The Economics of Tax Policy


Author: Robert D Burch Professor of Economics and Law and Director Burch Center for Tax Policy and Public Finance Alan J Auerbach,Kent Smetters,Boettner Professor of Business Economics and Public Policy and Director Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative the Wharton School Kent Smetters
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190619724
Category:
Page: 400
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The debates about the what, who, and how of tax policy are at the core of politics, policy, and economics. The Economics of Tax Policy provides a straightforward overview of recent research in the economics of taxation. Tax policies generate considerable debate among the public, policymakers, and scholars. These disputes have grown more heated in the United States as the incomes of the wealthiest 1 percent and the rest of the population continue to diverge. This important volume enhances understanding of the implications of taxation on behavior and social outcomes by having leading scholars evaluate key topics in tax policy. These include how changes to the individual income tax affect long-term economic growth; the challenges of tax administration, compliance, and enforcement; and environmental taxation and its effects on tax revenue, pollution emissions, economic efficiency, and income distribution. Also explored are tax expenditures, which are subsidy programs in the form of tax deductions, exclusions, credits, or favorable rates; how college attendance is influenced by tax credits and deductions for tuition and fees, tax-advantaged college savings plans, and student loan interest deductions; and how tax policy toward low-income families takes a number of forms with different distributional effects. Among the most contentious issues explored are influences of capital gains and estate taxation on the long term concentration of wealth; the interaction of tax policy and retirement savings and how policy can "nudge" improved planning for retirement; and how the reform of corporate and business taxation is central to current tax policy debates in the United States. By providing overviews of recent advances in thinking about how taxes relate to behavior and social goals, The Economics of Tax Policy helps inform the debate.

The Economics of Taxation


Author: Henry Aaron,Michael J. Boskin
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815707066
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 380
View: 9374

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This volume brings together the contributions of twenty-four economists and lawyers on tax policy. Five papers build on the work of Joseph A. Pechman in analyzing the distribution of tax burdens. A. B. Atkinson relates the analysis of redistribution of income through the tax system to horizontal equity, James Buchanan and Geoffrey Brennan demonstrate that a full analysis of tax burdens must encompass tax-induced inefficiencies, and Boris I. Bittker examines how tax inequities become resource misallocation. In separate papers, Joseph J. Minarik and Benjamin A. Okner elaborate on and extend Pechman’s analyses of tax burdens. Three papers address the concept of tax expenditures: Stanley S. Surrey and Paul R. McDaniel trace the development of the idea, Martin S. Feldstein demonstrates that some use of tax expenditures is necessary for the sake of economic efficiency, and Gerard M. Brannon examines the relations between tax expenditures and the distribution of income. Michael J. Boskin, Richard Goode, Peter Mieszkowski, and John B. Shoven and Paul Taubman examine alternative tax bases. Harvey E. Brazer and Alicia H. Munnell, in separate papers, argue that the basic unit subject to the personal income tax should be the individual rather than the family. David F. Bradford and Arnold C. Harberger analyze changes that would reduce present biases in the tax treatment of investment income. George F. Break and Charles E. McLure, Jr., consider possible improvements in the personal and corporation income taxes imposed by states. E. Cary Brown, Richard A. Musgrave, and Emil M. Sunley deal with fiscal policy. Brown draws lessons from U.S. History since 1945. Musgrave confronts Marxian and other theories of fiscal crises with the facts. Sunley describes the many pitfalls between proposals for even modest tax change and final congressional action.

Tax Policy in the Global Economy

Selected Essays of Peggy B. Musgrave
Author: Peggy B. Musgrave
Publisher: Edward Elgar Pub
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 470
View: 4245

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Income tax analysis extended to the arena of multinational investment . The concept of tax equity among nations is introduced and developed. The complex tax issues which arise in the case of cross-border investment are addressed.

Tax By Design

The Mirrlees Review
Author: Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS),James Mirrlees
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191620092
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 560
View: 4442

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Tax by Design identifies what makes a good tax system for an open developed economy in the 21st century and suggests how the UK tax system could be reformed to move in that direction. The recommendations stress the importance of neutrality and transparency in tax design. It draws on the expert evidence from the commissioned chapters and commentaries in Dimensions of Tax Design. It also acknowledges the growing importance of globalised markets and multinational corporations as well as the challenges created by changing population demographics, the growth of new technologies, and the broadened objectives of policy makers. The Commission's work was directed by: Timothy Besley Richard Blundell Malcolm Gammie James Poterba The Commission's editorial team: Stuart Adam Stephen Bond Robert Chote Paul Johnson Gareth Myles

Tax Policy and the Economy


Author: James M. Poterba
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262662027
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 184
View: 5768

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Recent academic research findings on topics relating to taxation and social insurance policy, including the implicit tax imposed by Medicaid on private long-term care insurance benefits, an alternative system of unemployment insurance, and federal energy tax policy.

