The Design of Mammals

A Scaling Approach
Author: John William Prothero
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316369013
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 918

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Despite an astonishing 100 million-fold range in adult body mass from bumblebee bat to blue whale, all mammals are formed of the same kinds of molecules, cells, tissues and organs and to the same overall body plan. A scaling approach investigates the principles of mammal design by examining the ways in which mammals of diverse size and taxonomy are quantitatively comparable. This book presents an extensive reanalysis of scaling data collected over a quarter of a century, including many rarely or never-cited sources. The result is an unparalleled contribution to understanding scaling in mammals, addressing a uniquely extensive range of mammal attributes and using substantially larger and more rigorously screened samples than in any prior works. An invaluable resource for all those interested in the 'design' of mammals, this is an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers in a range of fields from comparative physiology to ecology.

Scaling Biodiversity


Author: David Storch,Pablo Marquet,James Brown
Publisher: Ecological Reviews
ISBN: N.A
Category: Nature
Page: 470
View: 5996

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Leading experts in ecology present new, innovative, views on quantitative patterns of biological diversity.

Scaling in Biology


Author: James H. Brown,Santa Fe Institute (Santa Fe, N.M.)
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195131428
Category: Medical
Page: 352
View: 6898

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Scaling relationships have been a persistent theme in biology at least since the time of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo. Because scaling relationships are among the most general empirical patterns in biology, they have stimulated research to develop mechanistic hypotheses and mathematical models. While there have been many excellent empirical and theoretical investigations, there has been little attempt to synthesize this diverse but interrelated area of biology. In an effort to fill this void, Scaling in Biology, the first general treatment of scaling in biology in over 15 years, covers a broad spectrum of the most relevant topics in a series of chapters written by experts in the field. Some of those topics discussed include allometry and fractal structure, branching of vascular systems of mammals and plants, biomechanical and life history of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, and species-area patterns of biological diversity. Many more examples are included within this text to complete the broader picture. Scaling in Biology conveys the diversity, promise, and excitement of current research in this area, in a format accessible to a wide audience of not only specialists in the various sub-disciplines, but also students and anyone with a serious interest in biology.

Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals


Author: Philip C. Withers,Christine E. Cooper,Ariovaldo P. Cruz Neto,Francisco Bozinovic
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199642710
Category:
Page: 560
View: 305

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Mammals are the so-called "pinnacle" group of vertebrates, successfully colonising virtually all terrestrial environments as well as the air (bats) and sea (especially pinnipeds and cetaceans). How mammals function and survive in these diverse environments has long fascinated mammologists, comparative physiologists and ecologists. Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals explores the physiological mechanisms and evolutionary necessities that have made the spectacular adaptation of mammals possible. It summarises our current knowledge of the complex and sophisticated physiological approaches that mammals have for survival in a wide variety of ecological and environmental contexts: terrestrial, aerial, and aquatic. The authors have a strong comparative and quantitative focus in their broad approach to exploring mammal ecophysiology. As with other books in the Ecological and Environmental Physiology Series, the emphasis is on the unique physiological characteristics of mammals, their adaptations to extreme environments, and current experimental techniques and future research directions are also considered. This accessible text is suitable for graduate level students and researchers in the fields of mammalian comparative physiology and physiological ecology, including specialist courses in mammal ecology. It will also be of value and use to the many professional mammologists requiring a concise overview of the topic.

Landscape Ecology of Small Mammals


Author: Gary W. Barrett,John D. Peles
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387986463
Category: Science
Page: 348
View: 4037

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A summary of much of the experimental work on the spatial ecology of small mammals. This field has entered an exciting stage with such new techniques as GIS and systems modeling becoming available. Leading contributors describe and analyze the most well-known case studies and provide new insights into how landscape patterns and processes have had an impact on small mammals and how small mammals have, in turn, affected landscape structure and composition.

Radio Tracking and Animal Populations


Author: Joshua Millspaugh,John M. Marzluff
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080540228
Category: Nature
Page: 474
View: 9125

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Radio Tracking and Animal Populations is a succinct synthesis of emerging technologies and their applications to the empirical and theoretical problems of population assessment. The book is divided into sections designed to encompass the various aspects of animal ecology that may be evaluated using radiotelemetry technology - experimental design, equipment and technology, animal movement, resource selection, and demographics. Wildlife biologists at the leading edge of new developments in the technology and its application have joined forces.

