The Form of Cities

Political Economy and Urban Design
Author: Alexander R. Cuthbert
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470777524
Category: Social Science
Page: 328
View: 5175

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The Form of Cities offers readers a considered theoretical introduction to the art of designing cities. Demonstrates that cities are replete with symbolic values, collective memory, association and conflict. Proposes a new theoretical understanding of urban design, based in political economy. Demonstrates different ways of conceptualising the city, whether through aesthetics or the prism of gender, for example. Written in an engaging and jargon-free style, but retains a sophisticated interpretative edge. Complements Designing Cities by the same author (Blackwell, 2003).

Understanding Cities

Method in Urban Design
Author: Alexander R. Cuthbert
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415608236
Category: Architecture
Page: 330
View: 4661

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For too long urban design has been seen as a subsidiary to architecture and urban planning, sitting somewhere between the two without establishing itself as a field of study in its own right. This book sets out to challenge that assumption and establish a comprehensive framework for restructuring urban design knowledge. Cuthbert builds upon the base of his previous books Designing Cities and The Form of Cities in this thought provoking book.

The Political Economy of City Branding


Author: Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135129827
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 204
View: 5148

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Globalization affects urban communities in many ways. One of its manifestations is increased intercity competition, which compels cities to increase their attractiveness in terms of capital, entrepreneurship, information, expertise and consumption. This competition takes place in an asymmetric field, with cities trying to find the best possible ways of using their natural and created assets, the latter including a naturally evolving reputation or consciously developed competitive identity or brand. The Political Economy of City Branding discusses this phenomenon from the perspective of numerous post-industrial cities in North America, Europe, East Asia and Australasia. Special attention is given to local economic development policy and industrial profiling, and global city rankings are used to provide empirical evidence for cities’ characteristics and positions in the global urban hierarchy. On top of this, social and urban challenges such as creative class struggle are also discussed. The core message of the book is that cities should apply the tools of city branding in their industrial promotion and specialization, but at the same time take into account the special nature of their urban communities and be open and inclusive in their brand policies in order to ensure optimal results. This book will be of interest to scholars and practitioners working in the areas of local economic development, urban planning, public management, and branding.

Towns and Cities: Function in Form

Urban Structures, Economics and Society
Author: Julian Hart
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131700874X
Category: Political Science
Page: 202
View: 2653

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Challenging existing assumptions about how our towns and cities are structured and formed, Julian Hart provides an engaging and thought-provoking alternative theory of urban design. This is not urban design in the sense of the practice of design; rather it is a theory of the form of the town at all scales - why towns and cities happen to be structured the way they are as a result of the social, political, legal and (especially) economic forces that create them. The shape of the city at every scale, from the internal configuration of dwellings all the way up to the superstructure of the whole city, can be seen to arise from the interplay between three antagonistic socio-economic tensions. In going about our daily business and in championing particular political objectives, we collectively fashion our cities in terms of their structure and form. This leads to various new ways of understanding how and why our cities so happen to be configured the way they are. The book makes a step change from any other comparable studies by understanding our towns and cities in terms of function in form. This helps us to appreciate why every town is a recognisable town, wherever it is. Different urban environments in different parts of the world, past and present, can come to be seen according to their similarities instead of their differences. Furthermore, by appreciating how the economic influences of everyday life structure our towns and cities, we can in turn begin to understand better how the shape of towns and cities affects the quality of life of inhabitants and the cohesiveness of communities. In covering all scales from inside the home to macrostructure of the city, the book encapsulates urban design through to town planning and does not seek to distinguish between the various design disciplines.

Urban Transformations

Power, People and Urban Design
Author: Ian Bentley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134796366
Category: Architecture
Page: 320
View: 7678

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Cities affect every person's life, yet across the traditional divides of class, age, gender and political affiliation, armies of people are united in their dislike of the transformations that cities have undergone in recent times. The physical form of the urban environment is not a designer add-on to 'real' social issues; it is a central aspect of the social world. Yet in many people's experience, the cumulative impacts of recent urban development have created widely un-loved urban places. To work towards better-loved urban environments, we need to understand how current problems have arisen and identify practical action to address them. Urban Transformations examines the crucial issues relating to how cities are formed, how people use these urban environments and how cities can be transformed into better places. Exploring the links between the concrete physicality of the built environment and the complex social, economic, political and cultural processes through which the physical urban form is produced and consumed, Ian Bentley proposes a framework of ideas to provoke and develop current debate and new forms of practice.

