The Aztec Economic World

Merchants and Markets in Ancient Mesoamerica
Author: Kenneth G. Hirth
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316654281
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
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This study explores the organization, scale, complexity, and integration of Aztec commerce across Mesoamerica at Spanish contact. The aims of the book are threefold. The first is to construct an in-depth understanding of the economic organization of precolumbian Aztec society and how it developed in the way that it did. The second is to explore the livelihoods of the individuals who bought, sold, and moved goods across a cultural landscape that lacked both navigable rivers and animal transport. Finally, this study models Aztec economy in a way that facilitates its comparison to other ancient and premodern societies around the world. What makes the Aztec economy unique is that it developed one of the most sophisticated market economies in the ancient world in a society with one of the worse transportation systems. This is the first book to provide an updated and comprehensive view of the Aztec economy in thirty years.

Merchants, Markets, and Exchange in the Pre-Columbian World


Author: Kenn Hirth,Joanne Pillsbury
Publisher: Dumbarton Oaks Pub Service
ISBN: 9780884023869
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 472
View: 1191

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Merchants, Markets, and Exchange in the Pre-Columbian World investigates the complex structure of economic systems in the pre-Hispanic Americas, with a focus on the central highlands of Mexico, the Maya Lowlands, and the central Andes. Essays examine the use of marketplaces, the role of merchants and artisans, and the operation of trade networks.

Rethinking the Aztec Economy


Author: Deborah L. Nichols,Frances Berdan,Michael E. Smith
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 0816536333
Category: Social Science
Page: 352
View: 5407

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With its rich archaeological and historical record, the Aztec empire provides an intriguing opportunity to understand the dynamics and structure of early states and empires. Rethinking the Aztec Economy brings together leading scholars from multiple disciplines to thoroughly synthesize and examine the nature of goods and their movements across rural and urban landscapes in Mesoamerica. In so doing, they provide a new way of understanding society and economy in the Aztec empire. The volume is divided into three parts. Part 1 synthesizes our current understanding of the Aztec economy and singles out the topics of urbanism and provincial merchant activity for more detailed analysis. Part 2 brings new data and a new conceptual approach that applies insights from behavioral economics to Nahua and Aztec rituals and social objects. Contributors also discuss how high-value luxury goods, such as feather art, provide insights about both economic and sacred concepts of value in Aztec society. Part 3 reexamines the economy at the Aztec periphery. The volume concludes with a synthesis on the scale, integration, and nature of change in the Aztec imperial economy. Rethinking the Aztec Economy illustrates how superficially different kinds of social contexts were in fact integrated into a single society through the processes of a single economy. Using the world of goods as a crucial entry point, this volume advances scholarly understanding of life in the Aztec world. Contributors: Frances F. Berdan Laura Filloy Nadal Janine Gasco Colin Hirth Kenneth G. Hirth Sarah Imfeld María Olvido Moreno Guzmán Deborah L. Nichols Alan R. Sandstrom Pamela Effrein Sandstrom Michael E. Smith Barbara L. Stark Emily Umberger

Aztec Warfare

Imperial Expansion and Political Control
Author: Ross Hassig
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
ISBN: 9780806127736
Category: History
Page: 404
View: 8671

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In exploring the pattern and methods of Aztec expansion, Ross Hassig focuses on political and economic factors. Because they lacked numerical superiority, faced logistical problems presented by the terrain, and competed with agriculture for manpower, the Aztecs relied as much on threats and the image of power as on military might to subdue enemies and hold them in their orbit. Hassig describes the role of war in the everyday life of the capital, Tenochtitlan: the place of the military in Aztec society; the education and training of young warriors; the organization of the army; the use of weapons and armor; and the nature of combat.

The Oxford Handbook of the Aztecs


Author: Deborah L. Nichols,William J Bryant 1925 Professor of Anthropology at Dartmouth College Deborah L Nichols,Enrique Rodríguez-Alegría
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199341966
Category: Aztecs
Page: 760
View: 1182

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The Oxford Handbook of the Aztecs, the first of its kind, provides a current overview of recent research on the Aztec empire, the best documented prehispanic society in the Americas. Chapters span from the establishment of Aztec city-states to the encounter with the Spanish empire and the Colonial period that shaped the modern world. Articles in the Handbook take up new research trends and methodologies and current debates. The Handbook articles are divided into seven parts. Part I, Archaeology of the Aztecs, introduces the Aztecs, as well as Aztec studies today, including the recent practice of archaeology, ethnohistory, museum studies, and conservation. The articles in Part II, Historical Change, provide a long-term view of the Aztecs starting with important predecessors, the development of Aztec city-states and imperialism, and ending with a discussion of the encounter of the Aztec and Spanish empires. Articles also discuss Aztec notions of history, writing, and time. Part III, Landscapes and Places, describes the Aztec world in terms of its geography, ecology, and demography at varying scales from households to cities. Part IV, Economic and Social Relations in the Aztec Empire, discusses the ethnic complexity of the Aztec world and social and economic relations that have been a major focus of archaeology. Articles in Part V, Aztec Provinces, Friends, and Foes, focuses on the Aztec's dynamic relations with distant provinces, and empires and groups that resisted conquest, and even allied with the Spanish to overthrow the Aztec king. This is followed by Part VI, Ritual, Belief, and Religion, which examines the different beliefs and rituals that formed Aztec religion and their worldview, as well as the material culture of religious practice. The final section o