Evolution of the Primate Brain

From Neuron to Behavior
Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538674
Category: Science
Page: 496
View: 6192

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This volume of Progress in Brain Research provides a synthetic source of information about state-of-the-art research that has important implications for the evolution of the brain and cognition in primates, including humans. This topic requires input from a variety of fields that are developing at an unprecedented pace: genetics, developmental neurobiology, comparative and functional neuroanatomy (at gross and microanatomical levels), quantitative neurobiology related to scaling factors that constrain brain organization and evolution, primate palaeontology (including paleoneurology), paleo-anthropology, comparative psychology, and behavioural evolutionary biology. Written by internationally-renowned scientists, this timely volume will be of wide interest to students, scholars, science journalists, and a variety of experts who are interested in keeping track of the discoveries that are rapidly emerging about the evolution of the brain and cognition. Written by internationally renowned scientists, this timely volume will be of wide interest to students, scholars, science journalists, and a variety of experts who are interested in keeping track of the discoveries that are rapidly emerging about the evolution of the brain and cognition

Evolution of Nervous Systems


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128040963
Category: Medical
Page: 2007
View: 3703

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Evolution of Nervous Systems, Second Edition is a unique, major reference which offers the gold standard for those interested both in evolution and nervous systems. All biology only makes sense when seen in the light of evolution, and this is especially true for the nervous system. All animals have nervous systems that mediate their behaviors, many of them species specific, yet these nervous systems all evolved from the simple nervous system of a common ancestor. To understand these nervous systems, we need to know how they vary and how this variation emerged in evolution. In the first edition of this important reference work, over 100 distinguished neuroscientists assembled the current state-of-the-art knowledge on how nervous systems have evolved throughout the animal kingdom. This second edition remains rich in detail and broad in scope, outlining the changes in brain and nervous system organization that occurred from the first invertebrates and vertebrates, to present day fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, and especially primates, including humans. The book also includes wholly new content, fully updating the chapters in the previous edition and offering brand new content on current developments in the field. Each of the volumes has been carefully restructured to offer expanded coverage of non-mammalian taxa, mammals, primates, and the human nervous system. The basic principles of brain evolution are discussed, as are mechanisms of change. The reader can select from chapters on highly specific topics or those that provide an overview of current thinking and approaches, making this an indispensable work for students and researchers alike. Presents a broad range of topics, ranging from genetic control of development in invertebrates, to human cognition, offering a one-stop resource for the evolution of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom Incorporates the expertise of over 100 outstanding investigators who provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results Presents areas of disagreement and consensus views that provide a holistic view of the subjects under discussion

Metabolic Ecology

A Scaling Approach
Author: Richard M. Sibly,James H. Brown,Astrid Kodric-Brown
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119968518
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 7027

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One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.

Marine Mammals Ashore

A Field Guide for Strandings
Author: Joseph R. Geraci,Valerie J. Lounsbury
Publisher: National Aquarium in Baltimore
ISBN: 0977460908
Category: Marine mammals
Page: 371
View: 1660

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Marine Mammals Ashore: A Field Guide for Strandings (J.R. Geraci & V.J. Lounsbury)in the hardcover formatis back! A comprehensive manual for understanding and dealing with a stranded seal, manatee, dolphin, whale, or sea otter, this book contains information for the interested beach dweller or student and for the scientist or marine resource manager. Marine Mammals Ashore describes rescue operations, how to organize a response team, and how to deal with the media and the public. It includes basic information on marine mammal biology, life history, and health, and an extensive bibliography.Marine Mammals Ashore also provides stranding network participants with practical guidelines for collecting data and specimens to better understand the biology and behavior of marine animals and the condition of their environment.All chapters have been updated and expanded, with emphasis on topics that include: enhancing network organization, public education, and media relations. natural and human-related mortality in each major marine mammal group. recognizing, responding to, and investigating unusual mortality events. new or updated protocols for specimen and data collection (e.g., samples for PCR analysis; basic guidelines for investigating possible noise-related strandings; collecting environmental data and samples; and a detailed protocol for examining marine mammals for signs of human interactions). zoonoses and other public health issues. updated overview of marine mammal stranding frequency and distribution in North America, with coverage extended to Canada and Mexico. overview of special topics provided by invited authors: disentanglement (Peter Howorth, Santa Barbara Marine Mammal Center, Santa Barbara CA); tagging and monitoring (Anthony Martin, British Antarctic Survey); and GIS applications (Greg Early, A.I.S., Inc., New Bedford, MA). close to 600 new references (and a few new carcass disposal stories!).The 372-page second edition features water- and tear-resistant paper, a vinyl cover, and durable plastic coil binding. There are even strategically placed lined pages for adding personal notes and contact information.

