The Concept of Moral Obligation


Author: Michael J. Zimmerman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521038744
Category: Philosophy
Page: 320
View: 395

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The principal aim of this book is to develop and defend an analysis of the concept of moral obligation. What it seeks to do is generate new solutions to a range of philosophical problems concerning obligation and its application. Amongst these problems are deontic paradoxes, the supersession of obligation, conditional obligation, actualism and possibilism, dilemmas, supererogation, and cooperation. By virtue of its normative neutrality, the analysis provides a theoretical framework within which competing theories of obligation can be developed and assessed.

The Limits of Moral Obligation

Moral Demandingness and Ought Implies Can
Author: Marcel van Ackeren,Michael Kühler
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317581296
Category: Philosophy
Page: 220
View: 1351

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This volume responds to the growing interest in finding explanations for why moral claims may lose their validity based on what they ask of their addressees. Two main ideas relate to that question: the moral demandingness objection and the principle "ought implies can." Though both of these ideas can be understood to provide an answer to the same question, they have usually been discussed separately in the philosophical literature. The aim of this collection is to provide a focused and comprehensive discussion of these two ideas and the ways in which they relate to one another, and to take a closer look at the consequences for the limits of moral normativity in general. Chapters engage with contemporary discussions surrounding "ought implies can" as well as current debates on moral demandingness, and argue that applying the moral demandingness objection to the entire range of normative ethical theories also calls for an analysis of its (metaethical) presuppositions. The contributions to this volume are at the leading edge of ethical theory, and have implications for moral theorists, philosophers of action, and those working in metaethics, theoretical ethics and applied ethics.

God and Moral Obligation


Author: C. Stephen Evans
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199696683
Category: Philosophy
Page: 199
View: 4723

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God and Moral Obligation defends the claim that moral obligations are best understood as divine commands or requirements; hence an important part of morality depends on God. C. Stephen Evans argues that God's requirements are communicated to humans in a variety of ways, including conscience, and seeks to show that some other approaches to ethics (natural law ethics and virtue ethics) are not rivals to a divine command view but provide complementaryperspectives. Evans raises and responds to popular objections to a divine command view of morality, and contends that this perspective has marked advantages over secular rival theories.

Evil

A Philosophical Investigation
Author: Luke Russell
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191022810
Category: Philosophy
Page: 264
View: 825

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When asked to describe wartime atrocities, acts of terrorism, and serial killers, many of us reach for the word 'evil'. But what does it mean to say that an action or a person is evil? Some philosophers have claimed that there is no such thing as evil, and that thinking in terms of evil is simplistic and dangerous. In response to this sceptical challenge, Luke Russell shows that concept of evil has a legitimate place within contemporary secular moral thought. In this book he addresses questions concerning the nature of evil action, such as whether evil actions must be incomprehensible, whether evil actions can be banal, and whether there is a psychological hallmark that distinguishes evils from other wrongs. Russell also explores issues regarding the nature of evil persons, including whether every evil person is an evildoer, whether every evil person is irredeemable, and whether a person could be evil merely in virtue of having evil feelings. The concept of evil is extreme, and is easily misused. Nonetheless, Russell suggests that it has an important role to play when it comes to evaluating and explaining the worst kind of wrongdoing.

Morality, Authority, and Law

Essays in Second-Personal Ethics I
Author: Stephen Darwall
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191639583
Category: Law
Page: 240
View: 552

