The China Triangle

Latin America's China Boom and the Fate of the Washington Consensus
Author: Kevin P. Gallagher
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190246758
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 7955

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Since 1980, China has evolved from a poor and mostly rural society into one of the largest economies in the world. As it grew into a major industrial power, it demanded enormous amounts of steel for new factories and cities, copper for electronic wires, petroleum for cars and manufacturing plants, and soybeans and cattle to feed its workers. By the 1990s, many Latin American countries were riding China's coattails and beginning to prosper from the new demand. Ever since China entered the World Trade Organization at the turn of the century, Latin America supplied China with more and more of the primary commodities it needs and more. That in turn has produced one the most impressive periods of economic growth on the continent in fifty years. And it was more evenly spread too - a region infamous for its extreme inequality saw it decline by a couple of percentage points over the course of the era. In The China Triangle, Kevin P. Gallagher traces the development of the China-Latin America trade over time and covers how it has affected the centuries-old (and highly unequal) US-Latin American relationship. He argues that despite these opportunities Latin American nations have little to show for riding the coattails of the 'China Boom' and now face significant challenges in the next decades as China's economy slows down and shifts more toward consumption and services. While the Latin American region saw significant economic growth due to China's rise over the past decades, Latin Americans saved very little of the windfall profits it earned even as the region saw a significant hollowing of its industrial base. What is more, commodity-led growth during the China boom reignited social and environmental conflicts across the region. Scholars and reporters have covered the Chinese expansion into East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australasia, Africa, the US, and Europe. Yet China's penetration Latin America is as little understood as it is significant-especially for America given its longstanding ties to the region. Gallagher provides a clear overview of China's growing economic ties with Latin America and points to ways that Latin American nations, China, and even the United States can act in order to make the next decades of China-Latin America economic activity more prosperous for all involved.

The China Triangle

Latin America's China Boom and the Fate of the Washington Consensus
Author: Kevin P. Gallagher
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190246731
Category: China
Page: 256
View: 5394

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"Latin America rode the coattails of what may be seen as the most significant event of the 21 Century--the rise of China. As China grew from a poverty-stricken nation to the largest economy in the world, many Latin Americans boomed. Latin American countries sent iron ore to be forged into steel for China new cities; copper to lace China's boom electronics industry with wire; petroleum to fuel hundreds of millions of new cars. Indeed, from 2003 to 2013 Latin America experienced a China boom. Beginning in 2014 however, the boom began to fade, with China's economy slowing in general and shifting toward a consumer-based economy less dependent on natural resource imports. Latin America was caught over-exposed to China, and had saved very little of its China windfall to prepare for the future. The region now faces slow growth, and increasing social and environmental conflict. Drawing on ten years of research and traveling along the China-Latin America economic relationship, Gallagher tracks how the rise of China impacted Latin America, how Latin America squandered much of the benefits gained during its China boom, and how Latin Americans can better position themselves to turn growing Asian trade into prosperity"--

The China Triangle

Latin America's China Boom and the Fate of the Washington Consensus
Author: Kevin P. Gallagher
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019024674X
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 7086

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Since 1980, China has evolved from a poor and mostly rural society into one of the largest economies in the world. As it grew into a major industrial power, it demanded enormous amounts of steel for new factories and cities, copper for electronic wires, petroleum for cars and manufacturing plants, and soybeans and cattle to feed its workers. By the 1990s, many Latin American countries were riding China's coattails and beginning to prosper from the new demand. Ever since China entered the World Trade Organization at the turn of the century, Latin America supplied China with more and more of the primary commodities it needs and more. That in turn has produced one the most impressive periods of economic growth on the continent in fifty years. And it was more evenly spread too - a region infamous for its extreme inequality saw it decline by a couple of percentage points over the course of the era. In The China Triangle, Kevin P. Gallagher traces the development of the China-Latin America trade over time and covers how it has affected the centuries-old (and highly unequal) US-Latin American relationship. He argues that despite these opportunities Latin American nations have little to show for riding the coattails of the 'China Boom' and now face significant challenges in the next decades as China's economy slows down and shifts more toward consumption and services. While the Latin American region saw significant economic growth due to China's rise over the past decades, Latin Americans saved very little of the windfall profits it earned even as the region saw a significant hollowing of its industrial base. What is more, commodity-led growth during the China boom reignited social and environmental conflicts across the region. Scholars and reporters have covered the Chinese expansion into East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australasia, Africa, the US, and Europe. Yet China's penetration Latin America is as little understood as it is significant-especially for America given its longstanding ties to the region. Gallagher provides a clear overview of China's growing economic ties with Latin America and points to ways that Latin American nations, China, and even the United States can act in order to make the next decades of China-Latin America economic activity more prosperous for all involved.

