The Dynamical System Generated by the 3n+1 Function


Author: Günther J. Wirsching
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540696776
Category: Mathematics
Page: 164
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The 3n+1 function T is defined by T(n)=n/2 for n even, and T(n)=(3n+1)/2 for n odd. The famous 3n+1 conjecture, which remains open, states that, for any starting number n>0, iterated application of T to n eventually produces 1. After a survey of theorems concerning the 3n+1 problem, the main focus of the book are 3n+1 predecessor sets. These are analyzed using, e.g., elementary number theory, combinatorics, asymptotic analysis, and abstract measure theory. The book is written for any mathematician interested in the 3n+1 problem, and in the wealth of mathematical ideas employed to attack it.

The Ultimate Challenge

The 3x+1 Problem
Author: Jeffrey C. Lagarias
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821849409
Category: Mathematics
Page: 344
View: 7392

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The $3x+1$ problem, or Collatz problem, concerns the following seemingly innocent arithmetic procedure applied to integers: If an integer $x$ is odd then ``multiply by three and add one'', while if it is even then ``divide by two''. The $3x+1$ problem asks whether, starting from any positive integer, repeating this procedure over and over will eventually reach the number 1. Despite its simple appearance, this problem is unsolved. Generalizations of the problem are known to be undecidable, and the problem itself is believed to be extraordinarily difficult. This book reports on what is known on this problem. It consists of a collection of papers, which can be read independently of each other. The book begins with two introductory papers, one giving an overview and current status, and the second giving history and basic results on the problem. These are followed by three survey papers on the problem, relating it to number theory and dynamical systems, to Markov chains and ergodic theory, and to logic and the theory of computation. The next paper presents results on probabilistic models for behavior of the iteration. This is followed by a paper giving the latest computational results on the problem, which verify its truth for $x 5.4 \cdot 10^{18}$. The book also reprints six early papers on the problem and related questions, by L. Collatz, J. H. Conway, H. S. M. Coxeter, C. J. Everett, and R. K. Guy, each with editorial commentary. The book concludes with an annotated bibliography of work on the problem up to the year 2000.

Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century

From PNT to FLT
Author: Władysław Narkiewicz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0857295322
Category: Mathematics
Page: 654
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The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat’s problem. Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between the proof of the Prime Number Theorem and the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. The focus lays upon the part of number theory that deals with properties of integers and rational numbers. Chapters are divided into five time periods, which are then further divided into subject areas. With the introduction of each new topic, developments are followed through to the present day. This book will appeal to graduate researchers and student in number theory, however the presentation of main results without technicalities will make this accessible to anyone with an interest in the area.

Infobiotics

Information in Biotic Systems
Author: Vincenzo Manca
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642362230
Category: Computers
Page: 384
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The book presents topics in discrete biomathematics. Mathematics has been widely used in modeling biological phenomena. However, the molecular and discrete nature of basic life processes suggests that their logic follow principles that are intrinsically based on discrete and informational mechanisms. The ultimate reason of polymers, as key element of life, is directly based on the computational power of strings, and the intrinsic necessity of metabolism is related to the mathematical notion of multiset. The switch of the two roots of bioinformatics suggests a change of perspective. In bioinformatics, the biologists ask computer scientists to assist them in processing biological data. Conversely, in infobiotics mathematicians and computer scientists investigate principles and theories yielding new interpretation keys of biological phenomena. Life is too important to be investigated by biologists alone, and though computers are essential to process data from biological laboratories, many fundamental questions about life can be appropriately answered by a perspicacious intervention of mathematicians, computer scientists, and physicists, who will complement the work of chemists, biochemists, biologists, and medical investigators. The volume is organized in seven chapters. The first part is devoted to research topics (Discrete information and life, Strings and genomes, Algorithms and Biorhythms, Life Strategies), the second one to mathematical backgrounds (Numbers and Measures, Languages and Grammars, Combinations and Chances).

Advances in Combinatorial Mathematics

Proceedings of the Waterloo Workshop in Computer Algebra 2008
Author: Ilias S. Kotsireas,Eugene Zima
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642035623
Category: Mathematics
Page: 174
View: 8535

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The Second Waterloo Workshop on Computer Algebra was dedicated to the 70th birthday of combinatorics pioneer Georgy Egorychev. This book of formally-refereed papers submitted after that workshop covers topics closely related to Egorychev’s influential works.

Tutorials in Mathematical Biosciences

Mathematical modelling of calcium dynamics and signal transduction. II
Author: R. Bertram,James Sneyd
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540254393
Category: Mathematics
Page: 202
View: 1925

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This book presents a series of models in the general area of cell physiology and signal transduction, with particular attention being paid to intracellular calcium dynamics, and the role played by calcium in a variety of cell types. Calcium plays a crucial role in cell physiology, and the study of its dynamics lends insight into many different cellular processes. In particular, calcium plays a central role in muscular contraction, olfactory transduction and synaptic communication, three of the topics to be addressed in detail in this book. In addition to the models, much of the underlying physiology is presented, so that readers may learn both the mathematics and the physiology, and see how the models are applied to specific biological questions. It is intended primarily as a graduate text or a research reference. It will serve as a concise and up-to-date introduction to all those who wish to learn about the state of calcium dynamics modeling, and how such models are applied to physiological questions.