Cities and Development


Author: Jo Beall,Sean Fox
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134166702
Category: Science
Page: 268
View: 3371

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By 2030 more than sixty percent of the world's population will live in urban areas, with most of the world’s population growth over the next twenty-five years being absorbed by cities and towns in low and middle income countries. What are the consequences of this shift? Demographic pressure already strains the capacity of local and national governments to manage urban change. Today, nearly one billion people live in slums, and in the absence of significant intervention that number is set to double in the next two decades. Will our future be dominated by mega-cities of poverty and despair, or can urbanization be harnessed to advance human and economic development? Cities and Development provides a critical exploration of the dynamic relationship between urbanism and development. Highlighting both the challenges and opportunities associated with rapid urban change, the book surveys: the historical relationship between urbanization and development the role cities play in fostering economic growth in a globalizing world the unique characteristics of urban poverty and the poor record of interventions designed to tackle it the complexities of managing urban environments; issues of urban crime, violence, war and terrorism in contemporary cities the importance of urban planning, governance and politics in shaping city futures. This book brings into conversation debates from urban and development studies and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of current policy and planning responses to the contemporary urban challenge. It includes research orientated supplements in the form of summaries, boxed case studies, development questions and further reading. The book is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students interested in urban, international and development studies, as well as policy-makers and planners concerned with equitable and sustainable urban development.

Das Bild der Stadt


Author: Kevin Lynch
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3035602166
Category: Architecture
Page: 215
View: 9813

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Wie orientieren wir uns in einer Stadt? Woher rühren unsere ganz fest umrissenen visuellen Vorstellungen? Um diese Fragen beantworten zu können, studierte Kevin Lynch die Erfahrungen von Menschen und zeigt damit, wie man das Bild der Stadt wieder lebendiger und einprägsamer machen könnte.

Urban Design Downtown

Poetics and Politics of Form
Author: Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris,Tridib Banerjee
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520919327
Category: Architecture
Page: 348
View: 8760

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The corporate downtown, with its multitude of social dilemmas and contradictions, is the focus of this well-illustrated volume. How are downtown projects conceived, scripted, produced, packaged, and used, and how has all this changed during the twentieth century? The authors of Urban Design Downtown offer a critical appraisal of the emerging appearance of downtown urban form. They explore both the poetics of design and the politics and economics of development decisions. Following a historical review of the various phases of downtown transformation, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris and Tridib Banerjee turn to contemporary American downtowns. They examine the phenomenon of public-space privatization, arguing that corporate open spaces are the consumer-oriented result of policies that have promoted downtown renovation and restructuring but at the same time have neglected the cities' existing poverty-stricken cores. The book's case studies of individual West Coast downtown projects capture the essence of late twentieth-century urbanism. This analysis of downtown urban America, which offers extensive insight into the design and development process, will interest architects, city planners, developers, and urban designers everywhere.

Urban Megaprojects

A Worldwide View
Author: Gerardo del Cerro Santamaría
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 1781905932
Category: Social Science
Page: 353
View: 8623

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"Megaprojects are springing up throughout both the developed and developing world. Their popularity reflects the drive by political and economic elites to enhance urban competitiveness. Although the idea to construct very large urban complexes can be attributed to globalization, the particular political forces behind them, their urban contexts, and physical outcomes vary from place to place. In this fascinating compendium of case studies a range of authors from different disciplines delineate the forces shaping and resisting large-scale urban development in a variety of settings and place their empirical findings within the framework of urban theory. This book is essential reading for students of urban politics, planning, sociology, and geography." - Susan Fainstein, Senior Research Fellow, Harvard Graduate School of Design, and author, The Just City "The political embrace of city competition has combined with the globalization of banking, real estate, and architecture to make mega-projects seemingly inevitable. What better time, with the world economy slowed, to delve into the motivations for and consequences of the now-ubiquitous and globally-entrenched megaproject. Read this book to discover how the complexities and promises of this form of urban development have intrigued urban scholars and civic boosters alike." - Robert Beauregard, Professor of Urban Planning and Chair of the Urban Planning Doctoral Committee, Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation, Columbia University "Urban Megaprojects: A Worldwide View is an excellent exposition of the so-called "megaprojects paradox": Megaprojects are increasingly used to build and transform cities, but megaprojects have a dismal track record of delivering on the promised benefits. The book's combination of global and local perspectives on megaprojects is highly effective for understanding the issues at hand." - Bent Flyvbjerg, Professor of Major Programme Management at Oxford University, principal author of Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition