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Stephen Darwall presents a series of essays that explore and extend the Second-Person Standpoints argument that central moral concepts are irreducibly second personal, entailing mutual accountability and the authority to address demands to one another (and ourselves). He illustrates the second-personal frameworks power to illuminate a wide variety of issues in moral, political, and legal philosophy. Section I concerns morality: its distinctiveness among normative concepts, the metaethics of bipolar obligations (owed to someone); the relation between moral obligations form and the substance of our obligations; whether the fact that an action is wrong is itself a reason against action (as opposed to simply entailing that sufficient moral reasons independently exist); and whether morality requires general principles or might be irreducibly particularistic. Section II consists of two essays on autonomy: one discussing the relation between Kants autonomy of the will and the right to autonomy, and another arguing that what makes an agents desires and will reason-giving is not the basis of internal practical reasons in desire, but the dignity of persons and shared second-personal authority. Section III focuses on the nature of authority and the law. Two essays take up Joseph Razs influential normal justification thesis and argue that it fails to capture authoritys second-personal nature, without which authority cannot create exclusionaryand preemptivereasons.The final two essays concern law.The first sketches the insights that a second-personal approach can provide into the nature of law and the grounds of distinctions between different parts of law.The second shows how a second-personal framework can be used to develop the civil recourse theory in the law of torts.

Über die Grundlage der Moral


Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag
ISBN: 3787327835
Category: Philosophy
Page: 189
View: 6094

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In seiner 1839 bei der Dänischen Societät der Wissenschaften eingereichten und 1841 erst mals in dem Band "Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik" veröffentlichten Preisschrift über die Grundlage der Moral legt Schopenhauer eine Reihe bemerkenswerter Ergänzungen zu seiner Ethik bzw. Metaphysik der Sitten vor. In keinem anderen seiner Werke setzt er sich so ausführlich mit Kants Ethik auseinander, die er einerseits als bedeutende Leistung würdigt, an derseits aber auch einer gründlichen und - in vielen Punkten - überzeugenden Kritik unter wirft. Ein zentraler Einwand lautet, daß der kategorische Imperativ letzten Endes einem kalkulierten Egoismus entspringe. Damit wäre er kein formales, sondern ein materiales Prinzip, und er würde nicht kategorisch, sondern allenfalls hypothetisch gelten. Darüber hinaus weist Schopenhauer die "imperative Form" der Kantischen Ethik als unangemessen zurück. Nach seiner Auffassung besteht die Aufgabe der Ethik keineswegs darin, Vorschriften aufzustellen, nach denen sich die Menschen zu richten hätten, sondern lediglich darin, deren Verhalten zu beschreiben und verständlich zu machen. Was seine eigene Konzeption der Ethik anbelangt, so läuft sie darauf hinaus, daß das Mitleid die Grundlage der Moral bildet. Schopenhauer charakterisiert es als ein Gefühl, in dem einem Menschen das Leiden des Anderen ebenso unmittelbar zugänglich ist wie das eigene und das ihn dazu motiviert, den Anderen zum letzten Zweck des Handelns zu machen. Vor diesem Hintergrund entwickelt Schopenhauer seine eigene Tugendlehre, in deren Mittelpunkt die Gerechtigkeit und die Menschenliebe stehen.

Morality, Utilitarianism, and Rights


Author: Richard B. Brandt
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521415071
Category: Philosophy
Page: 393
View: 9941

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Richard Brandt is one of the most eminent and influential of contemporary moral philosophers. His work has been concerned with how to justify what is good or right not by reliance on intuitions or theories about what moral words mean but by the explanation of moral psychology and the description of what it is to value something, or to think it immoral. His approach thus stands in marked contrast to the influential theories of John Rawls. The essays reprinted in this collection span a period of almost 30 years and include many classic pieces in metaethical and normative ethical theory. The collection is aimed at both those moral philosophers familiar with Brandt's work and at those philosophers who may be largely unfamiliar with his work. The latter group will be struck by the lucid unpretentious style and the cumulative weight of Brandt's contributions to topics that remain at the forefront of moral philosophy.

Motivation and the Moral Sense in Francis Hutcheson’s Ethical Theory


Author: Henning Jensen,Henning Jensen P.
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789024711871
Category: History
Page: 128
View: 7986

