The Enlightenment

And Why it Still Matters
Author: Anthony Pagden
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019966093X
Category: History
Page: 436
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This book tells nothing less than the story of how the modern, Western view of the world was born. Cultural and intellectual historian Anthony Pagden explains how, and why, the ideal of a universal, global, and cosmopolitan society became such a central part of the Western imagination in the ferment of the Enlightenment - and how these ideas have done battle with an inward-looking, tradition-oriented view of the world ever since. Cosmopolitanism is an ancient creed; but in its modern form it was a creature of the Enlightenment attempt to create a new 'science of man', based upon a vision of humanity made up of autonomous individuals, free from all the constraints imposed by custom, prejudice, and religion. As Pagden shows, this 'new science' was based not simply on 'cold, calculating reason', as its critics claimed, but on the argument that all humans are linked by what in the Enlightenment were called 'sympathetic' attachments. The conclusion was that despite the many tribes and nations into which humanity was divided there was only one 'human nature', and that the final destiny of the species could only be the creation of one universal, cosmopolitan society. This new 'human science' provided the philosophical grounding of the modern world. It has been the inspiration behind the League of Nations, the United Nations and the European Union. Without it, international law, global justice, and human rights legislation would be unthinkable. As Anthony Pagden argues passionately and persuasively in this book, it is a legacy well worth preserving - and one that might yet come to inherit the earth.

Enlightenment Now

The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress
Author: Steven Pinker
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0525427570
Category: Psychology
Page: 556
View: 3266

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An assessment of the human condition in the twenty-first century presents data demonstrating that life quality, health, prosperity, safety, peace, knowledge, and happiness are on the rise throughout the world because of the Enlightenment ideal of using reason and science.

The Enlightenment


Author: Norman Hampson
Publisher: Penguin UK
ISBN: 0141937130
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 6811

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Armed with the insights of the scientific revolution, the men of the Enlightenment set out to free mankind from its age-old cocoon of pessimism and superstition and establish a more reasonable world of experiment and progress. Yet by the 1760s, this optimism about man and society had almost evaporated. In the works of Rousseau, Kant and Goethe, there was discernible a new inner voice, and an awareness of individual uniqueness which had eluded their more self-confident predecessors. The stage was set for the revolutionary crisis and the rise of Romanticism. In this book, Norman Hampson follows through certain dominant themes in the Enlightenment, and describes the contemporary social and political climate, in which ideas could travel from the salons of Paris to the court of Catherine the Great - but less easily from a master to his servant. On such vexed issues as the role of ideas in the "rise of the middle class" he provides a new and realistic approach linking intellectual and social history.

The Enlightenment: The rise of modern paganism


Author: Peter Gay
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393313024
Category: History
Page: 592
View: 8289

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In the twentieth century, however, the Enlightenment has often been judged harshly for its apparently simplistic optimism. Now a master historian goes back to the sources to give a fully rounded account of its true accomplishments.

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment


Author: Michel Delon
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135959986
Category: History
Page: 1512
View: 1217

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First Published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

History and the Enlightenment


Author: Hugh Trevor-Roper,John Robertson
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300139349
Category: History
Page: 314
View: 2452

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Arguably the leading British historian of his generation, Hugh Trevor-Roper (1914–2003) is most celebrated and admired as the author of essays. This volume brings together some of the most original and radical writings of his career—many hitherto inaccessible, one never before published, all demonstrating his piercing intellect, urbane wit, and gift for elegant, vivid narrative. This collection focuses on the writing and understanding of history in the eighteenth century and on the great historians and the intellectual context that inspired or provoked their writings. It combines incisive discussion of such figures as Gibbon, Hume, and Carlyle with broad sweeps of analysis and explication. Essays on the Scottish Enlightenment and the Romantic movement are balanced by intimate portraits of lesser-known historians whose significance Trevor-Roper took particular delight in revealing.

The Enlightenment

A Beginner's Guide
Author: Kieron O'Hara
Publisher: Oneworld Publications
ISBN: 1780741537
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 3045

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Blamed for the disasters of the 20th century: Auschwitz, globalisation, Islamic terrorism; heralded as the harbinger of reason, equality, and the end of arbitrary rule, the Enlightenment has been nothing if not divisive. To this day historians disagree over when, where, and what it was (and sometimes, still is). Kieron O’Hara brings to life the history, politics, science, religion, arts, and social life of the Enlightenment and shows how it spawned some of the brightest thinkers in the history of humankind, from the radical Rousseau to the conservative Burke. Dr Kieron O’Hara is a Senior Researcher at Southampton University, UK

Enemies of the Enlightenment

The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity
Author: Darrin M. McMahon
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195158938
Category: History
Page: 262
View: 2362

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"Drawing on a wide range of primary sources, Darrin M. McMahon shows that well before the French Revolution, enemies of the Enlightenment were warning that the secular thrust of modern philosophy would give way to horrors of an unprecedented kind. Greeting 1789, in turn, as the realization of their worst fears, they fought the Revolution from its onset, profoundly affecting its subsequent course. The radicalization - and violence - of the Revolution was as much the product of militant resistance as any inherent logic."--BOOK JACKET.

