The Campaigns of Alexander


Author: Arrian
Publisher: Penguin UK
ISBN: 0141913525
Category: History
Page: 432
View: 1088

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Although written over four hundred years after Alexander's death, Arrian's account of the man and his achievements is the most reliable we have. Arrian's own experience as a military commander gave him unique insights into the life of the world's greatest conqueror. He tells of Alexander's violent suppression of the Theban rebellion, his defeat of Persia and campaigns through Egypt and Babylon - establishing new cities and destroying others in his path. While Alexander emerges as a charismatic leader, Arrian succeeds brilliantly in creating an objective portrait of a man of boundless ambition, who was exposed to the temptations of power.

The Landmark Arrian

The Campaigns of Alexander
Author: James S. Romm
Publisher: Anchor
ISBN: 1400079675
Category: History
Page: 503
View: 2061

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During twelve years of continuous campaigns, Alexander conquered an empire that stretched from the shores of the Adriatic to the edge of modern India. Arrian's history of those conquests is the most reliable and detailed account to emerge from the ancient world. --from publisher description

Alexander the Great

The Anabasis and the Indica
Author: Arrian,,Martin Hammond,John Atkinson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199587248
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 372
View: 8453

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Arrian's account of Alexander's life and campaigns, published as the Anabasis and its companion piece the Indica, is our prime source for the history of Alexander, told with great narrative skill. This edition features a new translation of both texts, introduction, notes, guide to military systems and terminology, maps and a full index.

Alexander the Great: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Hugh Bowden
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191016365
Category: History
Page: 144
View: 3753

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Alexander the Great became king of Macedon in 336 BC, when he was only 20 years old, and died at the age of 32, twelve years later. During his reign he conquered the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the largest empire that had ever existed, leading his army from Greece to Pakistan, and from the Libyan desert to the steppes of Central Asia. His meteoric career, as leader of an alliance of Greek cities, Pharaoh of Egypt, and King of Persia, had a profound effect on the world he moved through. Even in his lifetime his achievements became legendary and in the centuries that following his story was told and retold throughout Europe and the East. Greek became the language of power in the Eastern Mediterranean and much of the Near East, as powerful Macedonian dynasts carved up Alexander's empire into kingdoms of their own, underlaying the flourishing Hellenistic civilization that emerged after his death. But what do we really know about Alexander? In this Very Short Introduction, Hugh Bowden goes behind the usual historical accounts of Alexander's life and career. Instead, he focuses on the evidence from Alexander's own time — letters from officials in Afghanistan, Babylonian diaries, records from Egyptian temples — to try and understand how Alexander appeared to those who encountered him. In doing so he also demonstrates the profound influence the legends of his life have had on our historical understanding and the controversy they continue to generate worldwide. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Confronting the Classics

Traditions, Adventures and Innovations
Author: Mary Beard
Publisher: Profile Books
ISBN: 1847658881
Category: History
Page: 310
View: 3451

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Mary Beard is one of the world's best-known classicists - a brilliant academic, with a rare gift for communicating with a wide audience both though her TV presenting and her books. In a series of sparkling essays, she explores our rich classical heritage - from Greek drama to Roman jokes, introducing some larger-than-life characters of classical history, such as Alexander the Great, Nero and Boudicca. She invites you into the places where Greeks and Romans lived and died, from the palace at Knossos to Cleopatra's Alexandria - and reveals the often hidden world of slaves. She takes a fresh look at both scholarly controversies and popular interpretations of the ancient world, from The Golden Bough to Asterix. The fruit of over thirty years in the world of classical scholarship, Confronting the Classics captures the world of antiquity and its modern significance with wit, verve and scholarly expertise.

Alexander the Great

Man and God
Author: Ian Worthington
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317866444
Category: History
Page: 388
View: 984

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Alexander the Great conquered territories on a superhuman scale and established an empire that stretched from Greece to India. He spread Greek culture and education throughout his empire, and was worshipped as a living god by many of his subjects. But how great is a leader responsible for the deaths on tens of thousands of people? A ruler who prefers constant warring to administering the peace? A man who believed he was a god, who murdered his friends, and recklessly put his soldiers lives at risk? Ian Worthington delves into Alexander's successes and failures, his paranoia, the murders he engineered, his megalomania, and his constant drinking. It presents a king corrupted by power and who, for his own personal ends, sacrificed the empire his father had fought to establish.

