The Development of Latin Clause Structure

A Study of the Extended Verb Phrase
Author: Lieven Danckaert
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198759525
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 352
View: 9625

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This book examines Latin word order, and in particular the relative ordering of i) lexical verbs and direct objects (OV vs VO) and ii) auxiliaries and non-finite verbs (VAux vs AuxV). In Latin these elements can freely be ordered with respect to each other, whereas the present-day Romance languages only allow for the head-initial orders VO and AuxV. Lieven Danckaert offers a detailed, corpus-based description of these two word order alternations, focusing on their diachronic development in the period from c. 200 BC until 600 AD. The corpus data reveal that some received wisdom needs to be reconsidered: there is in fact no evidence for any major increase in productivity of the order VO during the eight centuries under investigation, and the order AuxV only becomes more frequent in clauses with a modal verb and an infinitive, not in clauses with a BE-auxiliary and a past participle. The book also explores a more fundamental question about Latin syntax, namely whether or not the language is configurational, in the sense that a phrase structure grammar (with 'higher-order constituents' such as verb phrases) is needed to describe and analyse Latin word order patterns. Four pieces of evidence are presented that suggest that Latin is indeed a fully configurational language, despite its high degree of word order flexibility. Specifically, it is shown that there is ample evidence for the existence of a verb phrase constituent. The book thus contributes to the ongoing debate regarding the status of configurationality as a language universal.

Clause Structure and Word Order in the History of German


Author: Agnes Jäger,Gisella Ferraresi,Helmut Weiß
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198813546
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 432
View: 4977

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This volume presents the first comprehensive generative account of the historical syntax of German. Leading scholars in the field survey a range of topics and offer new insights into central aspects of clause structure and word order, outlining the different stages of their historical development. Each chapter combines a solid empirical basis with descriptive generalizations, supported by a detailed discussion of theoretical analyses couched in the generative framework. Reference is also made throughout to the more traditional descriptive model of the German clause. The volume is divided into three parts that correspond to the main parts of the clause. Part I explores the left periphery, looking at verb placement (verb second and competing orders), the prefield, and adverbial connectives, while Part II discusses the middle field, including pronominal syntax, the order of full NPs, and the history of negation. The final part examines the right periphery with chapters covering basic word order (OV/VO), prosodic and information-structural factors, and the verbal complex. The book will be a valuable resource for researchers and students in historical syntax and the Germanic languages, and for both descriptive and theoretical linguists alike.

Verb Second in Medieval Romance


Author: Sam Wolfe
Publisher: Oxford Studies in Diachronic a
ISBN: 0198804679
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 208
View: 6662

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This volume provides the first book-length study of the controversial topic of Verb Second and related properties in a range of Medieval Romance varieties. It presents an examination and analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data from Old French, Occitan, Sicilian, Venetian, Spanish, and Sardinian, in order to assess whether these were indeed Verb Second languages. Sam Wolfe argues that V-to-C movement is a point of continuity across all the medieval varieties - unlike in the modern Romance languages - but that there are rich patterns of synchronic and diachronic variation in the medieval period that have not previously been observed and investigated. These include differences in the syntax-pragmatics mapping, the locus of verb movement, the behaviour of clitic pronouns, the syntax of subject positions, matrix/embedded asymmetries, and the null argument properties of the languages in question. The book outlines a detailed formal cartographic analysis of both the attested synchronic patterns and the diachronic evolution of Romance clausal structure. The findings have widespread implications for the understanding of both the key typological property of Verb Second and the development of Latin into the modern Romance languages.

Quantitative Historical Linguistics

A Corpus Framework
Author: Gard B. Jenset,Barbara McGillivray
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198718179
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 288
View: 7362

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This book is an innovative guide to quantitative, corpus-based research in historical and diachronic linguistics. Gard B. Jenset and Barbara McGillivray argue that, although historical linguistics has been successful in using the comparative method, the field lags behind other branches of linguistics with respect to adopting quantitative methods. Here they provide a theoretically agnostic description of a new framework for quantitatively assessing models and hypotheses in historical linguistics, based on corpus data and using case studies to illustrate how this framework can answer research questions in historical linguistics. The authors offer an in-depth explanation and discussion of the benefits of working with quantitative methods, corpus data, and corpus annotation, and the advantages of open and reproducible research. The book will be a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in historical linguistics, as well as for all those working with linguistic corpora.

