discrimination
Page: 196
View: 3242

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"The Index benchmarks national gender gaps on economic, political, education- and health-based criteria, and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparions across regions and income groups, over time"-- Page 3.

Theorizing Cultures of Political Violence in Times of Austerity

Studying Social Movements in Comparative Perspective
Author: Joanna Rak
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351205730
Category: Political Science
Page: 196
View: 2132

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After the multidimensional financial crisis of 2008, the member states of the Eurozone imposed a set of economic policies to save their economies. Socially unpopular cuts contributed to the occurrence of violent movements that both opposed austerity policies and created animosity towards the politicians who implemented them. Combining qualitative and quantitative comparative analyses from anti-austerity movements in 14 Eurozone states from 2007 to 2015, Joanna Rak develops an original typology of patterns of a culture of political violence to explain why some anti-austerity movements turned to violence and others did not, despite having shared goals and political values. She uncovers the very nature of the differences and similarities between cultures of political violence, identifies their sources, and determines their differing results. Simultaneously, she opens a discussion on the exploratory and explanatory utility of the category of a culture of political violence in the Social Sciences. Theorizing Cultures of Political Violence in Times of Austerity casts new light on the scholarly debate on cultures of political violence and anti-austerity violent behavior, making it a compelling read for scholars of political sociology, political behavior, comparative politics, European politics, and sociology.

Routledge Handbook of Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies

Author: Colin C. Williams,Anjula Gurtoo
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317535146
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 576
View: 8289

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The Routledge Handbook of Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies is a landmark volume that offers a uniquely comprehensive overview of entrepreneurship in developing countries. Addressing the multi-faceted nature of entrepreneurship, chapters explore a vast range of subject areas including education, economic policy, gender and the prevalence and nature of informal sector entrepreneurship. In order to understand the process of new venture creation in developing economies, what it means to be engaged in entrepreneurship in a developing world context must be addressed. This handbook does so by exploring the difficulties, risks and rewards associated with being an entrepreneur, and evaluates the impacts of the environment, relationships, performance and policy dynamics on small and entrepreneurial firms in developing economies. The handbook brings together a unique collection of over forty international researchers who are all actively engaged in studying entrepreneurship in a developing world context. The chapters offer concise but detailed perspectives and explanations on key aspects of the subject across a diverse array of developing economies, spanning Africa, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. In doing so, the chapters highlight the heterogeneity of entrepreneurship in developed economies, and contribute to the on-going policy discourses for managing and promoting entrepreneurial growth in the developing world. The book will be of great interest to scholars, students and policymakers in the areas of development economics, business and management, public policy and development studies.

Geschlechtergerechtigkeit und Chancengleichheit in Schweden und Deutschland

Schwedens Vorbildrolle im Vergleich mit Deutschland
Author: Maria Bauerschmidt
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3656128634
Page: 88
View: 3623

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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2011 im Fachbereich Skandinavistik, Note: 1,0, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Veranstaltung: Skandinavien - Sehnsucht und Realitat, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Through the Global Gender Gap Reports, for the past five years, the World Economic Forum has been quantifying the magnitude of gender-based disparities and tracking their progress over time. By providing a comprehensive framework for benchmarking global gender gaps, the Report reveals those countries that are role models in dividing resources equitably between women and men, regardless of their level of resources"(Schwab / Zahidi 2010: 6). Im Global Gender Gap Report 2010 wird deutlich, dass die skandinavischen Lander auf den Gebieten der Chancengleichheit und Geschlechtergerechtigkeit seit mehreren Jahren Vorreiter sind und den anderen Landern weltweit als benchmark-wurdige Vorbilder dienen (sollten). Warum aber sind die Skandinavier so viel besser als andere europaische Lander? In vorliegender Arbeit wird auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse des Global Gender Gap Reports 2010 eine Analyse und ein Vergleich der Geschlechterlucken in Schweden und in Deutschland angestellt. Nachdem in Kapitel 2 der Global Gender Gap Report 2010 und seine Ergebnisse vorgestellt und diskutiert werden, werden im nachfolgenden Kapitel die soziopolitischen Massnahmen beider Lander den Themen Chancengleichheit und Geschlechtergerechtigkeit zu begegnen, erortert und ein Vergleich gezogen

