The Dark Abyss of Time

The History of the Earth and the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico
Author: Paolo Rossi
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226728322
Category: History
Page: 338
View: 9653

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"A rich historical pastiche of 17th- and 18th-century philosophy, science, and religion."—G. Y. Craig, New Scientist "This book, by a distinguished Italian historian of philosophy, is a worthy successor to the author's important works on Francis Bacon and on technology and the arts. First published in Italian (in 1979), it now makes available to English readers some subtly wrought arguments about the ways in which geology and anthropology challenged biblical chronology and forced changes in the philosophy of history in the early modern era. . . . [Rossi] shows that the search for new answers about human origins spanned many disciplines and involved many fascinating intellects—Bacon, Bayle, Buffon, Burnet, Descartes, Hobbes, Holbach, Hooke, Hume, Hutton, Leibniz, de Maillet, Newton, Pufendorf, Spinoza, Toland, and, most especially, Vico, whose works are impressively and freshly reevaluated here."—Nina Gelbart, American Scientist

Essays on the Context, Nature, and Influence of Isaac Newton’s Theology

Author: J.E. Force,R.H. Popkin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400919441
Category: Philosophy
Page: 226
View: 6651

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This collection of essays is the fruit of about fifteen years of discussion and research by James Force and me. As I look back on it, our interest and concern with Newton's theological ideas began in 1975 at Washington University in St. Louis. James Force was a graduate student in philosophy and I was a professor there. For a few years before, I had been doing research and writing on Millenarianism and Messianism in the 17th and 18th centuries, touching occasionally on Newton. I had bought a copy of Newton's Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John for a few pounds and, occasionally, read in it. In the Spring of 1975 I was giving a graduate seminar on Millenarian and Messianic ideas in the development of modem philosophy. Force was in the seminar. One day he came very excitedly up to me and said he wanted to write his dissertation on William Whiston. At that point in history, the only thing that came to my mind about Whiston was that he had published a, or the, standard translation of Josephus (which I also happened to have in my library. ) Force told me about the amazing views he had found in Whiston's notes on Josephus and in some of the few writings he could find in St. Louis by, or about, Whiston, who was Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of mathematics at Cambridge and who wrote inordinately on Millenarian theology.

Descartes' System of Natural Philosophy

Author: Stephen Gaukroger
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521005258
Category: Philosophy
Page: 258
View: 9853

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Towards the end of his life, Descartes published the first four parts of a projected six-part work, The Principles of Philosophy. This was intended to be the definitive statement of his complete system of philosophy, dealing with everything from cosmology to the nature of human happiness. Stephen Gaukroger examines the whole system, and reconstructs the last two parts, 'On Living Things' and 'On Man', from Descartes' other writings. He relates the work to the tradition of late Scholastic textbooks which it follows, and also to Descartes' other philosophical writings.

The Birth of Modern Science

Author: Paolo Rossi
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9780631227113
Category: Science
Page: 288
View: 2669

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This history of the birth of modern science shatters the illusion that science is 'dry' and divorced from culture by exploring the powerful clashes between traditions and value systems that gave rise to it. The author shows how many of the characteristics that distinguish science today emerged in the midst of the wars and plagues of the seventeenth century and defines what was new about this form of knowledge.

Down from Olympus

Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750-1970
Author: Suzanne L. Marchand
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691114781
Category: History
Page: 400
View: 3572

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Since the publication of Eliza May Butler's Tyranny of Greece over Germany in 1935, the obsession of the German educated elite with the ancient Greeks has become an accepted, if severely underanalyzed, cliché. In Down from Olympus, Suzanne Marchand attempts to come to grips with German Graecophilia, not as a private passion but as an institutionally generated and preserved cultural trope. The book argues that nineteenth-century philhellenes inherited both an elitist, normative aesthetics and an ascetic, scholarly ethos from their Romantic predecessors; German "neohumanists" promised to reconcile these intellectual commitments, and by so doing, to revitalize education and the arts. Focusing on the history of classical archaeology, Marchand shows how the injunction to imitate Greek art was made the basis for new, state-funded cultural institutions. Tracing interactions between scholars and policymakers that made possible grand-scale cultural feats like the acquisition of the Pergamum Altar, she underscores both the gains in specialized knowledge and the failures in social responsibility that were the distinctive products of German neohumanism. This book discusses intellectual and institutional aspects of archaeology and philhellenism, giving extensive treatment to the history of prehistorical archaeology and German "orientalism." Marchand traces the history of the study, excavation, and exhibition of Greek art as a means to confront the social, cultural, and political consequences of the specialization of scholarship in the last two centuries.