China and Sustainable Development in Latin America

The Social and Environmental Dimension
Author: Rebecca Ray,Kevin Gallagher,Andres López,Cynthia Sanborn
Publisher: Anthem Press
ISBN: 1783086157
Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Page: 382
View: 1654

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During Latin America’s China-led commodity boom, governments turned a blind eye to the inherent flaws in the region’s economic policy. Now that the commodity boom is coming to an end, those flaws cannot be ignored. High on the list of shortcomings is the fact that Latin American governments—and Chinese investors—largely fell short of mitigating the social and environmental impacts of commodity-led growth. The recent commodity boom exacerbated pressure on the region’s waterways and forests, accentuating threats to human health, biodiversity, global climate change and local livelihoods. China and Sustainable Development in Latin America documents the social and environmental impact of the China-led commodity boom in the region. It also highlights important areas of innovation, like Chile’s solar energy sector, in which governments, communities and investors worked together to harness the commodity boom for the benefit of the people and the planet.

China's Expansion into the Western Hemisphere

Implications for Latin America and the United States
Author: Riordan Roett,Guadalupe Paz
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815775546
Category: Political Science
Page: 276
View: 2310

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With President Hu Jintao's November 2004 visit to Latin America, China signaled to the rest of the world its growing interest in the region. Many observers welcome this development, highlighting the benefits of increased trade and investment, as well as diplomatic cooperation, for both sides. But other analysts have raised concerns about the relationship's impact on Latin American competitiveness and its implications for U.S. influence in Washington's traditional backyard. In C hina's Expansion into the Western Hemisphere, experts from Latin America, China, and the United States, as well as Europe, analyze the history of this triangular relationship and the motivations of each of the major players. Several chapters focus on China's growing economic ties to the region, including Latin America's role in China's search for energy resources worldwide. Other essays highlight the geopolitical implications of Chinese hemispheric policy and set recent developments in the broader context of China's role in the developing world. Together, they provide an absorbing look at a particularly sensitive aspect of China's emergence as a world power. Contributors include Christopher Alden (London School of Economics), Robert Devlin (ECLAC), Francisco González (Johns Hopkins–SAIS), Monica Hirst (Torcuato Di Tella University), Josh Kurlantzick (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace), Xiang Lanxin (Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva), Luisa Palacios (Barclays), Jiang Shixue (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences), Barbara Stallings (Brown University), Juan Tokatlián (San Andrés University), and Zheng Kai (Fudan University).

China in Latin America

the whats and wherefores
Author: Robert Evan Ellis
Publisher: Lynne Rienner Pub
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 329
View: 3364

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With China on the minds of many in Latin Americażfrom politicians and union leaders to people on the street, from business students to senior bankersża number of important questions arise. Why, for example, is China so rapidly expanding its ties with the region? What is the nature of the new connection, and how will it affect institutions, economic structures, politics, and society? R. Evan Ellis provides a comprehensive look at the character and impact of the developing PRCżLatin America relationship.Ellis examines how the relationship has taken on distinct characteristics in various subregions, considering the role of supplier-and-market countries such as Argentina and Brazil, Chinażs cautious dance with populism as it seeks access to Andean oil, and the dominance of the Taiwan issue in Chinażs dealings with Central American and the Caribbean. He also addresses the unique case of Cuba. Not least, his work sheds light on the implications of the ChinażLatin America relationship for conventional wisdom regarding globalization, development, and the links between economics and politics.