Gender from Latin to Romance

History, Geography, Typology
Author: Michele Loporcaro
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199656541
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 416
View: 2378

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This book explores grammatical gender in the Romance languages and dialects and its evolution from Latin. Michele Loporcaro investigates the significant diversity found in the Romance varieties in this regard; he draws on data from the Middle Ages to the present from all the Romance languages and dialects, discussing examples from Romanian to Portuguese and crucially also focusing on less widely-studied varieties such as Sursilvan, Neapolitan, and Asturian. The investigation first reveals that several varieties display more complex systems than the binary masculine/feminine contrast familiar from modern French or Italian. Moreover, it emerges that traditional accounts, whereby neuter gender was lost in the spoken Latin of the late Empire, cannot be correct: instead, the neuter gender underwent a range of different transformations from Late Latin onwards, which are responsible for the different systems that can be observed today across the Romance languages. The volume provides a detailed description of many of these systems, which in turns reveals a wealth of fascinating data, such as varieties where 'husbands' are feminine and others where 'wives' are masculine; dialects in which nouns overtly mark gender, but only in certain syntactic contexts; and one Romance variety (Asturian) in which it appears that grammatical gender has split into two concurrent systems. The volume will appeal to linguists from a range of backgrounds, including Romance linguistics, historical linguistics, typology, and morphosyntax, and is also of relevance to those working in sociology, gender studies, and psychology.

Latin Embedded Clauses

The Left Periphery
Author: Lieven Jozef Maria Danckaert
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027255679
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 368
View: 4766

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This monograph is one of the first studies that approaches Latin syntax from a formal perspective, combining detailed corpus-based description with formal theoretical analysis. The empirical focus is word order in embedded clauses, with special attention to clauses in which one or more constituents surface to the left of a subordinating conjunction. It is proposed that two such types of left peripheral fronting should be distinguished. The proposed analyses shed light not only on the clausal left periphery, but also on the overall structure of the Latin clause. The study is couched in the framework of generative grammar, but since a thorough introduction is provided, no special background in formal syntax is required. Major topics touched upon are word order, information structure, locality, and the syntax of pied-piping. The book covers both synchronic and diachronic topics of Latin syntax, and is of interest for classical philologists, historical linguists, and formal syntacticians.

The Comment Clause in English

Syntactic Origins and Pragmatic Development
Author: Laurel J. Brinton
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107405011
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 300
View: 1461

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Although English comment clauses such as I think and you know have been widely studied, this book, published in 2008, constitutes the first full-length diachronic treatment, focusing on comment clauses formed with common verbs of perception and cognition in a variety of syntactic forms. It understands comment clauses as causal pragmatic markers that undergo grammaticalisation, and acquire pragmatic and politeness functions and subjective and intersubjective meanings. To date, the prevailing view of their syntactic development, which is extrapolated from synchronic studies, is that they originate in matrix clauses which become syntactically indeterminate and are reanalysed as parenthetical. In this corpus-based study, Laurel J. Brinton shows that the historical data do not bear out this view, and proposes a more varied and complex conception of the development of comment clauses. Researchers and students of the English language and historical linguistics will certainly consider Brinton's findings to be of great interest.

Medieval English and Its Heritage

Structure, Meaning and Mechanisms of Change
Author: Nikolaus Ritt
Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated
ISBN: N.A
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 240
View: 1903

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The volume features new work in English historical linguistics. It focuses on Medieval Englishes, but also discusses how processes originating there continued to unfold in later stages of linguistic evolution. In language internal terms, it deals with phonological, morphological, lexical and syntactic constituents. At the same time, cognitive, pragmatic and social factors are taken into account. All contributions go back to papers delivered at the 13th International Conference of English Historical Linguistics, held at Vienna in 2004. They address central questions from new perspectives, report empirical findings, point out new directions for research, make new methods relevant for the historical study of English, manage to revise established views, and provide a good survey of issues currently discussed in the community of historical English linguists.