The Politics of Truth Management in Saudi Arabia

Author: Afshin Shahi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134653190
Category: Political Science
Page: 194
View: 3996

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Exploring the management of ‘truth’ in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, this book aims to investigate the ways in which the official ‘truth’ is constructed and institutionalised in the country. The Politics of Truth Management in Saudi Arabia argues that there are two interrelated notions which articulate the ways in which ‘truth’ is conceptualised in Islam. One, at macro level, constitutes the trans-historical foundational principles of the religion, a set of engrained beliefs, which establish the ‘finality’, and ‘oneness’ of Islam in relation to other competing narratives. The other, at a micro level, takes place internally to find ‘truth’ within the ‘truth’. Unlike Islamic truth at the macro level, which is entrenched, the Islamic truth at the micro level refers to the various attempts by different agencies to claim to have found the ‘truth’ within the ‘truth’. Wahhabism, which is the product of an eighteenth century revivalist movement, is portrayed as the most ‘authentic’ reading of Islam. It is seen as the raison d'être for the prevailing political mechanism in the country and is introduced as an example of truth management at the micro level. Arguing that truth is not born in a power vacuum and often its construction and institutionalisation signify domination in one way or another, this book will be of interest to students of Religion, Politics, and Saudi Politics more specifically.

Gender Disparities in Africa's Labor Market

Author: Jorge Saba Arbache,Alexandre Kolev,Ewa Filipiak
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821380702
Category: Social Science
Page: 450
View: 9463

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Women's earnings are a fraction of male's earnings in several African countries. It is tempting to conclude that this wage gap is a sign of discrimination against women in the labor market. Yet this book uses new datasets to show that the gap is not simply the result of discrimination in the labor markets, but rather the result of multiple factors, including access to education and credit, cultural values and household duties, and, above all, labor market conditions. It shows that gender disparities grow when economies are not functioning well and labor markets are tiny. More than the effect of discrimination, it seems that job rationing causes those with better human capital and those with more power in the household usually the men to take the few jobs that are available. It is hardly surprising, then, that in a region where only a fraction of the labor force finds jobs in the formal sector, gender disparities in earnings are so high. The book further documents that firm-level and sector characteristics are additional powerful factors in explaining the gender disparities in the labor market. As the causes are not simple, neither are the solutions; multifaceted strategies are needed. By providing environments that support economic growth and, more importantly, job creation, as well as by promoting equal access for women to education and rethinking the attitudes that limit what women may achieve, governments in the region will substantially improve the well-being of all their peoples. 'Gender Disparities in Africa's Labor Market' helps to fill the knowledge gap and identify the links between gender disparities and poverty reduction. The work was implemented in collaboration with a range of poverty and labor market studies to maximize its usefulness for policy dialogue in specific countries. This book will be of interest to policy makers, students, academics, gender experts, and all those interested in gender issues and development.


Die Ökonomie und die Frauen
Author: Katrine Marçal
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406688624
Category: Political Science
Page: 206
View: 8810

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"Kein Aspekt der weiblichen Biologie prädestiniert die Frau für unbezahlte Hausarbeit. Oder dafür, ihren Körper für einen lausig bezahlten Job im öffentlichen Sektor zu schinden. Will man den globalen Zusammenhang zwischen ökonomischer Macht und dem Besitz eines Penis legitimieren, muss man woanders suchen." Frauen werden schlechter bezahlt als Männer? Natürlich weil ihre Arbeit weniger wert ist, erklären die Ökonomen, sonst würde sie ja besser bezahlt. Frauen ziehen Kinder groß, schmeißen den Haushalt und halten dem Mann den Rücken frei, damit er sich auf seine Karriere konzentrieren kann? Spielt für das Bruttosozialprodukt leider keine Rolle, sagen die Ökonomen. Denn der rationale und egoistische Mensch der Ökonomie, der "economic man", ist vor allem eins: ein Mann. Und er funktioniert wie ein Mann. In ihrer fulminanten Polemik rechnet die schwedische Ökonomin und Feministin Katrine Marçal mit dem Weltbild einer von Männern dominierten MachoÖkonomie ab, deren Prämissen Frauen diskriminieren, weil sie nicht wie Männer sind. Dieses Weltbild beherrscht längst unser ganzes Dasein. Aber es ist falsch. Zeit, so Marçal, es über Bord zu werfen.