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Although the works of Francis Hutcheson are unfamiliar to most students of philosophy, it cannot be said that he has been entirely ignored. To be sure, most of the recent writers who deal with Hutcheson's philosophy do so in the course of writing about Hutcheson's famous contemporary, David Hume. This is true, for example, of Norman Kemp Smith, whose book entitled The Philosophy of David Hume 1 includes much detailed information concerning Hume's indebtedness to Hutcheson. But others have written about Hutcheson on his own account. William R. Scott's Francis Hutcheson,2 although mainly biographical and historical, is well worth reading. In his article "Some Reflections on Moral-Sense Theories in Ethics," 3 C. D. Broad presents a sustained analysis of the sort of theory held by Hutcheson. D. Daiches Raphael's The Moral Sense 4 is competent, interesting, and especially valuable in its treatment of epistemological issues surrounding the moral sense theory. William K. Frankena's article entitled "Hutcheson's Moral Sense Theory" Ji is search ing and profound. And, most recent of all, a book by William T. Black stone has appeared entitled Francis Hutcheson and Contemporary Ethi cal Theory. 6 One of the difficulties encountered in presenting a study of Hutcheson is that all of his books are extremely rare. Fortunately, L. A. Selby-Bigge'l) 1 Nonnan Kemp Smith, The Philosophy of David Hume (London: Macmillan and Co. , Limited, 1949). Ii William Robert Scott, Francis Hutcheson (Cambridge, Eng. : Cambridge Uni venity Press, 1900).

Moral Status

Obligations to Persons and Other Living Things
Author: Mary Anne Warren
Publisher: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 0191588156
Category: Philosophy
Page: 274
View: 4160

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Mary Anne Warren explores a theoretical question which lies at the heart of practical ethics: what are the criteria for having moral status? In other words, what are the criteria for being an entity towards which people have moral obligations? Some philosophers maintain that there is one intrinsic property—for instance, life, sentience, humanity, or moral agency. Others believe that relational properties, such as belonging to a human community, are more important. In Part I of the book, Warren argues that no single property can serve as the sole criterion for moral status; instead, life, sentience, moral agency, and social and biotic relationships are all relevant, each in a different way. She presents seven basic principles, each focusing on a property that can, in combination with others, legitimately affect an agent's moral obligations towards entities of a given type. In Part II, these principles are applied in an examination of three controversial ethical issues: voluntary euthanasia, abortion

The Definition of Good (Routledge Revivals)


Author: Alfred C Ewing
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136208305
Category: Philosophy
Page: 228
View: 5481

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First published in Great Britain in 1948, this book examines the definition of goodness as being distinct from the question of What things are good? Although less immediately and obviously practical, Dr. Ewing argues that the former question is more fundamental since it raises the issue of whether ethics is explicable wholly in terms of something else, for example, human psychology. Ewing states in his preface that the definition of goodness needs to be confirmed before one decides on the place value is to occupy in our conception of reality or on the ultimate characteristics which make one action right and another wrong. This book discusses these issues.

The Concept of Rights


Author: George W. Rainbolt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402039768
Category: Law
Page: 253
View: 9626

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What is it to have a right? This book defends an alternative to traditional views, the justified-constraint theory of rights. It also solves the puzzle of the relational nature of rights. It gives a systematic account of an important alternative to the best theories of rights in the literature.

Rwanda and the Moral Obligation of Humanitarian Intervention


Author: Joshua James Kassner
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748670483
Category: Political Science
Page: 248
View: 6720

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A new approach to an issue of tremendous moral, political and legal importance, and explains why the international community should have intervened in Rwanda.

Good God

The Theistic Foundations of Morality
Author: David Baggett,Jerry L. Walls
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199831335
Category: Religion
Page: 304
View: 4788

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This book aims to reinvigorate discussions of moral arguments for God's existence. To open this debate, Baggett and Walls argue that God's love and moral goodness are perfect, without defect, necessary, and recognizable. After integrating insights from the literature of both moral apologetics and theistic ethics, they defend theistic ethics against a variety of objections and, in so doing, bolster the case for the moral argument for God's existence. It is the intention of the authors to see this aspect of natural theology resume its rightful place of prominence, by showing how a worldview predicated on the God of both classical theism and historical Christian orthodoxy has more than adequate resources to answer the Euthyphro Dilemma, speak to the problem of evil, illumine natural law, and highlight the moral significance of the incarnation and resurrection of Christ. Ultimately, the authors argue, there is principled reason to believe that morality itself provides excellent reasons to look for a transcendent source of its authority and reality, and a source that is more than an abstract principle.