The History of Negation in the Languages of Europe and the Mediterranean

Volume I Case Studies
Author: David Willis,Christopher Lucas,Anne Breitbarth
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199602530
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 533
View: 6242

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This is the first of a two-volume comparative history of negation in the languages of Europe and the Mediterranean. It examines the development of sentential negation and negative indefinites and quantifiers in languages and language groups such as Italian, English, Dutch, German, Celtic, Slavonic, Greek, Uralic, and Afro-Asiatic.

Concise History of the Language Sciences

From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists
Author: E.F.K. Koerner,R.E. Asher
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483297543
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 509
View: 2491

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This book presents in a single volume a comprehensive history of the language sciences, from ancient times through to the twentieth century. While there has been a concentration on those traditions that have the greatest international relevance, a particular effort has been made to go beyond traditional Eurocentric accounts, and to cover a broad geographical spread. For the twentieth century a section has been devoted to the various trends, schools, and theoretical framework developed in Europe, North America and Australasia over the past seventy years. There has also been a concentration on those approaches in linguistic theory which can be expected to have some direct relevance to work being done at the beginning of the twenty-first century or those of which a knowledge is needed for the full understanding of the history of linguistic sciences through the last half of this century. The last section of this book reviews the applications of some of these findings. Based on the foundation provided by the award winning Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics this volume provides an excellent focal point of reference for anyone interested in the history of the language sciences.

The Evolution of Functional Left Peripheries in Hungarian Syntax


Author: Katalin E. Kiss
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198709854
Category: Grammar, Comparative and general
Page: 263
View: 5407

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"The book specifically focuses on the restructuring of Hungarian syntax from head-final to head-initial, which started in the Proto-Hungarian age. ... The book will be of interest to researchers and graduate students working in historical and diachronic linguistics, as well as all those interested in the mechanisms and theory of linguistic change."--Dust jacket flap.

Participles in Rigvedic Sanskrit

The Syntax and Semantics of Adjectival Verb Forms
Author: John J. Lowe
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191005053
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 464
View: 7105

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This book examines several thousand examples of tense-aspect stem participles in the Rigveda, and the passages in which they appear, in terms of both their syntax and semantics. The Rigveda is an ancient collection of sacred Indian hymns, written in Vedic Sanskrit, and is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. It is also a poetic text in which deliberate obscurity is the governing aesthetic and in which the rules of language are pushed to their limits in order to produce the ideal poetic expression. Many Vedic sentences are of controversial, disputed meaning, and Vedic scholarship is thus fraught with controversy. John J. Lowe applies formal linguistic analysis to the data and produces a comprehensive formal model of how participles are used. The author uses his findings to recategorize the data, by defining certain stems and stem-types as outside the synchronic category of participle on the basis of their syntactic and semantic properties. He suggests alternative sources for these forms and considers the linguistic processes that transformed old participles into non-participial entities. In his conclusion he reassesses the category of participles within the verbal and nominal systems, looks at their prehistory in Proto-Indo-European, and describes their universal, typological characteristics. Among his conclusions are that tense-aspect-stem participles have the technical properties of adjectival verbs, not verbal adjectives, and that such participles are not fully dependent on corresponding finite verbal forms. That is, a perfect participle, for example, need not share all the semantic and functional features of the finite perfect forms built to the same stem. These and many other conclusions drawn either directly challenge or radically revise received opinion and recent work.

Vowel Length from Latin to Romance


Author: Michele Loporcaro
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 019965655X
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 400
View: 1714

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This book investigates the changes that affected vowel length during the development of Latin into the Romance languages and dialects. In Latin, vowel length was contrastive (e.g. pila 'ball' vs. pila 'pile', like English bit vs. beat), but no modern Romance language has retained that same contrast. However, many non-standard Romance dialects (as well as French, up to the early 20th century) have developed novel vowel length contrasts, which are investigated in detail here. Unlike previous studies of this phenomenon, this book combines detailed historical evidence spanning three millennia (as attested by extant texts) with extensive data from present-day Romance varieties collected from first-hand fieldwork, which are subjected to both phonological and experimental phonetic analysis. Professor Loporcaro puts forward a detailed account of the loss of contrastive vowel length in late Latin, showing that this happened through the establishment of a process which lengthened all stressed vowels in open syllables, as in modern Italian casa ['ka:sa]. His analysis has implications for many of the most widely-debated issues relating to the origin of novel vowel length contrasts in Romance, which are also shown to have been preserved to different degrees in different areas. The detailed investigation of the rise and fall of vowel length in dozens of lesser-known (non-standard) varieties is crucial in understanding the development of this aspect of Romance historical phonology, and will be of interest not only to researchers and students in comparative Romance linguistics, but also, more generally, to phonologists and those interested in historical linguistics beyond the Latin-Romance language family.