Latin America and the Asian Giants

Evolving Ties with China and India
Author: Riordan Roett,Guadalupe Paz
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 081572697X
Category: Political Science
Page: 336
View: 2913

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How an evolving relationship with China and India is changing Latin America's political and economic dynamics. In the years since China has adopted a "going global" strategy to promote its overseas investment, expand export markets, and gain much-needed access to natural resources abroad, Sino–Latin American relations have both deepened and broadened at an unexpectedly rapid pace. The main driver behind this sea change in bilateral relations has been economic complementarity, with resource-rich countries in Latin America exporting primary goods to the Asian giants' growing market and China exporting manufactured goods back into the region. In recent years, Sino–Latin American relations have matured considerably, becoming far more nuanced and multifaceted than ever before. India is a relatively new player in the region, but has slowly strengthened its ties. As one of Asia's largest markets, it offers interesting parallels to the Chinese case. Will Indo–Latin American ties follow a similar path? The main areas of growth include trade and investment, mining, energy, information technology, motor vehicle production, and pharmaceuticals. To what extent these changing dynamics will redefine Latin America's relations with India is a question of increasing relevance for policymakers. This volume offers a review of key cross-regional trends and critical policy issues involving the changing relationship between these two Asian giants and Latin America. Selected country case studies—Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico—provide a more in-depth analysisof the implications of China's and India's evolving interaction with the region.

The Dragon in the Room

China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization
Author: Kevin Gallagher,Roberto Porzecanski
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804771871
Category: Political Science
Page: 182
View: 7273

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This book shows that China's rise may jeopardize the future of Latin American industrialization.

China, The United States, and the Future of Latin America

U.S.-China Relations
Author: David B.H. Denoon
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479890332
Category: Political Science
Page: 432
View: 5940

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Provides insight into U.S. and Chinese involvement in aid, trade, direct investment and strategic ties in Latin America In recent years, China has become the largest trading partner for more than half the countries in Latin America, and demonstrated major commitments in aid and direct investment in various parts of the region. China has also made a number of strategic commitments to countries like Nicaragua, Cuba, and Venezuela which have long-standing policies opposing U.S. influence in the region. China, the United States, and the Future of Latin America posits that this activity is a direct challenge to the role of the U.S. in Latin America and the Caribbean. Part of a three-volume series analyzing U.S.-China relations in parts of the world where neither country is dominant, this volume analyzes the interactions between the U.S., China, and Latin America. The book series has so far considered the differences in operating styles between China and the U.S. in Central Asia and Southeast Asia. This third volume unpacks the implications of competing U.S. and Chinese interests in countries such as Brazil and Argentina, and China’s commitments in Nicaragua and Venezuela. This volume draws upon a variety of policy experts, focusing on the viewpoints of South American and Caribbean scholars as well as scholars from outside states. China’s new global reach and its ambitions, as well as the U.S. response, are analyzed in detail.A nuanced examination of current complexities and future implications, China, the United States and the Future of Latin America provides readers with varied perspectives on the changing economic and strategic picture in Latin America and the Caribbean.

The Political Economy of China–Latin America Relations in the New Millennium

Brave New World
Author: Margaret Myers,Carol Wise
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317214072
Category: Political Science
Page: 300
View: 6703

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In this book, China-Latin America relations experts Margaret Myers and Carol Wise examine the political and economic forces that have underpinned Chinese engagement in the region, as well as the ways in which these forces have shaped economic sectors and policy-making in Latin America. The contributors begin with a review of developments in cross-Pacific statecraft, including the role of private, state-level, sub-national, and extra-regional actors that have influenced China-Latin America engagement in recent years. Part two of the book examines the variety of Latin American development trajectories borne of China’s growing global presence. Contributors analyse the effects of Chinese engagement on specific economic sectors, clusters (the LAC emerging economies), and sub-regions (Central America, the Southern Cone of South America, and the Andean region). Individual case studies draw out these themes. This volume is a welcome addition to the growing body of literature on China-Latin America relations. It illuminates the complex interplay between economics and politics that has characterized China’s relations with the region as a second decade of enhanced economic engagement draws to a close. This volume is an indispensable read for students, scholars and policy makers wishing to gain new insights into the political economy of China-Latin America relations.