International Security Studies

Theory and Practice
Author: Peter Hough,Shahin Malik,Andrew Moran,Bruce Pilbeam
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317811755
Category: Political Science
Page: 492
View: 1006

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This new textbook provides students with a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the subject of security studies, with a strong emphasis on the use of case studies. In addition to presenting the major theoretical perspectives, the book examines a range of important and controversial topics in modern debates, covering both traditional military and non-military security issues, such as proliferation, humanitarian intervention, food security and environmental security. Unlike most standard textbooks, the volume also offers a wide range of case studies – including chapters on the USA, China, the Middle East, Russia, Africa, the Arctic, the Middle East, Europe and Latin America – providing detailed analyses of important global security issues. The 34 chapters contain pedagogical features such as textboxes, summary points and recommended further reading and are divided into five thematic sections: Conceptual and Theoretical Military Security Non-Military Security Institutions and Security Case Studies This textbook will be essential reading for all students of security studies and highly recommended for students of critical security studies, human security, peace and conflict studies, foreign policy and International Relations in general.

Nachrichten vom Ableben der SPÖ sind stark übertrieben

Schafft die Sozialdemokratie den Turnaround?
Author: Barbara Blaha,Josef Broukal,Sonja Ablinger,Christian Cap,Brigitte Ederer,Alfred Gusenbauer
Publisher: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 7326

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Geschlechtsspezifische Arbeitsmarktsegregation und Einkommensunterschiede: Theoretische Untersuchung und Regressionsanalyse der Situation in Deutschland und Schweden

Author: Daniela Hortelano
Publisher: Bachelor + Master Publication
ISBN: 3863410785
Category: Social Science
Page: 64
View: 3741

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Der erste und zweite Teil dieses Buches beinhalten eine Diskussion über Familienstrukturen sowie Einkommensunterschiede und ihre Ursachen in Deutschland und Schweden, basierend auf wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen. Hierbei werden die Entwicklungen der beiden Länder, ihre Erwerbsbeteiligungsquoten sowie Arbeitsmarktstrukturen und Armutsgefährdungsquoten verglichen. Im dritten Teil wird mithilfe einer Regressionsanalyse der Einfluss von Geschlecht und Familienstatus auf den Einkommensstatus untersucht. Der vierte Teil besteht aus einer Gegenüberstellung von Familie und Beruf. Zudem werden in einer umfassenden Diskussion die Ergebnisse der Regressionsanalyse sowie die neu erlangten Kenntnisse zusammengestellt.

Democracy Ranking (Edition 2012)

The Quality of Democracy in the World
Author: David F. J. Campbell,Thorsten D. Barth,Paul Pölzlbauer,Georg Pölzlbauer
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3848217988
Category: Comparative government
Page: 180
View: 7808

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The Democracy Ranking measures on a regular and annual basis the quality of democracy and democracy improvement (increases and decreases of quality) in a world-wide comparison. The Democracy Ranking identifies one political and five non-political dimensions: politics (political system); gender equality (socioeconomic and educational); economy (economic system); knowledge (knowledge society and economy, education and research); health (health status and health system); and the environment (environmental sustainability). Quality of democracy leads to progress and quality of life. The Democracy Ranking Edition 2012 covers 110 countries. In this book you learn what quality of democracy means and what effect it has. Over 120 illustrations, and world maps in color, assist in understanding the world of democracy and for comparing the individual countries with each other. The Democracy Ranking offers new insight to 110 countries of the world by the world-wide ranking of democracies.