By the Spear

Philip II, Alexander the Great, and the Rise and Fall of the Macedonian Empire
Author: Ian Worthington
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199929874
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 753

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Alexander the Great, arguably the most exciting figure from antiquity, waged war as a Homeric hero and lived as one, conquering native peoples and territories on a superhuman scale. From the time he invaded Asia in 334 to his death in 323, he expanded the Macedonian empire from Greece in the west to Asia Minor, the Levant, Egypt, Central Asia and "India" (Pakistan and Kashmir) in the east. Although many other kings and generals forged empires, Alexander produced one that was without parallel, even if it was short-lived. And yet, Alexander could not have achieved what he did without the accomplishments of his father, Philip II (r. 359-336). It was Philip who truly changed the course of Macedonian history, transforming a weak, disunited, and economically backward kingdom into a military powerhouse. A warrior king par excellence, Philip left Alexander with the greatest army in the Greek world, a centralized monarchy, economic prosperity, and a plan to invade Asia. For the first time, By the Spear offers an exhilarating military narrative of the reigns of these two larger-than-life figures in one volume. Ian Worthington gives full breadth to the careers of father and son, showing how Philip was the architect of the Macedonian empire, which reached its zenith under Alexander, only to disintegrate upon his death. By the Spear also explores the impact of Greek culture in the East, as Macedonian armies became avatars of social and cultural change in lands far removed from the traditional sphere of Greek influence. In addition, the book discusses the problems Alexander faced in dealing with a diverse subject population and the strategies he took to what might be called nation building, all of which shed light on contemporary events in culturally dissimilar regions of the world. The result is a gripping and unparalleled account of the role these kings played in creating a vast empire and the enduring legacy they left behind.

Alexander

The Ambiguity of Greatness
Author: Guy Maclean Rogers
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1588364135
Category: History
Page: 464
View: 1125

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For nearly two and a half millennia, Alexander the Great has loomed over history as a legend–and an enigma. Wounded repeatedly but always triumphant in battle, he conquered most of the known world, only to die mysteriously at the age of thirty-two. In his day he was revered as a god; in our day he has been reviled as a mass murderer, a tyrant as brutal as Stalin or Hitler. Who was the man behind the mask of power? Why did Alexander embark on an unprecedented program of global domination? What accounted for his astonishing success on the battlefield? In this luminous new biography, the esteemed classical scholar and historian Guy MacLean Rogers sifts through thousands of years of history and myth to uncover the truth about this complex, ambiguous genius. Ascending to the throne of Macedonia after the assassination of his father, King Philip II, Alexander discovered while barely out of his teens that he had an extraordinary talent and a boundless appetite for military conquest. A virtuoso of violence, he was gifted with an uncanny ability to visualize how a battle would unfold, coupled with devastating decisiveness in the field. Granicus, Issos, Gaugamela, Hydaspes–as the victories mounted, Alexander’s passion for conquest expanded from cities to countries to continents. When Persia, the greatest empire of his day, fell before him, he marched at once on India, intending to add it to his holdings. As Rogers shows, Alexander’s military prowess only heightened his exuberant sexuality. Though his taste for multiple partners, both male and female, was tolerated, Alexander’s relatively enlightened treatment of women was nothing short of revolutionary. He outlawed rape, he placed intelligent women in positions of authority, and he chose his wives from among the peoples he conquered. Indeed, as Rogers argues, Alexander’s fascination with Persian culture, customs, and sexual practices may have led to his downfall, perhaps even to his death. Alexander emerges as a charismatic and surprisingly modern figure–neither a messiah nor a genocidal butcher but one of the most imaginative and daring military tacticians of all time. Balanced and authoritative, this brilliant portrait brings Alexander to life as a man, without diminishing the power of the legend. From the Hardcover edition.

Das ist bei uns nicht möglich

Roman
Author: Sinclair Lewis
Publisher: Aufbau Digital
ISBN: 3841213731
Category: Fiction
Page: 448
View: 904