The Rise of China and India in Africa

Challenges, Opportunities and Critical Interventions
Author: Fantu Cheru,Cyril Obi
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 184813827X
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 7441

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In recent years, China and India have become the most important economic partners of Africa and their footprints are growing by leaps and bounds, transforming Africa's international relations in a dramatic way. Although the overall impact of China and India's engagement in Africa has been positive in the short-term, partly as a result of higher returns from commodity exports fuelled by excessive demands from both countries, little research exists on the actual impact of China and India's growing involvement on Africa's economic transformation. This book examines in detail the opportunities and challenges posed by the increasing presence of China and India in Africa, and proposes critical interventions that African governments must undertake in order to negotiate with China and India from a stronger and more informed platform.

China Engages Latin America

Tracing the Trajectory
Author: Adrian H. Hearn
Publisher: Lynne Rienner Pub
ISBN: 9781588267672
Category: Political Science
Page: 325
View: 5402

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While the world is preoccupied with the Middle East, what inroads is China making into Latin America? In China Engages Latin America, experts from three continents provide local answers to this global question.

The Third Century

U.S.–Latin American Relations since 1889
Author: Mark T. Gilderhus,David C. LaFevor,Michael J. LaRosa
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442257172
Category: History
Page: 336
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This text focuses on U.S. relations with Latin America from the advent of the New Diplomacy late in the nineteenth century to the present. Providing a balanced perspective, it presents both the United States’ view that the Western Hemisphere needed to unite under a common democratic, capitalistic society and the Latin American countries’ response to U.S. attempts to impose these goals on its southern neighbors. The authors examine the reciprocal interactions between the two regions, each with distinctive purposes, outlooks, interests, and cultures. They also place U.S.–Latin American relations within the larger global political and economic context.

The Specter of Global China

Politics, Labor, and Foreign Investment in Africa
Author: Ching Kwan Lee
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022634097X
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 3266

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China has recently emerged as one of Africa’s top business partners, aggressively pursuing its raw materials and establishing a mighty presence in the continent’s booming construction market. Among major foreign investors in Africa, China has stirred the most fear, hope, and controversy. For many, the specter of a Chinese neocolonial scramble is looming, while for others China is Africa’s best chance at economic renewal. Yet, global debates about China in Africa have been based more on rhetoric than on empirical evidence. Ching Kwan Lee’s The Specter of Global China is the first comparative ethnographic study that addresses the critical question: Is Chinese capital a different kind of capital? Offering the clearest look yet at China’s state-driven investment in Africa, this book is rooted in six years of extensive fieldwork in copper mines and construction sites in Zambia, Africa’s copper giant. Lee shadowed Chinese, Indian, and South African managers in underground mines, interviewed Zambian miners and construction workers, and worked with Zambian officials. Distinguishing carefully between Chinese state capital and global private capital in terms of their business objectives, labor practices, managerial ethos, and political engagement with the Zambian state and society, she concludes that Chinese state investment presents unique potential and perils for African development. The Specter of Global China will be a must-read for anyone interested in the future of China, Africa, and capitalism worldwide.

Cocaina

A Book on Those Who Make It
Author: Magnus Linton
Publisher: Soft Skull Press
ISBN: 161902392X
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 6122

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When Pablo Escobar, Colombia's “King of Cocaine,” was killed, the world thought—or hoped—the cocaine industry would crumble. But ten years later the country's production had almost quadrupled, and since 2001, Colombia has produced more than 60% of all the cocaine consumed in the world. Cocaine is both a curse and a salvation for Colombians. Farmers grow coca for cash but fear discovery. Families must cooperate with drug-funded guerrillas or go on the run. Destitute teens become trained killers for a quick buck in a ruthless underworld where few survive for long. At the same time, tension grows between Colombia's right-wing government and its socialist neighbors in Latin America. With the failed US War on Drugs playing into this geopolitical brew, the future of cocaine is about more than what happens to street dealers and their customers. Based on three years of research and more than 100 interviews with growers, traffickers, assassins, refugees, police, politicians, and drug tourists, Cocaína is a brilliant work of journalism, and an insight into one of the world's most troubling industries.