Die Vierte Industrielle Revolution

Author: Klaus Schwab
Publisher: Pantheon Verlag
ISBN: 3641203171
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 240
View: 9874

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Die größte Herausforderung unserer Zeit Ob selbstfahrende Autos, 3-D-Drucker oder Künstliche Intelligenz: Aktuelle technische Entwicklungen werden unsere Art zu leben und zu arbeiten grundlegend verändern. Die Vierte Industrielle Revolution hat bereits begonnen. Ihr Merkmal ist die ungeheuer schnelle und systematische Verschmelzung von Technologien, die die Grenzen zwischen der physischen, der digitalen und der biologischen Welt immer stärker durchbrechen. Wie kein anderer ist Klaus Schwab, der Vorsitzende des Weltwirtschaftsforums, in der Lage aufzuzeigen, welche politischen, wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und kulturellen Herausforderungen diese Revolution für uns alle mit sich bringt.

Arab Spring and Arab Women

Author: Muhamad Olimat
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317937376
Category: Political Science
Page: 200
View: 1864

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This volume examines the role of Arab women in Arab Spring and their contribution to the ongoing process of change sweeping the region. The book begins with an examination of the process of democratization and its impediments in the Arab World since the Second World War. It then looks at the conditions that led to the upsurge of the so-called Arab Spring. Finally, it underscores women’s role as participants, organizers, leaders, but also as victims. The main thesis of the book is that while Arab women were an integral part of the revolutionary efforts within the Arab Spring paradigm, they did not benefit from their sacrifices. Although they continue to be part of the process of change, their gains, rights and scope for participation are still limited. If the expansion of women’s participation and the scope of their rights do not seem to be a priority for revolutionary forces, women have made remarkable achievements, especially in some Arab Spring countries such as Yemen and Libya. The book includes case studies of some Arab Spring countries and other countries influenced by developments: Egypt, Bahrain, Kuwait, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, Jordan, Morocco and Saudi Arabia. It calls on revolutionary and reformist forces to give special attention to issues related to Arab women, as they are an indispensable pillar in the process of reform, development, peace and stability in the Middle East.

Issues in Women’s Rights

A Practitioner’s Resource Book
Author: K M Baharul Islam
Publisher: Allied Publishers
ISBN: 8184249101
Category: Social Science
Page: 356
View: 2717

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A key challenge facing the overall women’s rights scenario in any remote region like Northeast India is availability of trained lawyers in local courts to assist the aggrieved women to fight their rights violation cases or otherwise guard their interests in a dispute. Such legal services, embracing both individual access to justice and public interest law transcending individual needs, contribute to the rule of law, good governance, human rights, empowerment of the poor and poverty alleviation. The women’s rights lawyers need special training and set of professional tools for forging the future of legal services and legal systems. In order to address this gap, a special training workshop was organized by PFI Foundation, Guwahati in February, 2012. This resource book is an outcome of that exercise. It may be used as a Women’s Rights Lawyers’ Handbook or a manual which is readily available for adoption by law schools to conduct similar programs and also act as a ready-reckoner for the lawyers, police officers, administrators, corporate human resource managers and chief executives of organizations. The contents of the resource book contains training materials used at the training workshop, individual research studies by the authors and a compilation of some important reference documents from different sources. The book mainly covers issues like social security legislations, free legal aid, constitutional remedies, marriage laws, separation, divorce, maintenance, offences of dowry, violence against women, rights at work place, sexual harassment at work place, Vishaka Guidelines, etc.

Capturing Social and Behavioral Domains in Electronic Health Records

Phase 1
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on the Recommended Social and Behavioral Domains and Measures for Electronic Health Records
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309301130
Category: Medical
Page: 136
View: 6915

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Substantial empirical evidence of the contribution of social and behavioral factors to functional status and the onset and progression of disease has accumulated over the past few decades. Electronic health records (EHRs) provide crucial information to providers treating individual patients, to health systems, including public health officials, about the health of populations, and to researchers about the determinants of health and the effectiveness of treatment. Inclusion of social and behavioral health domains in EHRs is vital to all three uses. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act place new importance on the widespread adoption and meaningful use of EHRs. "Meaningful use" in a health information technology context refers to the use of EHRs and related technology within a health care organization to achieve specified objectives. Achieving meaningful use also helps determine whether an organization can receive payments from the Medicare EHR Incentive Program or the Medicaid EHR Incentive Program. Capturing Social and Behavioral Domains in Electronic Health Records is the first phase of a two-phase study to identify domains and measures that capture the social determinants of health to inform the development of recommendations for meaningful use of EHRs. This report identifies specific domains to be considered by the Office of the National Coordinator, specifies criteria that should be used in deciding which domains should be included, identifies core social and behavioral domains to be included in all EHRs, and identifies any domains that should be included for specific populations or settings defined by age, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, disease, or other characteristics.