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Contemporary World

Author: Paul Graves-Brown,Rodney Harrison,Angela Piccini
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191663956
Category: Social Science
Page: 864
View: 5032

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It has been clear for many years that the ways in which archaeology is practised have been a direct product of a particular set of social, cultural, and historical circumstances - archaeology is always carried out in the present. More recently, however, many have begun to consider how archaeological techniques might be used to reflect more directly on the contemporary world itself: how we might undertake archaeologies of, as well as in the present. This Handbook is the first comprehensive survey of an exciting and rapidly expanding sub-field and provides an authoritative overview of the newly emerging focus on the archaeology of the present and recent past. In addition to detailed archaeological case studies, it includes essays by scholars working on the relationships of different disciplines to the archaeology of the contemporary world, including anthropology, psychology, philosophy, historical geography, science and technology studies, communications and media, ethnoarchaeology, forensic archaeology, sociology, film, performance, and contemporary art. This volume seeks to explore the boundaries of an emerging sub-discipline, to develop a tool-kit of concepts and methods which are applicable to this new field, and to suggest important future trajectories for research. It makes a significant intervention by drawing together scholars working on a broad range of themes, approaches, methods, and case studies from diverse contexts in different parts of the world, which have not previously been considered collectively.

The French Idea of History

Joseph de Maistre and His Heirs, 1794–1854
Author: Carolina Armenteros
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801462606
Category: History
Page: 376
View: 1020

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"A fierce absolutist, a furious theocrat . . . the champion of the hardest, narrowest, and most inflexible dogmatism . . . part learned doctor, part inquisitor, part executioner." Thus did Émile Faguet describe Joseph-Marie de Maistre (1753-1821) in his 1899 history of nineteenth-century thought. This view of the influential thinker as a reactionary has, with little variation, held sway ever since. In The French Idea of History, Carolina Armenteros recovers a very different figure, one with a far more subtle understanding of, and response to, the events of his day. Maistre emerges from this deeply learned book as the crucial bridge between the Enlightenment and the historicized thought of the nineteenth century. Armenteros demonstrates that Maistre inaugurated a specifically French way of thinking about past, present, and future that held sway not only among conservative political theorists but also among intellectuals generally considered to belong to the left, particularly the Utopian Socialists.

Religion, Reason and Nature in Early Modern Europe

Author: R. Crocker
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401597774
Category: Philosophy
Page: 236
View: 6492

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From a variety of perspectives, the essays presented here explore the profound interdependence of natural philosophy and rational religion in the `long seventeenth century' that begins with the burning of Bruno in 1600 and ends with the Enlightenment in the early Eighteenth century. From the writings of Grotius on natural law and natural religion, and the speculative, libertin novels of Cyrano de Bergerac, to the better-known works of Descartes, Malebranche, Cudworth, Leibniz, Boyle, Spinoza, Newton, and Locke, an increasing emphasis was placed on the rational relationship between religious doctrine, natural law, and a personal divine providence. While evidence for this intrinsic relationship was to be located in different places - in the ideas already present in the mind, in the observations and experiments of the natural philosophers, and even in the history, present experience, and prophesied future of mankind - the result enabled and shaped the broader intellectual and scientific discourses of the Enlightenment.