The Economics of Taxation


Author: Bernard Salanié,Kitty O. Locker
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262194860
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 226
View: 3266

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A graduate-level introduction to the economic theories of taxation.

The Economics of Tax and Social Security in Japan


Author: Yoshimi Adachi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811071764
Category: Law
Page: 260
View: 6694

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This book integrates the fundamentals of quantitative significance, using existing estimates of the elasticities of demand for tax, health insurance, and medical services in a static microsimulation model. It serves as a guide to the financial and social basics of health insurance and provides the reader with the intellectual groundwork indispensable for understanding the incorrect assumptions about the elasticities of demand and pattern of tax and health insurance. Most countries feel constant pressure because expenditure is increasing and resources are scarce. The topics addressed in this book including several frameworks leading to over-insurance, excess demand for medical care, and rapid expenditure growth in the medical care sector. Illustrated by carefully chosen examples and supported by extensive data analyses, this book is highly recommended to readers who seek an in-depth and up-to-date integrated overview of the ever-expanding theoretical and quantitative fields of containing costs, increasing funding for health services, or both.

The Economic Psychology of Tax Behaviour


Author: Erich Kirchler
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107321175
Category: Psychology
Page: N.A
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Tax evasion is a complex phenomenon which is influenced not just by economic motives but by psychological factors as well. Economic-psychological research focuses on individual and social representations of taxation as well as decision-making. In this 2007 book, Erich Kirchler assembles research on tax compliance, with a focus on tax evasion, and integrates the findings into a model based on the interaction climate between tax authorities and taxpayers. The interaction climate is defined by citizens' trust in authorities and the power of authorities to control taxpayers effectively; depending on trust and power, either voluntary compliance, enforced compliance or no compliance are likely outcomes. Featuring chapters on the social representations of taxation, decision-making and self-employed income tax behaviour, this book will appeal to researchers in economic psychology, behavioural economics and public administration.

The Economics of Higher Education

An Analysis of Taxes Versus Fees
Author: John Creedy
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: N.A
Category: Education
Page: 152
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John Creedy provides a highly rigorous technical analysis. . . Journal of Education, Planning and Administration Creedy presents a succinct analysis of the fundamental economic implications of tax-based versus fee-based support of higher education, including fees collected over a lifetime through tax surcharges. The book appears in the midst of raging national debate on financing higher education. While the book is intended for a professional audience, its analytical rigor sold arm economists to more effectively contribute to the public policy debate on higher education finance. The clarity of presentation is a tribute to the author s grasp of the subject matter and its underlying principles. A major contribution is the identification of key interdependencies that flow from the theoretical analysis. Brady J. Deaton, American Journal of Agricultural Economics The rich detail allows the reader to understand subtle interrelationships among variables that might otherwise be missed. The clear explanations of the major results are also very helpful. Donald E. Frey, Southern Economic Journal The debate regarding the increased funding of higher education has focused on specific issues such as whether higher education should be financed through general taxation and the implications of collecting fees later in life through the use of a tax surcharge while largely ignoring the important economic interdependencies which affect them. In The Economics of Higher Education, John Creedy explores the economic foundations of the debate and focuses attention on the process of government decision-making including the precise way that these decisions are affected by the possible external effects of higher education. This book addresses the key issues in the debate using a fully specified model which allows for dispersion of abilities, the individual s decision to invest in higher education and the government s choice of higher education grant, along with the government s budget constraint. This model is also used to consider the effects of alternative tax and grant systems on the distribution of lifetime income within a cohort of individuals, and is extended to allow for the general equilibrium effects of other social transfers to the low paid, along with means testing of grants. The non-technical introduction discusses the author s approach, the framework of analysis and the conclusions which he has reached. As a rigorous analytical contribution to a major public policy debate, this book will be welcomed by policymakers and educationalists, as well as by teachers and researchers in the field of public economics.

Taxation, Wealth, and Saving


Author: David F. Bradford
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262024709
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 540
View: 4888

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Eventually Bradford became convinced that the politically unpopular consumption-based model was the superior one. Since leaving the Treasury, much of his professional focus has been on economic analysis of the income tax system and on tax policy advocacy.".

Taxes in America

What Everyone Needs to Know
Author: Leonard Burman,Joel Slemrod
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199890277
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 280
View: 6245

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Taxes in America, by preeminent tax scholars Leonard E. Burman and Joel Slemrod, offers a clear, concise explanation of how our tax system works, how it affects people and businesses, and how it might be improved. Accessibly written, the book describes the confundities of the modern tax system in an easy-to-grasp manner and addresses issues relevant to the average taxpayer.