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Buzz Windrip, für seine Gegner ein „ungebildeter Lügner mit idiotischer Weltanschauung“ und ein gefährlicher Populist, will Präsidentschaftskandidat werden. Er gibt vor, sich für die kleinen Leute einzusetzen, und verspricht, „aus Amerika wieder ein stolzes Land zu machen“. Trotz völlig unglaubwürdiger Versprechen laufen ihm die Wähler zu, und er zieht ins Weiße Haus ein. Sogleich regiert er wie ein absolutistischer Herrscher, beschneidet die Freiheiten der Minderheiten, legt sich mit Mexiko an und lässt seine Kritiker rabiat verfolgen. Einer davon ist der liberale Zeitungsherausgeber Doremus Jessup, der sich nicht mundtot machen lassen will. Sinclair Lewis wusste durch seine Frau Dorothy Thompson, Auslandskorrespondentin in Berlin, über den Aufstieg der Nazis Bescheid. In den USA beobachtete er, wie die Populisten nach Wirtschaftskrise und Sozialreformen des New Deal immer weiter an Einfluss gewannen. Der radikale Senator Huey Long versuchte Präsident Roosevelt aus dem Amt zu drängen, bevor Long 1935 einem Attentat zum Opfer fiel. Lewis diente er als Vorbild für den fanatischen Verführer Buzz Windrip in seinem Roman. Lewis’ Roman aus dem Jahr 1935 führt einen Antihelden vor, der mit seinen Hetzreden die Begeisterung unzufriedener Wähler entfacht. Durch seine Lügen und eine Rhetorik des Populismus und der Ressentiments wird er Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten. Das klingt vertraut? 1935 in den USA ein aufsehenerregender Bestseller, heute wieder eine Sensation und aktuell wie selten zuvor. In der Übersetzung des bekannten Exilautors und Kleist-Preis-Trägers Hans Meisel – mit einem Nachwort von Jan Brandt. „Eine unheimliche Vorwegnahme der aktuellen Ereignisse.“ The Guardian. „Ein Populist im Weißen Haus? Literaturnobelpreisträger Sinclair Lewis hat es vor 80 Jahren durchgespielt.“ DIE ZEIT. „Sinclair Lewis ist wieder aktuell.“ der Freitag. „Ein Meister des absoluten Realismus." Bob Dylan.

Classic Ships of Islam

From Mesopotamia to the Indian Ocean
Author: Dionisius A. Agius
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004158634
Category: Social Science
Page: 505
View: 8447

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Drawing upon Arabic literary sources, iconographic evidence and archaeological finds, this book examines trade, port towns, ship construction, seamanship, ship typology and their historical development in the Western Indian Ocean, focussing on the Medieval Islamic period but including earlier sources.

The Early History of Rome


Author: Livy
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9780140448092
Category: History
Page: 487
View: 1734

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Livy (c. 59 BC-AD 17) dedicated most of his life to writing some 142 volumes of history, the first five of which comprise The Early History of Rome. With stylistic brilliance, he chronicles nearly 400 years of history, from the founding of Rome (traditionally dated to 757 BC) to the Gallic invasion in 386 BC - an era which witnessed the reign of seven kings, the establishment of the Republic, civil strife and brutal conflict. Bringing compelling characters to life, and re-presenting familiar tales - including the tragedy of Coriolanus and the story of Romulus and Remus - The Early History is a truly epic work, and a passionate warning that Rome should learn from its history.

Vom Kriege


Author: C. von Clausewitz
Publisher: Рипол Классик
ISBN: 5874182594
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 8436

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The Age of Titans

The Rise and Fall of the Great Hellenistic Navies
Author: William M. Murray
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199912785
Category: History
Page: 384
View: 2586

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While we know a great deal about naval strategies in the classical Greek and later Roman periods, our understanding of the period in between--the Hellenistic Age--has never been as complete. However, thanks to new physical evidence discovered in the past half-century and the construction of Olympias, a full-scale working model of an Athenian trieres (trireme) by the Hellenic Navy during the 1980s, we now have new insights into the evolution of naval warfare following the death of Alexander the Great. In what has been described as an ancient naval arms race, the successors of Alexander produced the largest warships of antiquity, some as long as 400 feet carrying as many as 4000 rowers and 3000 marines. Vast, impressive, and elaborate, these warships "of larger form"--as described by Livy--were built not just to simply convey power but to secure specific strategic objectives. When these particular factors disappeared, this "Macedonian" model of naval power also faded away--that is, until Cleopatra and Mark Antony made one brief, extravagant attempt to reestablish it, an endeavor Octavian put an end to once and for all at the battle of Actium. Representing the fruits of more than thirty years of research, The Age of Titans provides the most vibrant account to date of Hellenistic naval warfare.

Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War (Civil War Classics)


Author: G.F.R. Henderson,Civil War Classics
Publisher: Diversion Books
ISBN: 1626816964
Category: History
Page: 797
View: 6790

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To commemorate the 150th Anniversary of the end of the Civil War, Diversion Books is publishing seminal works of the era: stories told by the men and women who led, who fought, and who lived in an America that had come apart at the seams. Thomas Jonathan Jackson earned his famous moniker during the Battle of Manassas, when an entire brigade was commanded to rally behind Jackson, whose own company was fighting like a stone wall. One of the finest generals of the Confederacy, Stonewall Jackson played a vital role in the Civil War, and an even more important role in the mythology of the South. This biography of Jackson, written by renowned military historian G.F.R. Henderson, strives to capture not only the man, but the legend that surrounds him to this day.