Companion to Urban Design


Author: Tridib Banerjee,Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136920080
Category: Architecture
Page: 736
View: 387

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Today the practice of urban design has forged a distinctive identity with applications at many different scales – ranging from the block or street scale to the scale of metropolitan and regional landscapes. Urban design interfaces many aspects of contemporary public policy – multiculturalism, healthy cities, environmental justice, economic development, climate change, energy conservations, protection of natural environments, sustainable development, community liveability, and the like. The field now comprises a core body of knowledge that enfolds a right history of ideas, paradigms, principles, tools, research and applications, enriched by electric influences from the humanities, and social and natural sciences. Companion to Urban Design includes more than fifty original contributions from internationally recognized authorities in the field. These contributions address the following questions: What are the important ideas that have shaped the field and the current practice of urban design? What are the major methods and processes that have influenced the practice of urban design at various scales? What are the current innovations relevant to the pedagogy of urban design? What are the lingering debates, conflicts ad contradictions in the theory and practice of urban design? How could urban design respond to the contemporary challenges of climate change, sustainability, active living initiatives, globalization, and the like? What are the significant disciplinary influences on the theory, research and practice of urban design in recent times? There has never before been a more authoritative and comprehensive companion that includes core, foundational and pioneering ideas and concepts of urban design. This book serves as an invaluable guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students, future professionals, and practitioners interested in architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning, but also in urban studies, urban affairs, geography, and related fields.

Urbanization and Its Impact on Socio-Economic Growth in Developing Regions


Author: Benna, Umar,Benna, Indo
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1522526609
Category: Political Science
Page: 404
View: 5835

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The social and economic systems of any country are influenced by a range of factors. As the global population grows in developing nations, it has become essential to examine the effects of urbanization. Urbanization and Its Impact on Socio-Economic Growth in Developing Regions is a pivotal reference source for the latest research findings on the role of urban growth on the socio-economic infrastructures in developing regions. Featuring extensive coverage on relevant areas such as job creation, sustainability, and transportation planning, this publication is an ideal resource for city development planners, decision-makers, researchers, academics, and students interested in emerging perspectives on socio-economic development.

The New Wealth of Cities

City Dynamics and the Fifth Wave
Author: John Montgomery
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 9780754674153
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 437
View: 4213

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In The New Wealth of Cities, John Montgomery provides a long overdue look at the dynamics of the city. Original and wide-ranging, the book will be definitive resource on city economies and urban planning, explaining why it is that cities develop over time in periods of propulsive growth and bouts of decline.

Concrete and Clay

Reworking Nature in New York City
Author: Matthew Gandy
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262572163
Category: Architecture
Page: 344
View: 2035

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An interdisciplinary account of the environmental history and changing landscape of New York City. In this innovative account of the urbanization of nature in New York City, Matthew Gandy explores how the raw materials of nature have been reworked to produce a "metropolitan nature" distinct from the forms of nature experienced by early settlers. The book traces five broad developments: the expansion and redefinition of public space, the construction of landscaped highways, the creation of a modern water supply system, the radical environmental politics of the barrio in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the contemporary politics of the environmental justice movement. Drawing on political economy, environmental studies, social theory, cultural theory, and architecture, Gandy shows how New York's environmental history is bound up not only with the upstate landscapes that stretch beyond the city's political boundaries but also with more distant places that reflect the nation's colonial and imperial legacies. Using the shifting meaning of nature under urbanization as a framework, he looks at how modern nature has been produced through interrelated transformations ranging from new water technologies to changing fashions in landscape design. Throughout, he considers the economic and ideological forces that underlie phenomena as diverse as the location of parks and the social stigma of dirty neighborhoods.

Tod und Leben großer amerikanischer Städte


Author: Jane Jacobs
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3035602123
Category: Architecture
Page: 220
View: 1608

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In The Death and Life of Great American Cities durchleuchtet Jane Jacobs 1961 die fragwürdigen Methoden der Stadtplanung und Stadtsanierung in Amerika, der "New Yorker" nannte es das unkonventionellste und provozierendste Buch über Städtebau seit langem. Die deutsche Ausgabe wurde schnell auch im deutschsprachigem Raum zu einer viel gelesenen und diskutierten Lektüre. Sie ist jetzt wieder in einem Nachdruck zugänglich, mit einem Vorwort von Gerd Albers (1993), das nach der Aktualität dieser Streitschrift fragt.