The Art of Random Walks


Author: Andras Telcs
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540330275
Category: Mathematics
Page: 195
View: 4936

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Einstein proved that the mean square displacement of Brownian motion is proportional to time. He also proved that the diffusion constant depends on the mass and on the conductivity (sometimes referred to Einstein’s relation). The main aim of this book is to reveal similar connections between the physical and geometric properties of space and diffusion. This is done in the context of random walks in the absence of algebraic structure, local or global spatial symmetry or self-similarity. The author studies the heat diffusion at this general level and discusses the following topics: The multiplicative Einstein relation, Isoperimetric inequalities, Heat kernel estimates Elliptic and parabolic Harnack inequality.

Introduction to Symplectic Dirac Operators


Author: Katharina Habermann,Lutz Habermann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540334211
Category: Mathematics
Page: 125
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This volume is the first one that gives a systematic and self-contained introduction to the theory of symplectic Dirac operators and reflects the current state of the subject. At the same time, it is intended to establish the idea that symplectic spin geometry and symplectic Dirac operators may give valuable tools in symplectic geometry and symplectic topology, which have become important fields and very active areas of mathematical research.

An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers


Author: Godfrey Harold Hardy,E. M. Wright,Roger Heath-Brown,Joseph Silverman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199219865
Category: Mathematics
Page: 621
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An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers by G.H. Hardy and E. M. Wright is found on the reading list of virtually all elementary number theory courses and is widely regarded as the primary and classic text in elementary number theory. This Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated to guide today's students through the key milestones and developments in number theory. Updates include a chapter on one of the mostimportant developments in number theory -- modular elliptic curves and their role in the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem -- a foreword by A. Wiles and comprehensively updated end-of-chapter notes detailing the key developments in number theory. Suggestions for further reading are also included for the more avid reader and the clarityof exposition is retained throughout making this textbook highly accessible to undergraduates in mathematics from the first year upwards.

Internet Imaging


Author: Giordano Bruno Beretta,Raimondo Schettini
Publisher: Society of Photo Optical
ISBN: N.A
Category: Computers
Page: N.A
View: 1063

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The Analysis of Fractional Differential Equations

An Application-Oriented Exposition Using Differential Operators of Caputo Type
Author: Kai Diethelm
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642145744
Category: Mathematics
Page: 247
View: 8957

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Fractional calculus was first developed by pure mathematicians in the middle of the 19th century. Some 100 years later, engineers and physicists have found applications for these concepts in their areas. However there has traditionally been little interaction between these two communities. In particular, typical mathematical works provide extensive findings on aspects with comparatively little significance in applications, and the engineering literature often lacks mathematical detail and precision. This book bridges the gap between the two communities. It concentrates on the class of fractional derivatives most important in applications, the Caputo operators, and provides a self-contained, thorough and mathematically rigorous study of their properties and of the corresponding differential equations. The text is a useful tool for mathematicians and researchers from the applied sciences alike. It can also be used as a basis for teaching graduate courses on fractional differential equations.

Self-similar Groups


Author: Volodymyr Nekrashevych
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821838318
Category: Mathematics
Page: 231
View: 6006

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Self-similar groups (groups generated by automata) appeared initially as examples of groups that are easy to define but that enjoy exotic properties like nontrivial torsion, intermediate growth, etc. The book studies the self-similarity phenomenon in group theory and shows its intimate relation with dynamical systems and more classical self-similar structures, such as fractals, Julia sets, and self-affine tilings. The relation is established through the notions of the iterated monodromy group and the limit space, which are the central topics of the book. A wide variety of examples and different applications of self-similar groups to dynamical systems and vice versa are discussed. It is shown in particular how Julia sets can be reconstructed from the respective iterated monodromy groups and that groups with exotic properties appear now not just as isolated examples but as naturally defined iterated monodromy groups of rational functions. The book is intended to be accessible to a wide mathematical readership, including graduate students interested in group theory and dynamical systems.

Uniqueness and Non-Uniqueness of Semigroups Generated by Singular Diffusion Operators


Author: Andreas Eberle
Publisher: Springer Verlag
ISBN: N.A
Category: Mathematics
Page: 262
View: 2025

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This volume constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of an international workshop on fuzzy logic in Artificial Intelligence held in Negoya, Japan during IJCAI '97. The 17 revised full papers presented have gone through two rounds of reviewing and revision. Three papers by leading authorities in the area are devoted to the general relevance of fuzzy logic and fuzzy sets to AI. The remaining papers address various relevant issues ranging from theory to application in areas like knowledge representation, induction, logic programming, robotics, pattern recognition, etc.