A History of the English Language


Author: Albert Croll Baugh,Thomas Cable
Publisher: Longman Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780205229390
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 446
View: 5273

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Comprehensive and balanced, this classic exploration of the history of the English language combines internal linguistic history and external cultural history--from the Middle Ages to the present. Students are encouraged to develop both an understanding of present-day English and an enlightened attitude toward questions affecting the language today. 0133997766 / 9780133997767 A History of the English Language Plus MyWritingLab -- Access Card Package Package consists of: 0205229395 / 9780205229390 History of the English Language, A 0205869203 / 9780205869206 MyWritingLab Generic -- Valuepack Access Card

Minority Languages, Microvariation, Minimalism and Meaning

Proceedings of the Irish Network in Formal Linguistics
Author: Alison Henry,Catrin Rhys
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443853305
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 307
View: 5284

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This volume presents a selection of papers from the first international conference of the Irish Network in Formal Linguistics (INFL). INFL is well placed to attract expertise on both microvariation and the linguistics of the Celtic languages, and the volume reflects this expertise. Microvariation approaches the analysis of dialect variation with a focus on how it contributes to the understanding of linguistic theory. The synchronic and diachronic variation examined in this volume includes Irish English, dialects of Italian and dialects of Flemish. Under the linguistic study of Celtic languages, the papers included address important architectural questions in linguistic theory, as well as challenging some notions with a long history in traditional descriptions of the Celtic languages. The final section brings together papers on topics of current theoretical interest in the formal analysis of syntax, semantics and discourse, including phase theoretic approaches to a range of phenomena involving syntactic conditions on semantic interpretation. The final two papers adopt a formal perspective not to aspects of linguistic structure, but to language use in contexts demonstrating the import of formal micro-level sequential analysis of talk-in-interaction for macro-level questions of communication and social organisation.

Word Order Change in Icelandic

From OV to VO
Author: Þorbjörg Hróarsdóttir
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027227560
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 385
View: 5470

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While Modern Icelandic exhibits a virtually uniform VO order in the VP, Old(er) Icelandic had both VO order and OV order, as well as 'mixed' word order patterns. In this volume, the author both examines the various VP-word order patterns from a descriptive and statistical point of view and provides a synchronic and diachronic analysis of VP-syntax in Old(er) Icelandic in terms of generative grammar. Her account makes use of a number of independently motivated ideas, notably remnant-movement of various kinds of predicative phrase, and the long movement associated with “restructuring” phenomena, to provide an analysis of OV orders and, correspondingly, a proposal as to which aspect of Icelandic syntax must have changed when VO word order became the norm: the essential change is loss of VP-extraction from VP. Although this idea is mainly supported here for Icelandic, it has numerous implications for the synchronic and diachronic analysis of other Germanic languages.

Early and Late Latin


Author: J. N. Adams,Nigel Vincent
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107132258
Category: Foreign Language Study
Page: 360
View: 3076

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This book focuses on the continuity between the documented stages in the history of Latin and its development into Romance.

Auxiliary Verb Constructions


Author: Gregory D.S. Anderson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199280312
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 473
View: 5325

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This is the most comprehensive survey ever published of auxiliary verb constructions, as in 'he could have been going to drink it' and 'she does eat cheese'. Drawing on a database of over 800 languages Dr Anderson examines their morphosyntactic forms and semantic roles. He investigates and explains the historical changes leading to the cross-linguistic diversity of inflectional patterns, and he presents his results within a new typological framework.The book's impressive range includes data on variation within and across languages and language families. In addition to examining languages in Africa, Europe, and Asia the author presents analyses of languages in Australasia and the Pacific and in North, South, and Meso-America. In doing so he reveals much that is new about the language families of the world and makes an important contribution to the understanding of their nature and evolution. His book will interest scholars and researchersin language typology, historical and comparative linguistics, syntax, and morphology.