Institutional Integrity in Health Care


Author: Ana Smith Iltis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401701539
Category: Science
Page: 193
View: 2252

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This volume addresses the nature of health care organizational ethics, including such issues as corporate fraud and institutional moral integrity, and covers the broad range of issues that must be addressed for a coherent discussion of organizational moral responsibility. Its unique coverage makes it of interest to researchers, students and professionals working in the fields of bioethics, health care administration and management, organizational science, and business ethics.

Reasons for Action and the Law


Author: M.C. Redondo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401591415
Category: Philosophy
Page: 192
View: 4652

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A focus on reasons for action and practical reason is the perspective chosen by many contemporary legal philosophers for the analysis of some central questions of their discipline. This book offers a critical evaluation of that approach, by carefully examining the empirical, logical and normative problems hidden behind the concepts of `reason for action' and `practical reasoning'. Unlike most other works in this field, it is a meta-theoretical study which analyses and compares how different theories use the notion of reason in their reconstruction of problems concerning issues such as normativity, the acceptance of norms, or the justification of judicial decisions. This book is directed primarily to scholars specializing in legal theory and concerned with the contribution practical philosophy can make to it, but it also contains important arguments and insights for all those interested in the controversy between legal positivists and their critics, in the theory of human action or in reason-based practical theories in general.

Moral Obligations

Action, Intention, and Valuation
Author: Carol Harding
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 135150469X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 148
View: 9512

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There are many ways of writing about the moral life; Moral Obligations follows the way of what philosophers call ""meta-ethics"": the analysis, not of particular moral problems, but of how the concepts used in formulating and solving them, concepts like ""right"" and ""obligatory,"" have significance and power over us. The meta-ethical part of this book is preceded by a discussion of action, in which Wren lays the foundations for the argument that moral obligation is a part of the formal structure of human agency. Wren's argument is practical and social-psychological: it is to help all, starting with those who are already committed to some version of the ethic of individual dignity, to promote interagency fellowship and peace as a result of seeing a certain truth, namely, the truth that the urgency of their feelings of moral obligation derives from a unspoken intention to belong to a community of agents. Moral Obligations begins with the philosophy of action, and then it reviews the historical debate about the nature of obligation and its social context. This is followed by a section about action in general: it establishes the standpoint of the agent and makes an inventory of several species of action. Later chapters summarize the foregoing themes, with emphasis on the unspoken side of intention, and develop them in conjunction with an analysis of the hypothetical imperative. The work closes with a discussion of the dilemma of membership in competing moral communities.

The Concept of a Philosophical Jurisprudence

Essays and Reviews 1926–51
Author: Michael Oakeshott
Publisher: Andrews UK Limited
ISBN: 184540307X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 474
View: 4242

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This volume brings together for the first time over a hundred of Oakeshott’s essays and reviews, written between 1926 and 1951, that until now have remained scattered through a variety of scholarly journals, periodicals and newspapers. A new editorial introduction explains how these pieces, including the lengthy essay on the philosophical nature of jurisprudence that occupies an important position in Oakeshott’s work, illuminate his other published writings. The collection throws new light on the context of his thought by placing him in dialogue with a number of other major figures in the humanities and social sciences during this period, including Leo Strauss, A.N. Whitehead, Karl Mannheim, Herbert Butterfield, E.H. Carr, Gilbert Ryle, and R.G. Collingwood.

The Pesticide Question

Environment, Economics and Ethics
Author: David Pimentel,Hugh Lehman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0585369739
Category: Science
Page: 442
View: 309

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Pesticides have contributed impressively to our present-day agricultural productivity, but at the same time they are at the center of serious concerns about safety, health, and the environment. Increasingly, the public wonders whether the benefits of pesticides - `the perfect red apple' - outweigh the costs of environmental pollution, human illness, and the destruction of animals and our habitat. Scientists and government officials are suspected of promoting commercial interests rather than protecting human welfare.