The Economics Of Public Finance


Author: Alan Blinder
Publisher: Atlantic Publishers & Distri
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 435
View: 6060

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This is the thirty-fifth volume in the Brookings Studies of Government Finance series. In the first of its four essays, “Analytical Foundations of Fiscal Policy,” Alan S. Blinder of Princeton University and Robert M. Solow of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology survey the theoretical and empirical underpinnings of fiscal policy. After discussing how the influence of fiscal policy on macroeconomic activity ought to be assessed, the authors examine and find inadequate the dictum that government should balance the budget rather than the economy. They defend—again both theoretically and empirically—the efficacy of fiscal policy against the monetarist challenge. From an examination of the lags and uncertainties in the operation of fiscal policy and an analysis of the 1968–70 income tax surcharge, they conclude that, although much remains to be learned about the econometrics of policy multipliers, the post-surcharge experience in no way undermines the theoretical foundations of fiscal policy. Where the burdens of various taxes fall has been a matter of intense interest to economic theorists in the last twenty years. As public expenditures (and taxpayer resistance) rise, not only must policy makers try to distribute the burdens of taxation equitably, but they must also attempt to move toward national goals by judicious use of tax instruments. George F. Break of the University of California at Berkeley, in “The Incidence and Economic Effects of Taxation,” a comprehensive review of recent tax literature, focuses on the theoretical studies that have helped to expand knowledge of tax incidence and the empirical studies that support newly developed hypotheses. In each area he surveys—the design of theoretical and general sales and income taxes; the effect of economic choices, both of individuals and businesses, on the national well-being—Break indicates the ground still to be covered and the potential benefits of further inquiry. In “Public Expenditure Budgeting,” Peter O. Steiner of the University of Michigan explores the literature dealing with the hard questions underlying public expenditures. What is the public interest? How does the community decide whether the government should undertake or finance a given activity, instead of leaving it to a private action or inaction? On what basis should incremental expenditure decisions of governmental units be made? Steiner reviews the various approaches scholars have taken to the difficult questions surrounding the appropriateness of governmental provision of particular goods and services. Although he finds none of the models fully satisfactory, his work contributes to the debate concerning the process by which collective values are articulated and collective decisions come to be accepted as binding. Dick Netzer’s “State-Local Finance and Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations” clarifies the debate that centered around the initial proposals for revenue sharing. The author, Dean of New York University’s Graduate School of Public Administration, explores the appropriate distribution of responsibility for public services among federal, state, and local governments, the appropriate revenue systems for the subnational governments, and the appropriate means of coordinating the systems with the responsibilities.

Tax Policy and the Economy


Author: Robert A. Moffitt
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022657749X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 208
View: 1979

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The six research studies in Volume 32 of Tax Policy and the Economy analyze the U.S. tax and transfer system, in particular its effects on revenues, expenditures, and economic behavior. First, James Andreoni examines donor advised funds, which are financial vehicles offered by investment houses to provide savings accounts for tax-free charitable giving, and weighs their effects on donations against their tax cost. Second, Caroline Hoxby analyzes the use of tax credits by students enrolled in online post-secondary education. Third, Alex Rees-Jones and Dmitry Taubinsky explore taxpayers’ psychological biases that lead to incorrect perceptions and understanding of tax incentives. Fourth, Jeffrey Clemens and Benedic Ippolito investigate the implications of block grant reforms of Medicaid for receipt of federal support by different states. Fifth, Andrew Samwick examines means-testing of Medicare and federal health benefits under the Affordable Care Act. Sixth, Bruce Meyer and Wallace Mok study the incidence and effects of disability among U.S. women from 1968 to 2015, examining the impacts of disability on income, consumption, and public transfers.

Taxation in Crisis

Tax Policy and the Quest for Economic Growth
Author: Dimitrios D. Thomakos,Konstantinos I. Nikolopoulos
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319653105
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 454
View: 5204

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This book offers a comprehensive guide to modern day taxation issues. It presents a thorough overview of many of the crucial aspects of applied taxation and current tax systems, and presents evidence that supports taxation as an important policy issue requiring immediate address globally. Contributions seek to address the core question of how to design a tax policy mix that can serve primarily efficiency, growth and possibly equity goals at a time where fiscal spending, for many economies, is not a viable option. Chapters provide a historical perspective on taxation, then go on to cover aspects of the modern theory of optimal taxation and tax design and provide valuable international perspectives on current tax practices and much required tax reforms. Empirical analysis on taxation and related economic data help the readers to understand how data-based observations and results are linked to the theory of taxation, and more importantly economic growth, before offering appropriate policy prescriptions. This book will be of interest to scholars and practitioners interested in learning more about taxation and why it matters today in the global economy.