The Enlightenment

A Very Short Introduction
Author: John Robertson
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199591784
Category: History
Page: 144
View: 6681

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A foundational moment in the history of modern European thought, the Enlightenment continues to be a reference point for philosophers, scholars and opinion-formers. To many it remains the inspiration of our commitments to the betterment of the human condition. To others, it represents the elevation of one set of European values to the world, many of whose peoples have quite different values. But what is the relationship between the historical Enlightenment and the idea of 'Enlightenment', and can these two understandings be reconciled? In this Very Short Introduction, John Robertson offers a concise historical introduction to the Enlightenment as an intellectual movement of eighteenth-century Europe. Discussing its intellectual achievements, he also explores how its supporters exploited new ways of communicating their ideas to a wider public, creating a new 'public sphere' for critical discussion of the moral, economic and political issues facing their societies. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Enlightenment

A Sourcebook and Reader
Author: Paul Hyland,Olga Gomez,Francesca Greensides
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415204491
Category: History
Page: 467
View: 2363

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The Enlightenment brings together the work of major Enlightenment thinkers such as Hobbes, Rousseau, Diderot and Kant, to illustrate the full importance and achievements of this period in history. Extracts are gathered thematically into sections on such aspects of the Enlightenment as: political theory religion and belief art and nature. All essays are introduced, and a final section on 'critical reflections' provides a selection of modern critical opinions on the period by writers including Foucault, Habermas, and Lyotard. Containing illustrations from the work of artists such as Hogarth and Gainsborough, a chronology of the Enlightenment, and a detailed bibliography, The Enlightenment is a rich source of information and inspiration for all those studying this great period of change.

The Enlightenment


Author: Dorinda Outram
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139620126
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 1215

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Debate over the meaning of 'Enlightenment' began in the eighteenth century and still continues to this day. This period saw the opening of arguments on the nature of man, truth, the place of God and the international circulation of ideas, people and gold. But did the Enlightenment mean the same for men and women, for rich and poor, for Europeans and non-Europeans? In the third edition of her acclaimed book, Dorinda Outram addresses these and other questions about the Enlightenment as controversy increases about its place at the foundation of modernity. She studies it as a global phenomenon, setting the period against broader social changes. This new edition offers a new chapter on political economy, a completely revised further reading section and a new feature on electronic sources to stimulate primary research. This accessible overview will be essential reading for students of eighteenth-century history, philosophy and the history of ideas.

Democratic Enlightenment

Philosophy, Revolution, and Human Rights 1750-1790
Author: Jonathan Israel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199668094
Category: History
Page: 1088
View: 9250

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Jonathan Israel's radical new account of the late Enlightenment highlights forgotten currents and figures. Running counter to mainstream thinking, he demonstrates how a group of philosophe-revolutionnaires provided the intellectual powerhouse of the French Revolution, and how their ideas connect with modern Western democracy.

The Enlightenment and the Book

Scottish Authors and Their Publishers in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Ireland, and America
Author: Richard B. Sher
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226752542
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 842
View: 5632

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The late eighteenth century witnessed an explosion of intellectual activity in Scotland by such luminaries as David Hume, Adam Smith, Hugh Blair, William Robertson, Adam Ferguson, James Boswell, and Robert Burns. And the books written by these seminal thinkers made a significant mark during their time in almost every field of polite literature and higher learning throughout Britain, Europe, and the Americas. In this magisterial history, Richard B. Sher breaks new ground for our understanding of the Enlightenment and the forgotten role of publishing during that period. The Enlightenment and the Book seeks to remedy the common misperception that such classics as The Wealth of Nations and The Life of Samuel Johnson were written by authors who eyed their publishers as minor functionaries in their profession. To the contrary, Sher shows how the process of bookmaking during the late eighteenth-century involved a deeply complex partnership between authors and their publishers, one in which writers saw the book industry not only as pivotal in the dissemination of their ideas, but also as crucial to their dreams of fame and monetary gain. Similarly, Sher demonstrates that publishers were involved in the project of bookmaking in order to advance human knowledge as well as to accumulate profits. The Enlightenment and the Book explores this tension between creativity and commerce that still exists in scholarly publishing today. Lavishly illustrated and elegantly conceived, it will be must reading for anyone interested in the history of the book or the production and diffusion of Enlightenment thought.

France in the Enlightenment


Author: Daniel Roche
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674317475
Category: History
Page: 723
View: 8046

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Explores the social, cultural, and political developments in France in the period before the Revolution

What is Enlightenment?