The Sublime

From Antiquity to the Present
Author: Timothy M. Costelloe
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110739273X
Category: Philosophy
Page: N.A
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This volume offers readers a unique and comprehensive overview of theoretical perspectives on 'the sublime', the singular aesthetic response elicited by phenomena that move viewers by transcending and overwhelming them. The book consists of an editor's introduction and fifteen chapters written from a variety of disciplinary perspectives. Part One examines philosophical approaches advanced historically to account for the phenomenon, beginning with Longinus, moving through eighteenth- and nineteenth-century writers in Britain, France and Germany and concluding with developments in contemporary continental philosophy. Part Two explores the sublime with respect to particular disciplines and areas of study, including Dutch literature, early modern America, the environment, religion, British Romanticism, the fine arts and architecture. Each chapter is both accessible for non-specialists and offers an original contribution to its respective field of inquiry.

Watching Vesuvius

A History of Science and Culture in Early Modern Italy
Author: Sean Cocco
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226923711
Category: History
Page: 322
View: 4858

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Mount Vesuvius has been famous ever since its eruption in 79 CE, when it destroyed and buried the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. But less well-known is the role it played in the science and culture of early modern Italy, as Sean Cocco reveals in this ambitious and wide-ranging study. Humanists began to make pilgrimages to Vesuvius during the early Renaissance to experience its beauty and study its history, but a new tradition of observation emerged in 1631 with the first great eruption of the modern period. Seeking to understand the volcano’s place in the larger system of nature, Neapolitans flocked to Vesuvius to examine volcanic phenomena and to collect floral and mineral specimens from the mountainside. In Watching Vesuvius, Cocco argues that this investigation and engagement with Vesuvius was paramount to the development of modern volcanology. He then situates the native experience of Vesuvius in a larger intellectual, cultural, and political context and explains how later eighteenth-century representations of Naples—of its climate and character—grew out of this tradition of natural history. Painting a rich and detailed portrait of Vesuvius and those living in its shadow, Cocco returns the historic volcano to its place in a broader European culture of science, travel, and appreciation of the natural world.

Scenes from Deep Time

Early Pictorial Representations of the Prehistoric World
Author: M. J. S. Rudwick
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226731056
Category: History
Page: 280
View: 8005

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How did the earth look in prehistoric times? Scientists and artists collaborated during the half-century prior to the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species to produce the first images of dinosaurs and the world they inhabited. Their interpretations, informed by recent fossil discoveries, were the first efforts to represent the prehistoric world based on sources other than the Bible. Martin J. S. Rudwick presents more than a hundred rare illustrations from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to explore the implications of reconstructing a past no one has ever seen.

Adam's Ancestors

Race, Religion, and the Politics of Human Origins
Author: David N. Livingstone
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9781421401430
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 9359

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He reveals how what began as biblical criticism became a theological apologetic to reconcile religion with science—evolution in particular—and was later used to support arguments for white supremacy and segregation. From heresy to orthodoxy, from radicalism to conservatism, from humanitarianism to racism, Adam's Ancestors tells an intriguing tale of twists and turns in the cultural politics surrounding the age-old question, "Where did we come from?"

The Dark Abyss of Time

Archaeology and Memory
Author: Laurent Olivier
Publisher: Altamira Press
ISBN: 9780759120457
Category: Social Science
Page: 211
View: 5908

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Translated into English from the French.

Bursting the Limits of Time

The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Revolution
Author: Martin J. S. Rudwick
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226731138
Category: Science
Page: 708
View: 1795

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During a revolution of discovery in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, geologists reconstructed the immensely long history of the earth--and the relatively recent arrival of human life. Bursting the Limits of Time is a herculean effort by one of the world's foremost experts on the history of geology and paleontology to illuminate this scientific breakthrough that radically altered existing perceptions of a human's place in the universe as much as the theories of Copernicus and Darwin did. Rudwick examines here the ideas and practices of earth scientists throughout the Western world to show how the story of what we now call "deep time" was pieced together. He explores who was responsible for the discovery of the earth's history, refutes the concept of a rift between science and religion in dating the earth, and details how the study of the history of the earth helped define a new branch of science called geology. Bursting the Limits of Time is the first detailed account of this monumental phase in the history of science. "Bursting the Limits of Time is a massive work and is quite simply a masterpiece of science history. . . . The book should be obligatory for every geology and history of science library, and is a highly recommended companion for every civilized geologist who can carry an extra 2.4 kg in his rucksack."--Stephen Moorbath, Nature