Cities by Design

The Social Life of Urban Form
Author: Fran Tonkiss
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0745680291
Category: Social Science
Page: 224
View: 1096

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Who makes our cities, and what part do everyday users have in the design of cities? This book powerfully shows that city-making is a social process and examines the close relationship between the social and physical shaping of urban environments. With cities taking a growing share of the global population, urban forms and urban experience are crucial for understanding social injustice, economic inequality and environmental challenges. Current processes of urbanization too often contribute to intensifying these problems; cities, likewise, will be central to the solutions to such problems. Focusing on a range of cities in developed and developing contexts, Cities by Design highlights major aspects of contemporary urbanization: urban growth, density and sustainability; inequality, segregation and diversity; informality, environment and infrastructure. Offering keen insights into how the shaping of our cities is shaping our lives, Cities by Design provides a critical exploration of key issues and debates that will be invaluable to students and scholars in sociology and geography, environmental and urban studies, architecture, urban design and planning.

Market Economy and Urban Change

Impacts in the Developing World
Author: Mohammed Hamza,Roger Zetter
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849771952
Category: Architecture
Page: 225
View: 3968

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Across the developing world the preceding decade or so has witnessed a profound reconfiguration of the political economy of urban policy. This new policy environment is driven by globalization, the neo-liberal macro-economic package of 'market enablement' and structural adjustment, which now form the dominant development paradigm. The consequences of this approach for urban development agendas and ultimately the lives and livelihoods of millions of people across the globe are profound. Market Economy and Urban Change explores and evaluates urban sector and development policies in the context of market enablement, and the associated instruments of structural adjustment, urban management reform and 'good' governance. By articulating the linkages between this neo-liberal development paradigm and the way different actors in the urban sector enact policy responses, the book provides an understanding of both the factors driving market enablement, and its impacts on urban sector policies and programmes. With case studies drawn from countries such as Egypt, Mexico, Kenya, Brazil, Colombia and transitional economies, the book focuses in particular on the implications for land, shelter and related sectoral policies for poverty alleviation. By linking policy to practice, the book seeks to inform policy-makers in governments, donor and implementing agencies of the impact of shifts in the development debate on urban sector strategies.

Cities at War in Early Modern Europe


Author: Martha Pollak
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052111344X
Category: Architecture
Page: 354
View: 3360

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Martha Pollak offers a pan-European, richly illustrated study of early modern military urbanism, an international style of urban design.

The Street

A Quintessential Social Public Space
Author: Vikas Mehta
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135079889
Category: Architecture
Page: 256
View: 3375

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Received the Environmental Design Research Association's 2014 Place Book Award Shortlisted for the UDG Francis Tibbalds Book Award 2014 Good cities are places of social encounter. Creating public spaces that encourage social behavior in our cities and neighborhoods is an important goal of city design. One of the cardinal roles of the street, as public space, is to provide a setting for sociability. How do we make sociable streets? This book shows us how these ordinary public spaces can be planned and designed to become settings that support an array of social behaviors. Through carefully crafted research, The Street systematically examines people's actions and perceptions, develops a comprehensive typology of social behaviors on the neighborhood commercial street and provides a thorough inquiry into the social dimensions of streets. Vikas Mehta shows that sociability is not a result of the physical environment alone, but is achieved by the relationships between the physical environment, the land uses, their management, and the places to which people assign special meanings. Scholars and students of urban design, planning, architecture, geography and sociology will find the book a stimulating resource. The material is also directly applicable to practice and should be widely read by professional urban designers, planners, architects, and others involved in the design, planning, and implementation of commercial streets.

The Politics of the Piazza

The History and Meaning of the Italian Square
Author: Dr Eamonn Canniffe
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409487768
Category: Political Science
Page: 304
View: 6004

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Through a detailed study of the principal spaces of Italian cities, this book explores the relationship between political systems and their methods of representation in architecture. Illustrated by contemporary photographs and analytical drawings, it examines significant piazzas and situates these examples in their social and political contexts, highlighting the urban evidence of shifts between autocratic and democratic forms of government through history. The ideological role of political architecture is analyzed through the work of various theorists including ancient sources, Renaissance thinkers and modern critics. The complex evolution of individual spaces over time is represented by their physical layering from ancient times to the present day. Other examples connect the development of different characteristic types of Italian urban form in chronological sequence, categorized by art historical and political periods.