Author: Samuel Fleischacker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415486068
Category: Philosophy
Page: 235
View: 7800

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"The Enlightenment is one of the most important and contested periods in the history of philosophy. The problems it addressed, such as the proper extent of individual freedom and the challenging of tradition, resonate as much today as when they were first debated. Of all philosophers, it is arguably Kant who took such questions most seriously, addressing them above all in his celebrated short essay, An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?

The Dream of Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Philosophy


Author: Anthony Gottlieb
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 163149208X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 384
View: 1034

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Anthony Gottlieb’s landmark The Dream of Reason and its sequel challenge Bertrand Russell’s classic as the definitive history of Western philosophy. Western philosophy is now two and a half millennia old, but much of it came in just two staccato bursts, each lasting only about 150 years. In his landmark survey of Western philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance, The Dream of Reason, Anthony Gottlieb documented the first burst, which came in the Athens of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Now, in his sequel, The Dream of Enlightenment, Gottlieb expertly navigates a second great explosion of thought, taking us to northern Europe in the wake of its wars of religion and the rise of Galilean science. In a relatively short period—from the early 1640s to the eve of the French Revolution—Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, Leibniz, and Hume all made their mark. The Dream of Enlightenment tells their story and that of the birth of modern philosophy. As Gottlieb explains, all these men were amateurs: none had much to do with any university. They tried to fathom the implications of the new science and of religious upheaval, which led them to question traditional teachings and attitudes. What does the advance of science entail for our understanding of ourselves and for our ideas of God? How should a government deal with religious diversity—and what, actually, is government for? Such questions remain our questions, which is why Descartes, Hobbes, and the others are still pondered today. Yet it is because we still want to hear them that we can easily get these philosophers wrong. It is tempting to think they speak our language and live in our world; but to understand them properly, we must step back into their shoes. Gottlieb puts readers in the minds of these frequently misinterpreted figures, elucidating the history of their times and the development of scientific ideas while engagingly explaining their arguments and assessing their legacy in lively prose. With chapters focusing on Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, Pierre Bayle, Leibniz, Hume, Rousseau, and Voltaire—and many walk-on parts—The Dream of Enlightenment creates a sweeping account of what the Enlightenment amounted to, and why we are still in its debt.

The Dark Side of the Enlightenment: Wizards, Alchemists, and Spiritual Seekers in the Age of Reason


Author: John V. Fleming
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393079465
Category: History
Page: 414
View: 7712

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Describes the “darker” pursuits that took place during the Age of Reason, including explorations of magic, alchemy and the occult as well as the dual-role of secret societies including the Freemasons and the Rosicrucianism. 17,000 first printing.

Androids in the Enlightenment

Mechanics, Artisans, and Cultures of the Self
Author: Adelheid Voskuhl
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022603402X
Category: History
Page: 294
View: 3617

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The eighteenth century saw the creation of a number of remarkable mechanical androids: at least ten prominent automata were built between 1735 and 1810 by clockmakers, court mechanics, and other artisans from France, Switzerland, Austria, and the German lands. Designed to perform sophisticated activities such as writing, drawing, or music making, these “Enlightenment automata” have attracted continuous critical attention from the time they were made to the present, often as harbingers of the modern industrial age, an era during which human bodies and souls supposedly became mechanized. In Androids in the Enlightenment, Adelheid Voskuhl investigates two such automata—both depicting piano-playing women. These automata not only play music, but also move their heads, eyes, and torsos to mimic a sentimental body technique of the eighteenth century: musicians were expected to generate sentiments in themselves while playing, then communicate them to the audience through bodily motions. Voskuhl argues, contrary to much of the subsequent scholarly conversation, that these automata were unique masterpieces that illustrated the sentimental culture of a civil society rather than expressions of anxiety about the mechanization of humans by industrial technology. She demonstrates that only in a later age of industrial factory production did mechanical androids instill the fear that modern selves and societies had become indistinguishable from machines.

Science and the Enlightenment


Author: Thomas L. Hankins
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521286190
Category: Science
Page: 216
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This book is a general history of eighteenth-century developments in physical and life sciences.

The Enlightenment

A Revolution in Reason
Author: Patrice Sherman
Publisher: Teacher Created Materials
ISBN: 9781433350139
Category: History
Page: 32
View: 9665

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How did the universe work? How did the human mind learn? What kind of government was best? These are some of the questions that people asked during the Age of Ideas, or the Enlightenment. Readers will learn about some of the most important aspects, ideas, and people of this time, including John Locke, David Hume, Voltaire, Copernicus, and Romanticism. Through intriguing facts and engaging sidebars, readers will also discover the incredible outcomes of the Scientific Revolution and how scientists like Galileo, Isaac Newton, and Johannes Keplar changed the way people see the world! The colorful images and supportive text work together to help readers understand the major impact the French Revolution had on the French people, as well as the influence it had on the American Revolution.