After Pluralism

Reimagining Religious Engagement
Author: Courtney Bender,Pamela E. Klassen
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231527268
Category: Religion
Page: 416
View: 4886

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The contributors to this volume treat pluralism as a concept that is historically and ideologically produced or, put another way, as a doctrine that is embedded within a range of political, civic, and cultural institutions. Their critique considers how religious difference is framed as a problem that only pluralism can solve. Working comparatively across nations and disciplines, the essays in After Pluralism explore pluralism as a "term of art" that sets the norms of identity and the parameters of exchange, encounter, and conflict. Contributors locate pluralism's ideals in diverse sites Broadway plays, Polish Holocaust memorials, Egyptian dream interpretations, German jails, and legal theories and demonstrate its shaping of political and social interaction in surprising and powerful ways. Throughout, they question assumptions underlying pluralism's discourse and its influence on the legal decisions that shape modern religious practice. Contributors do more than deconstruct this theory; they tackle what comes next. Having established the genealogy and effects of pluralism, they generate new questions for engaging the collective worlds and multiple registers in which religion operates.

Fair Play:

More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation
Author: Mr. Christian Gonzales,Sonali Jain-Chandra,Ms. Kalpana Kochhar,Ms. Monique Newiak
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498385370
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 34
View: 4250

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This Staff Discussion Note examines the effect of gender-based legal restrictions and other policy choices and demographic characteristics on female labor force participation. Drawing on a large and novel panel data set of gender-related legal restrictions, the study finds that restrictions on women’s rights to inheritance and property, as well as legal impediments to undertaking economic activities such as opening a bank account or freely pursuing a profession, are strongly associated with larger gender gaps in labor force participation. These factors have a significant additional impact on female labor force participation over and above the effects of demographic characteristics and policies. In many cases, the gender gaps caused by these restrictions also have macro-critical effects in terms of an impact on GDP. The results from this study suggest that it would be beneficial to level the playing field by removing obstacles that prevent women from becoming economically active if they choose to do so. In recommending equal opportunities, however, this study does not intend to render a judgment of countries’ broadly accepted cultural and religious norms.

The Oxford Handbook of Gender in Organizations

Author: Savita Kumra,Ruth Simpson,Ronald J. Burke
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191632759
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 752
View: 2206

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The issue of gender in organizations has attracted much attention and debate over a number of years. The focus of examination is inequality of opportunity between the genders and the impact this has on organizations, individual men and women, and society as a whole. It is undoubtedly the case that progress has been made with women participating in organizational life in greater numbers and at more senior levels than has been historically the case, challenging notions that senior and/or influential organizational and political roles remain a masculine domain. The Oxford Handbook of Gender in Organizations is a comprehensive analysis of thinking and research on gender in organizations with original contributions from key international scholars in the field. The Handbook comprises four sections. The first looks at the theoretical roots and potential for theoretical development in respect of the topic of gender in organizations. The second section focuses on leadership and management and the gender issues arising in this field; contributors review the extensive literature and reflect on progress made as well as commenting on hurdles yet to be overcome. The third section considers the gendered nature of careers. Here the focus is on querying traditional approaches to career, surfacing embedded assumptions within traditional approaches, and assessing potential for alternative patterns to evolve, taking into account the nature of women's lives and the changing nature of organizations. In its final section the Handbook examines masculinity in organizations to assess the diversity of masculinities evident within organizations and the challenges posed to those outside the norm. In bringing together a broad range of research and thinking on gender in organizations across a number of disciplines, sub-disciplines, and conceptual perspectives, the Handbook provides a comprehensive view of both contemporary thinking and future research directions.