Scale

The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies
Author: Geoffrey B. West
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1594205582
Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Page: 479
View: 4751

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"Visionary physicist Geoffrey West is a pioneer in the field of complexity science, the science of emergent systems and networks... Fascinated by issues of aging and mortality, West applied the rigor of a physicist to the biological question of why we live as long as we do and no longer. The result was astonishing, and changed science, creating a new understanding of energy use and metabolism: West found that despite the riotous diversity in the sizes of mammals, they are all, to a large degree, scaled versions of each other... West's work has been gaming changing for biologists, but then he made the even bolder move of exploring his work's applicability...and applied...[it] to the business and social world."--

Equine Locomotion - E-Book


Author: Willem Back,Hilary M. Clayton
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0702052930
Category: Medical
Page: 528
View: 4796

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The first edition of Equine Locomotion has established itself as the book in the equine literature that discusses all aspects of equine locomotion and gait analysis, written by an international team of editors and contributors. The new edition continues this trend and gives the reader a complete picture of the horse in motion, at the same time including many recent findings in this area. The book begins with a history of man’s association with the horse and then continues to discuss with comprehensive descriptions of the present state of knowledge beginning with the initiation of gait and ending with the more scientific area of computer modeling. In the new edition, the list of contributors continues to comprise of authors who are acknowledged experts in their subject areas and includes many new illustrations. • international team of editors and contributors, with leading experts from the USA, the Netherlands, Sweden and France (all centres of excellence for the study of equine locomotion) • editors are from two of the worlds leading locomotion centres – Utrecht and Michigan • highly illustrated with nearly 500 detailed line drawings and illustrations • covers all you will ever need to know about equine locomotion, gait analysis and much more • international team of editors and contributors, with leading experts from the USA, the Netherlands, Sweden and France (all centres of excellence for the study of equine locomotion) • editors are from two of the worlds leading locomotion centres – Utrecht and Michigan • highly illustrated with nearly 500 detailed line drawings and illustrations • covers all you will ever need to know about equine locomotion, gait analysis and much more

Biopharmaceutical Processing

Development, Design, and Implementation of Manufacturing Processes
Author: Gunter Jagschies,Eva Lindskog,Karol Lacki,Parrish M. Galliher
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128125527
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 1308
View: 815

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Biopharmaceutical Processing: Development, Design, and Implementation of Manufacturing Processes covers bioprocessing from cell line development to bulk drug substances. The methods and strategies described are essential learning for every scientist, engineer or manager in the biopharmaceutical and vaccines industry. The integrity of the bioprocess ultimately determines the quality of the product in the biotherapeutics arena, and this book covers every stage including all technologies related to downstream purification and upstream processing fields. Economic considerations are included throughout, with recommendations for lowering costs and improving efficiencies. Designed for quick reference and easy accessibility of facts, calculations and guidelines, this book is an essential tool for industrial scientists and managers in the biopharmaceutical industry. Offers a comprehensive, go-to reference for daily work decisions Covers both upstream and downstream processes Includes case studies that emphasize financial outcomes Presents summaries, decision grids, graphs and overviews for quick reference

Gravitational Physiology

Proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Budapest, 1980
Author: J. Hideg,O. Gazenko
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483190145
Category: Science
Page: 330
View: 9479

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Advances in Physiological Sciences, Volume 19: Gravitational Physiology covers the proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences. The volume presents studies that tackle the biological concerns caused by the interactions between complex living organisms and altered gravitational field. The articles in the text are organized into parts, based on their main theme. The first part presents materials about the general problems when adapting to altered gravity system, such as physiological mechanisms of adaptation of mammals to weightlessness, and studies of biorhythms in biosatellite experiments. In the next part, the selection presents papers about metabolism and morphology that include stress metabolic aspects in space flight and the effect of spaceflight on human lymphocyte activation. The text also covers the function and structure of gravity-dependent systems, along with hypokinesia and immobilization. The book will be of great interest to health professionals involved in various space programs.