The Political Economy of Progressive Taxation


Author: Dieter Bös,Bernhard Felderer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642749992
Category: Political Science
Page: 220
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This volume presents papers which were given at a conference of the Liberty Fund, Washington, co-sponsored by the Carl-Menger Institute, Vienna. The conference took place in Vienna in January 1988. All papers were subject to a refereeing process; some of them had to be revised very extensively. The economics of progressive taxation have been a research topic ever since economists have dealt with the economic role of the state. Old puzzles are the best: the theoretical underpinning of progressivity still is not fully convincing, even after 200 years of economic research. In the present volume we succeeded in publishing some contributions of outstanding economists which present their visions of the topic. Niskanen distinguishes two types of contributions of public choice analysis to understanding and evaluating the tax and transfer system in modern economics: the positive analysis, which examines the issue of how a tax and transfer system would look if it were established by a government subject to majority rule; . and the normative analysis, which tries to discern an optimal system of taxes and transfers. In the normative case the author distinguishes between the "libertarian perspective", in which each person has full rights to any property that he has acquired legally and in which transfers are determined entirely by the preferences of the donors, and the so-called "constitutional perspective" , in which each person elects the rules affecting taxes without knowledge of his position in the post constitutional distribution.

The Economics of Natural Resources in Latin America

Taxation and Regulation of the Extractive Industries
Author: Osmel E. Manzano M.,Fernando Navajas,Andrew Powell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351618857
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 240
View: 7795

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Revenues from commodities are extremely important for Latin America and the Caribbean, yet there is very little literature on the structure of these industries and on the various ways in which the state obtains commodity revenues. This book aims to understand the trade-off between the degree of taxation overall, the profitability of the relevant industry and the amount of investment and subsequent production in the region, as well as the relevance of institutions in the performance of the sector. This volume focuses on economic efficiency: where Latin America stands in terms of the current tax system for the extractive sector; how policies have changed in this regard; and how policies may be improved. The Economics of Natural Resources in Latin America is timely, since this new era of lower and volatile prices and possible reconfiguration of investment flows poses a challenge to natural resource tax systems in the world. The argument of the book will be made by a collection of papers around the issue of tax efficiency in the region and concludes with chapters on institutions and the role of transparency. This book shows that there are varieties of experiences in resource taxation and management of revenues in Latin America that could be used to shape policy interventions in other regions. This variety is not only related to their diverse impact on welfare, but also on the policy challenges faced by the countries in the region. This volume is well suited for those who study and find interest in development economics, political economy and public finance, as well as policy

Taxation

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Stephen Smith
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199683697
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 131
View: 4008

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Tax revenues pay for many public services, including roads, health care, and education. However, it has become a contentious political issue of public debate. In this volume, Stephen Smith explains the role that taxes play in a modern economy and describes some of the main taxes used by most developed and developing countries. It considers the key issues: the question of where the burden of taxation really lies, how taxation affects the economy, and the effects of tax evasion and tax avoidance.

International Handbook on the Economics of Integration

Competition, Spatial Location of Economic Activity and Financial Issues
Author: Miroslav N. Jovanović
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1849806004
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 3
View: 7046

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'International Handbook on the Economics of Integration edited by Miroslav Jovanovi? provides timely and rich academic contributions to considerations of the widest array of integration-related issues. European integration has been providing an inspiration to a number of academics and researchers. the Handbook is a recognition of the dynamic and strong solidarity of European integration. At the same time, the European Union often provided an example for integration schemes throughout the world which spread enormously since the mid-1990s. Leading experts from all continents contributed to this Handbook which will be a valuable input into academic and policy-making discussions and actions.' - José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission

The Encyclopedia of Taxation & Tax Policy


Author: Joseph J. Cordes,Robert D. Ebel,Jane Gravelle
Publisher: The Urban Insitute
ISBN: 9780877667520
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 499
View: 7089

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From adjusted gross income to zoning and property taxes, the revised edition of The Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy offers the best and most complete guide to taxes and tax related issues. More than 150 tax practitioners and administrators, policymakers, and academics contributed to this unique and authoritative reference. The Encyclopedia examines virtually all tax instruments used by governments (individual income, corporate income, sales and value-added, property, estate and gift, franchise, poll, and many variants of these taxes), as well as characteristics of a good tax system, budgetary issues, and many current federal, state, local, and international tax policy issues. The new edition is completely revised, with 40 new topics and 200 articles revised to reflect six years of legislative changes. Each essay provides the generalist with a quick and reliable introduction to many topics but also gives tax specialists the benefit of the best thinking of other experts in a manner that makes the complex understandable. Reference lists point the reader to additional sources of information for each topic. The first edition was selected as an Outstanding Academic Book of the Year by Choice magazine