Alexander's Campaigns in Sind and Baluchistan and the Siege of the Brahmin Town of Harmatelia


Author: Pierre Herman Leonard Eggermont
Publisher: Peeters Publishers
ISBN: 9789061860372
Category: History
Page: 233
View: 7801

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In quest of the identification and geographical location of the Brahmin town of Harmatelia, known for Alexander's siege which became a favourite literary theme throughout the Hellenistic age, the author has studied this minor problem within the much wider context of the historico-geographic conditions of Sind and Baluchistan about 500 B.C. - A.D. 25. Starting from a well-balanced assessment of the data supplied by western classic authors as well as by Indian and other oriental sources, he has compared the views held by General Cunningham's contemporaries with the fresh evidence we have at our disposal nowadays, such as the data collected by Aurel Stein during his archaeological reconnaissances in Baluchistan, the numerous notes which W.W. Tarn has inserted in his papers and books on Alexander the Great, and the recent geomorphological studies by the German geologist H. Wilhelmy on the Indus river basin in general, and the Indus delta in particular. An interesting feature of this book is the new method the author has developed. His interpretation is based on what he calls the Law of the strings of geographical names, viz. the principle according to which the early geographers listed the toponyms of towns, tribes, and mountains.

Alexander the Great


Author: Philip Freeman
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 9781439193280
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 416
View: 3296

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In the first authoritative biography of Alexander the Great written for a general audience in a generation, classicist and historian Philip Freeman tells the remarkable life of the great conqueror. The celebrated Macedonian king has been one of the most enduring figures in history. He was a general of such skill and renown that for two thousand years other great leaders studied his strategy and tactics, from Hannibal to Napoleon, with countless more in between. He flashed across the sky of history like a comet, glowing brightly and burning out quickly: crowned at age nineteen, dead by thirty-two. He established the greatest empire of the ancient world; Greek coins and statues are found as far east as Afghanistan. Our interest in him has never faded. Alexander was born into the royal family of Macedonia, the kingdom that would soon rule over Greece. Tutored as a boy by Aristotle, Alexander had an inquisitive mind that would serve him well when he faced formidable obstacles during his military campaigns. Shortly after taking command of the army, he launched an invasion of the Persian empire, and continued his conquests as far south as the deserts of Egypt and as far east as the mountains of present-day Pakistan and the plains of India. Alexander spent nearly all his adult life away from his homeland, and he and his men helped spread the Greek language throughout western Asia, where it would become the lingua franca of the ancient world. Within a short time after Alexander’s death in Baghdad, his empire began to fracture. Best known among his successors are the Ptolemies of Egypt, whose empire lasted until Cleopatra. In his lively and authoritative biography of Alexander, classical scholar and historian Philip Freeman describes Alexander’s astonishing achievements and provides insight into the mercurial character of the great conqueror. Alexander could be petty and magnanimous, cruel and merciful, impulsive and farsighted. Above all, he was ferociously, intensely competitive and could not tolerate losing—which he rarely did. As Freeman explains, without Alexander, the influence of Greece on the ancient world would surely not have been as great as it was, even if his motivation was not to spread Greek culture for beneficial purposes but instead to unify his empire. Only a handful of people have influenced history as Alexander did, which is why he continues to fascinate us.

From Arrian to Alexander

Studies in Historical Interpretation
Author: A. B. Bosworth,Professor of Classics and Ancient History Albert Brian Bosworth
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198148630
Category: History
Page: 225
View: 5518

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This book attempts to achieve a new perspective in evaluating the sources of Alexander's reign. Instead of concentrating upon the lost first generation historians, Professor Bosworth focuses upon what is extant, in particular the work of Arrian, the most respected writer on the period.Through a rigorous examination of their methods, he strips away some of the encrustation from the persona of Alexander, allowing a less warped picture to emerge. As well as examining the attitudes of Arrian to his subject matter, he looks at his approach to his sources, his techniques in writingspeeches, and the degree to which he imposes his own judgement on his subject matter. The results obtained are then brought directly to bear on two vital problems of documentation: the Royal Journals of Alexander and his purported Last Plans.

Penguin classics

a complete annotated listing of Penguin classics and twentieth-century classics
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780147710901
Category: Literature
Page: 233
View: 4089

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