Modern Approaches to Animal Cell Technology


Author: R.E. Spier,J.B. Griffiths
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483145093
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 846
View: 2398

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Modern Approaches to Animal Cell Technology is a collection of papers presented at the 1987 joint European Society for Animal Cell Technology-OHOLO conference held in Tiberias, Israel. Contributors explore modern approaches to animal cell technology and discuss the construction of the animal cell substrate, the physiology of those cells in a bioreactor type of environment, and the ways in which different products can be made from animal cells in culture and tested. This book is comprised of 59 chapters divided into nine sections and begins by outlining the history of issues and decisions that were made regarding the acceptability of various cell substrates, along with the use of continuous cell lines in biotechnology. The next chapter explores the feasibility, reproducibility, and the sensitivity of the dot-blot filter hybridization test to detect minute amounts of residual cellular DNA. The reader is then introduced to cells and cell lines such as monoclonal antibodies; cell growth and development; physiology of cells; and the use of bioreactors for culturing animal cells. Downstream unit processes, vaccines, immune system products, and toxicity testing with animal cells are also considered. This monograph will be a valuable resource for animal-cell technologists, biotechnologists, and microbiologists.

Comparative Cardiovascular Dynamics of Mammals


Author: John K-J Li
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849301698
Category: Medical
Page: 176
View: 4566

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Comparative Cardiovascular Dynamics of Mammals offers never-before-published data on the structure and function of the circulatory systems of the different mammalian species. This text explores classic allometry, dimensional analysis, and modern hemodynamics to establish similarity principles that provide a necessary and important step in understanding the natural common design and functional features of the cardiovascular systems of different mammals. Fluid and blood vessel mechanics, pulse transmission characteristics, cardiac energetics and mechanics, as well as heart-arterial system interaction are included in this essential reference. The sensitivity of parameters and similarity of principles in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases are also addressed. This book also describes the natural processes involved in the functional development of the mammalian cardiovascular system. By using modern methods to present recent findings on the similarities and differences of the mammalian cardiovascular system, the author provides an easily understood approach to this dynamic field of study.

The Death and Life of Great American Cities


Author: Jane Jacobs
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 052543285X
Category: Social Science
Page: 480
View: 8348

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Thirty years after its publication, The Death and Life of Great American Cities was described by The New York Times as "perhaps the most influential single work in the history of town planning....[It] can also be seen in a much larger context. It is first of all a work of literature; the descriptions of street life as a kind of ballet and the bitingly satiric account of traditional planning theory can still be read for pleasure even by those who long ago absorbed and appropriated the book's arguments." Jane Jacobs, an editor and writer on architecture in New York City in the early sixties, argued that urban diversity and vitality were being destroyed by powerful architects and city planners. Rigorous, sane, and delightfully epigrammatic, Jacobs's small masterpiece is a blueprint for the humanistic management of cities. It is sensible, knowledgeable, readable, indispensable. The author has written a new foreword for this Modern Library edition.

The Biology of Tumors


Author: Enrico Mihich,Carlo M. Croce
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489913521
Category: Medical
Page: 351
View: 8717

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The Ninth Annual Pezcoller Symposium entitled "The Biology of Tumors" was held in Rovereto, Italy, June 4-7, 1997. It focused on the genetic mechanisms underlying het erogeneity of tumor cell populations and tumor cell differentiation, on interactions be tween tumor cells and cells of host defenses, and the mechanisms of angiogenesis. With presentations at the cutting edge of progress and stimulating discussions, this symposium addressed issues related to phenomena concerned with cell regulation and cell interactions as determined by activated genes through the appropriate and timely media tion of gene products. Important methodologies that would allow scientists to measure dif ferentially genes and gene products and thus validate many of the mechanisms of control currently proposed were considered, as were the molecular basis of tumor recognition by the immune system, interactions between cells and molecular mechanisms of cell regula tion as they are affected by or implemented through these interactions. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor vascularization were also discussed. It was recognized that angiogenesis provides a potential site of therapeutic intervention and this makes it even more important to understand the mechanisms underlying it. We wish to thank the participants in the symposium for their substantial contribu tions and their participation in the spirited discussions that followed. We would also like to thank Drs.

Understanding Mammalian Locomotion

Concepts and Applications
Author: John E. A. Bertram
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119113733
Category: Science
Page: 432
View: 1150

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Understanding Mammalian Locomotion will formally introduce the emerging perspective of collision dynamics in mammalian terrestrial locomotion and explain how it influences the interpretation of form and functional capabilities. The objective is to bring the reader interested in the function and mechanics of mammalian terrestrial locomotion to a sophisticated conceptual understanding of the relevant mechanics and the current debate ongoing in the field.