The Egyptian Food Subsidy System

Structure, Performance, and Options for Reform
Author: Akhter U. Ahmed
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN: 0896291219
Category: Social Science
Page: 148
View: 9335

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The Egyptian Food Subsidy System: Structure, Performance, and Options for Reform evaluates the economic, political, and technical feasibility of reducing costs while improving or maintaining the welfare of the poor. The report addresses five questions: (1) How well does the present system target the poor? (2) How much leakage- the pilferage of subsidized foods in the distribution channel-occurs? (3) At what cost does the government transfer income to the needy? (4) How can subsidies be better targeted to the needy? And (5) What are politically feasible options for reform?

Nutrition and economic development

Exploring Egypt's exceptionalism and the role of food subsidies
Author: Ecker, Olivier,Al-Riffai, Perrihan,Breisinger, Clemens,El-Batrawy, Rawia
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN: 089629238X
Category: Political Science
Page: 282
View: 9622

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This book’s main hypothesis is that Egypt’s large food subsidy system has been ineffective in reducing undernutrition; in fact, it may have contributed to sustaining and even aggravating both nutrition challenges. For a long time, the subsidy system provided only calorie-rich foods, at very low and constant prices and with quotas much above dietary recommendations. This system has created incentives to consume calorie-overladen and unbalanced diets, increasing the risks of child and maternal overnutrition and, at high subsidy levels, the risk of inadequate child nutrition. Moreover, the large public budget allocated to the food subsidies is unavailable for possibly more nutrition-beneficial spending, such as for child and maternal nutrition-specific interventions. The authors’ findings consistently suggest that—in addition to the well-known economic rationale for reforming the Egyptian food subsidy system—there are strong reasons to reform food subsidies due to nutrition and public health concerns. A fundamental food subsidy reform process has been under way since June 2014. The already-implemented changes can be expected to have reduced some incentives for overconsumption and may have positive dietary effects. However, further major reform efforts are needed to transform the current subsidy system into a key policy instrument in the fight against malnutrition. The findings of this book should be valuable to policy makers, analysts, development partners, and others concerned with improving food security and promoting healthy nutrition in Egypt and other developing countries with large social protection programs.

Self-targeted Subsidies

The Distributional Impact of the Egyptian Food Subsidy System
Author: Richard H. Adams
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Agriculture
Page: 42
View: 1371

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By gradually reducing the number of subsidized foods, and by focusing subsidies on foods consumed more by the poor than by the rich (like coarse baladi bread) Egyptian policymakers have found a way to self-target food subsidies to the urban poor. Yet because the rural poor do not consume as much baladi bread, this system is not as well-targeted to the rural poor.

For Protection and Promotion

The Design and Implementation of Effective Safety Nets
Author: Margaret Grosh,Carlo Del Ninno,Emil Tesliuc,Azedine Ouerghi
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821375822
Category: Political Science
Page: 612
View: 9284

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Safety nets are noncontributory transfer programs targeted to the poor or vulnerable. They play important roles in social policy. Safety nets redistribute income, thereby immediately reducing poverty and inequality; they enable households to invest in the human capital of their children and in the livelihoods of their earners; they help households manage risk, both ex ante and ex post; and they allow governments to implement macroeconomic or sectoral reforms that support efficiency and growth. To be effective, safety nets must not only be well intended, but also well designed and well implemented. A good safety net system and its programs are tailored to country circumstances, adequate in their coverage and generosity, equitable, cost-effective, incentive compatible, and sustainable. Good safety nets are also dynamic and change over time as the economy changes or as management problems are solved and new standards are set. Drawing on a wealth of research, policy, and operational documents from both academia and the World Bank s work in over 100 countries, For Protection and Promotion provides pragmatic and informed guidance on how to design and implement safety nets, including useful information on how to define eligibility and select beneficiaries, set and pay benefits, and monitor and evaluate programs and systems. The book synthesizes the literature to date and enriches it with new examples on various program options cash transfers (conditional and unconditional), in-kind transfers, price subsidies, fee waivers, and public works. It concludes with a comprehensive diagnostic for fitting safety net systems and programs to specific circumstances.

Food, Agriculture, and Economic Policy in the Middle East and North Africa

Author: Hans Lofgren
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 9780762309924
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 337
View: 599

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This volume brings together a set of studies analyzing different aspects of food and agriculture in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This sector is of crucial importance to the MENA economies, especially in terms of employment. Agriculture is particularly important for the poor, both on the consumption side - large parts of their budget is allocated to food - and as a source of incomes as most of the poor live in rural areas where agriculture dominates. Agriculture production in MENA is severely constrained by water scarcity and low, irregular rainfall. Sustainability is a major concern in many parts of the region as the quality of land and water resources is deterioration and scarcity becomes more severe due to growing competition from other parts of the economy. The fact that the region relies on imports for a large share of its food consumption is a major concern for policymakers who view this as a threat to national food security and a source of political vulnerability. The studies included in this volume range from regional overview to micro studies. The chapters with a country focus cover issues that are recurrent in many MENA countries, giving them a broader relevance. The analyses cover policy issues in a wide range of areas - water, drought management, agricultural technology, producer and consumer subsidies, domestic food distribution, and foreign trade - and discusses how coordinated policies in these and other areas can contribute to more rapid, sustainable growth and poverty reduction.

Poor Economics

A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty
Author: Abhijit Banerjee,Esther Duflo
Publisher: PublicAffairs
ISBN: 1610391608
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 320
View: 6761

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Why do the poor borrow to save? Why do they miss out on free life-saving immunizations, but pay for unnecessary drugs? In Poor Economics, Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo, two practical visionaries working toward ending world poverty, answer these questions from the ground. In a book the Wall Street Journal called “marvelous, rewarding,” the authors tell how the stress of living on less than 99 cents per day encourages the poor to make questionable decisions that feed—not fight—poverty. The result is a radical rethinking of the economics of poverty that offers a ringside view of the lives of the world's poorest, and shows that creating a world without poverty begins with understanding the daily decisions facing the poor.