From Fermat to Minkowski

Lectures on the Theory of Numbers and Its Historical Development
Author: W. Scharlau,H. Opolka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475718675
Category: Mathematics
Page: 186
View: 9808

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This book arose from a course of lectures given by the first author during the winter term 1977/1978 at the University of Münster (West Germany). The course was primarily addressed to future high school teachers of mathematics; it was not meant as a systematic introduction to number theory but rather as a historically motivated invitation to the subject, designed to interest the audience in number-theoretical questions and developments. This is also the objective of this book, which is certainly not meant to replace any of the existing excellent texts in number theory. Our selection of topics and examples tries to show how, in the historical development, the investigation of obvious or natural questions has led to more and more comprehensive and profound theories, how again and again, surprising connections between seemingly unrelated problems were discovered, and how the introduction of new methods and concepts led to the solution of hitherto unassailable questions. All this means that we do not present the student with polished proofs (which in turn are the fruit of a long historical development); rather, we try to show how these theorems are the necessary consequences of natural questions. Two examples might illustrate our objectives.

The Forgotten Genius

Author: Stephen Inwood
Publisher: Macadam Cage Pub
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 482
View: 2425

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A study of the life and times of seventeenth-century scientist Robert Hooke captures the diverse facets of his life as an astronomer, inventor, anatomist, and diarist.

Pascal and disbelief

catechesis and conversion in the Pensées
Author: David Wetsel
Publisher: Catholic Univ of Amer Pr
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 409
View: 1725

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Seeks to answer a question that has puzzled readers since the Pensees -- a work conceived principally as an Apology for the Christian Religion -- first appeared in 1670: To whom is Pascal's call to Christian conversion really addressed?

Histories of Archaeology

A Reader in the History of Archaeology
Author: Tim Murray,Christopher Evans
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780199550081
Category: Social Science
Page: 496
View: 9438

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A collection of 19 reprinted papers by distinguished scholars, Histories of Archaeology reflects the growing interest in the historiography of this discipline. A general introduction orients readers by outlining core themes and issues in the field.

Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture

Author: Jeffrey S. Ravel,Linda Zionkowski
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
ISBN: 9780801885983
Category: History
Page: 312
View: 4965

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This new volume continues the tradition of Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture of publishing innovative interdisciplinary scholarship on the interpretive edge. Undertaking critical investigation of eighteenth-century ideas and practices, it discusses the possibilities and limitations of print; royal portraiture, the sentimental novel, and botanical classification through the categories of gender; the European experience in the 1700s; and change over time in the realms of music, architecture, and literature from the eighteenth century to the nineteenth. Contributors and content: James Swenson, Critique, Progress, Autonomy Eve Tavor Bannet, Printed Epistolary Manuals and the Rescripting of Manuscript Culture Madeleine Forell Marshall, Late Eighteenth-Century Public Reading, with Particular Attention to Sheridan's Strictures on Reading the Church Service (1789) Daniel Rosenberg, Joseph Priestley and the Graphic Invention of Modern Time Jennifer G. Germann, Fecund Fathers and Missing Mothers: Louis XV, Marie Leszczinska, and the Politics of Royal Parentage in the 1720s Mary McAlpin, Julie's Breasts, Julie's Scars: Physiology and Character in La Nouvelle Héloīse Ann B. Shteir, Flora primavera or Flora meretrix? Iconography, Gender, and Science Karen Melvin, A Potential Saint Thwarted: Religion and the Politics of Sanctity in Late-Eighteenth Century New Spain Margaret R. Ewalt, Christianity, Coca, and Commerce in the Peruvian Mercury Howard Irving, Haydn and the Politics of the Picturesque Richard Wittman, The Hut and the Altar: Architectural Origins and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century France Göran Blix, The Occult Roots of Realism: Balzac, Mesmer, and Second Sight