Asia's Reckoning

China, Japan, and the Fate of U.S. Power in the Pacific Century
Author: Richard McGregor
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0399562672
Category: History
Page: 396
View: 620

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China, red or green -- Countering Japan -- Five ragged islands -- The golden years -- Japan says no -- Asian values -- Apologies and their discontents -- Yasukuni respects -- History's cauldron -- The Ampo mafia -- The rise and retreat of great powers -- China lays down the law -- Nationalization -- Creation myths -- Freezing point -- Afterword

Sun, Sex, and Gold

Tourism and Sex Work in the Caribbean
Author: Kamala Kempadoo
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780847695171
Category: Social Science
Page: 356
View: 6018

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For abstracts see: Caribbean abstracts, no. 11, 1999-2000 (2001); p. 61.

Natural Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean

Beyond Booms and Busts?
Author: Emily Sinnott,John Nash,Augusto de la Torre
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821384824
Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Page: 82
View: 1778

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"The question of how to treat commodity production and how to manage recurrent cycles of booms and busts has always been a challenge for policymakers in commodity-dependent countries, including many in the LAC region. These challenges have led to allegations of a "commodity curse'' that retards development in these countries, but as of yet, there is no consensus as to whether such a curse exists, and if so, how can negative effects be minimized. This book contributes to this debate. Much of the report is focused on an examination of specific channels through which commodity dependence may affect the economic and institutional development of countries. This includes broadly 4 sets of concerns: one set dealing with the direct economic effects of commodity dependence and the implications for long-term growth; one dealing with the interactions between commodity production and the rents it generates on the one hand, and a country's institutions on the other; a third dealing with the macroeconomic challenges of managing the volatility of revenue flows, including the distributional implications at the household level posed by cyclicality of social spending; and a final set associated with potential negative environmental and social impacts. The book finds that some commonly accepted negative effects of dependence on natural resources are largely myths, while some are realities. But all can be managed, and the book draws on the best available information in existing literature as well as original analysis to provide practical advice on how to do so. It also presents descriptive facts and analysis of the impacts in LAC of the recent commodity boom, helping the reader understand the implications for the region's development and policies. It should be of great interest to policy-makers and analysts, as well as laypersons interested in the economics of commodity markets and their role in economic development."

The New Presence of China in Africa


Author: Meine Pieter van Dijk
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
ISBN: 908964136X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 224
View: 1764

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"This book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western development aid model has failed, is looking for new forms of aid and development in Africa. China's economic success can partly be ascribed to the huge availability of cheap labour, which is primarily employed in export-oriented industries. China is looking for the required raw materials in Africa, and for new marketplaces. Investments are being made on a large scale in Africa by Chinese state-controlled firms and private companies, particularly in the oil-producing countries (Angola, Nigeria and Sudan) and countries rich in minerals (Zambia). Third, the trade policy China is conducting is analysed in China and compared with that of Europe and the United States. In case studies the specific situation in several African countries is examined. In Zambia the mining industry, construction and agriculture are described. One case study of Sudan deals with the political presence of China in Sudan and the extent to which Chinese arms suppliers contributed to the current crisis in Darfur. The possibility of Chinese diplomacy offering a solution in that conflict is discussed. The conclusion considers whether social responsibility can be expected of the Chinese government and companies and if this is desirable, and to what extent the Chinese model in Africa can act as an example - or not - for the West"--Publisher's description.

Globalization and Growth

Implications for a Post-Crisis World
Author: Michael Spence,Danny Leipziger
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821382219
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 380
View: 1617

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The volume provides a comprehensive overview of the financial and economic crises of 2008-2009 and the economic and financial policy implications for growth in developing countries.