Any Way You Slice It

The Past, Present, and Future of Rationing
Author: Stan Cox
Publisher: New Press, The
ISBN: 1595588841
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 4003

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Rationing: it’s a word—and idea—that people often loathe and fear. Health care expert Henry Aaron has compared mentioning the possibility of rationing to “shouting an obscenity in church.” Yet societies in fact ration food, water, medical care, and fuel all the time, with those who can pay the most getting the most. As Nobel Prize–winning economist Amartya Sen has said, the results can be “thoroughly unequal and nasty.” In Any Way You Slice It, Stan Cox shows that rationing is not just a quaint practice restricted to World War II memoirs and 1970s gas station lines. Instead, he persuasively argues that rationing is a vital concept for our fragile present, an era of dwindling resources and environmental crises. Any Way You Slice It takes us on a fascinating search for alternative ways of apportioning life’s necessities, from the goal of “fair shares for all” during wartime in the 1940s to present-day water rationing in a Mumbai slum, from the bread shops of Cairo to the struggle for fairness in American medicine and carbon rationing on Norfolk Island in the Pacific. Cox’s question: can we limit consumption while assuring everyone a fair share? The author of Losing Our Cool, the much debated and widely acclaimed examination of air-conditioning’s many impacts, here turns his attention to the politically explosive topic of how we share our planet’s resources.

Food Subsidies in Egypt

Their Impact on Foreign Exchange and Trade
Author: Grant MacDonald Scobie
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN: 9780896290419
Category: Social Science
Page: 67
View: 5587

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Inside Inequality in the Arab Republic of Egypt

Facts and Perceptions across People, Time, and Space
Author: Paolo Verme,Branko Milanovic,Sherine Al-Shawarby,Sahar El Tawila,May Gadallah,Enas Ali A.El-Majeed
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464801991
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 152
View: 1064

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This book joins four papers prepared in the framework of the Egypt inequality study financed by the World Bank. The first paper prepared by Sherine Al-Shawarby reviews the studies on inequality in Egypt since the 1950s with the double objective of illustrating the importance attributed to inequality through time and of presenting and compare the main published statistics on inequality. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a comprehensive review is carried. The second paper prepared by Branko Milanovic turns to the global and spatial dimensions of inequality. The objective here is to put Egypt inequality in the global context and better understand the origin and size of spatial inequalities within Egypt using different forms of measurement across regions and urban and rural areas. The Egyptian society remains deeply divided across space and in terms of welfare and this study unveils some of the hidden features of this inequality. The third paper prepared by Paolo Verme studies facts and perceptions of inequality during the period 2000-2009, the period that preceded the Egyptian revolution. The objective of this part is to provide some initial elements that could explain the apparent mismatch between inequality measured with household surveys and inequality aversion measured by values surveys. No such study has been carried out before in the Middle-East and North-Africa (MENA) region and this seemed a particular important and timely topic to address in the light of the unfolding developments in the Arab region. The fourth paper prepared by Sahar El Tawila, May Gadallah and Enas Ali A. El-Majeed assesses the state of poverty and inequality among the poorest villages of Egypt. The paper attempts to explain the level of inequality in an effort to disentangle those factors that derive from household abilities from those factors that derive from local opportunities. This is the first time that such study is conducted in Egypt. The book should be of interest to any observer of the political and economic evolution of the Arab region in the past few years and to poverty and inequality specialists that wish to have a deeper understanding of the distribution of incomes in Egypt and other countries in the MENA region.

Wheat Policy Reform in Egypt

Adjustment of Local Markets and Options for Future Reforms
Author: Mylène Kherallah
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN: 0896291189
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 170
View: 904

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Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set

Author: Kevin Shillington
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135456690
Category: History
Page: 1912
View: 8611

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Covering the entire continent from Morocco, Libya, and Egypt in the north to the Cape of Good Hope in the south, and the surrounding islands from Cape Verde in the west to Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles in the east, the Encyclopedia of African History is a new A-Z reference resource on the history of the entire African continent. With entries ranging from the earliest evolution of human beings in Africa to the beginning of the twenty-first century, this comprehensive three volume Encyclopedia is the first reference of this scale and scope. Also includes 99 maps.

The Oxford Handbook of Food, Politics, and Society

Author: Ronald J. Herring
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195397770
Category: Political Science
Page: 886
View: 9520

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This volume explores the complex interrelationships between food and agriculture, politics, and society. More specifically, it considers the political aspects of three basic economic questions: what is to be produced? how is it to be produced? how it is to be distributed? It also outlines three unifying themes running through the politics of answering these societal questions with regard to food, namely: ecology, technology and property.

Global Food-Price Shocks and Poor People

Themes and Case Studies
Author: Marc J. Cohen,Melinda Smale
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317979060
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 334
View: 7297

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This book examines the effects of high and volatile food prices during 2007-08 on low-income farmers and consumers in developing, transition, and industrialized countries. Previous studies of this crisis have mostly used models to estimate the likely impacts. This volume includes actual evidence from the field as to how higher prices affected access to food and farm income among poor people. In addition to country and regional case studies, the book presents discussions of cross-cutting themes, including gender, risk management, violence, the importance of subsistence farming as a coping strategy, and the role of governments and markets in addressing higher prices. With 2011 witnessing an unprecedentedly high level of food prices, the findings and policy recommendations presented here should prove useful to both scholars and policy makers in understanding the causes and consequences, as well as the policies needed to ensure food security in light of the skyrocketing cost of food. This book was published as a special double issue of Development in Practice.