The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology


Author: Deborah L. Nichols,Christopher A. Pool
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199996342
Category: Social Science
Page: 1000
View: 2925

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The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology provides a current and comprehensive guide to the recent and on-going archaeology of Mesoamerica. Though the emphasis is on prehispanic societies, this Handbook also includes coverage of important new work by archaeologists on the Colonial and Republican periods. Unique among recent works, the text brings together in a single volume article-length regional syntheses and topical overviews written by active scholars in the field of Mesoamerican archaeology. The first section of the Handbook provides an overview of recent history and trends of Mesoamerica and articles on national archaeology programs and practice in Central America and Mexico written by archaeologists from these countries. These are followed by regional syntheses organized by time period, beginning with early hunter-gatherer societies and the first farmers of Mesoamerica and concluding with a discussion of the Spanish Conquest and frontiers and peripheries of Mesoamerica. Topical and comparative articles comprise the remainder of Handbook. They cover important dimensions of prehispanic societies--from ecology, economy, and environment to social and political relations--and discuss significant methodological contributions, such as geo-chemical source studies, as well as new theories and diverse theoretical perspectives. The Handbook concludes with a section on the archaeology of the Spanish conquest and the Colonial and Republican periods to connect the prehispanic, proto-historic, and historic periods. This volume will be a must-read for students and professional archaeologists, as well as other scholars including historians, art historians, geographers, and ethnographers with an interest in Mesoamerica.

The Origins of Globalization

World Trade in the Making of the Global Economy, 1500-1800
Author: Pim de Zwart,Jan Luiten van Zanden
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108561128
Category: Business & Economics
Page: N.A
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For better or for worse, in recent times the rapid growth of international economic exchange has changed our lives. But when did this process of globalization begin, and what effects did it have on economies and societies? Pim de Zwart and Jan Luiten van Zanden argue that the networks of trade established after the voyages of Columbus and Da Gama of the late fifteenth century had transformative effects inaugurating the first era of globalization. The global flows of ships, people, money and commodities between 1500 and 1800 were substantial, and the re-alignment of production and distribution resulting from these connections had important consequences for demography, well-being, state formation and the long-term economic growth prospects of the societies involved in the newly created global economy. Whether early globalization had benign or malignant effects differed by region, but the world economy as we now know it originated in these changes in the early modern period.

The Postclassic Mesoamerican World


Author: Michael Ernest Smith,Frances Berdan
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 382
View: 9360

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Thirty-eight chapters by twelve contributors provide a social and cultural analysis of life in ancient Mexico and Central America.

Olmec Archaeology and Early Mesoamerica


Author: Christopher Pool
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521783127
Category: History
Page: 354
View: 1000

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Olmec Archaeology and Early Mesoamerica offers the most thorough and up-to-date book-length treatment of Olmec society and culture available.

AZTEC WORLD


Author: Elizabeth Hill Boone
Publisher: Smithsonian Inst Press
ISBN: N.A
Category: Aztecs.
Page: 160
View: 5534

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"Well-illustrated overview of the Aztec empire and society's development drawn from ethnohistoric sources and excavations at major imperial centers. Basic introduction for nonspecialists"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57.

At Home with the Aztecs

An Archaeologist Uncovers Their Daily Life
Author: Michael Smith
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317328256
Category: Social Science
Page: 158
View: 9946

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At Home with the Aztecs provides a fresh view of Aztec society, focusing on households and communities instead of kings, pyramids, and human sacrifice. This new approach offers an opportunity to humanize the Aztecs, moving past the popular stereotype of sacrificial maniacs to demonstrate that these were successful and prosperous communities. Michael Smith also engagingly describes the scientific, logistic and personal dimensions of archaeological fieldwork, drawing on decades of excavating experience and considering how his research was affected by his interaction with contemporary Mexican communities. Through first-hand accounts of the ways archaeologists interpret sites and artifacts, the book illuminates how the archaeological process can provide information about ancient families. Facilitating a richer understanding of the Aztec world, Smith’s research also redefines success, prosperity and resilience in ancient societies, making this book suitable not only for those interested in the Aztecs but in the examination of complex societies in general.

Tenochtitlan

Capital of the Aztec Empire
Author: José Luis de Rojas
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780813042206
Category: History
Page: 225
View: 8980

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An accessible overview of archaeological knowledge of the seat of the Aztec empire, Tenochtitlan.

Aztec City-state Capitals


Author: Michael Ernest Smith
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 255
View: 5153

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The Aztecs ruled much of Mexico from the thirteenth century until the Spanish conquest in 1521. Outside of the imperial capital of Tenochtitlan, various urban centers ruled the numerous city-states that covered the central Mexican landscape. Aztec City-State Capitals is the first work to focus attention outside Tenochtitlan, revealing these dozens of smaller cities to have been the central hubs of political, economic, and religious life, integral to the grand infrastructure of the Aztec empire. Focusing on building styles, urban townscapes, layouts, and designs, Michael Smith combines two archaeological approaches: monumental (excavations of pyramids, palaces, and public buildings) and social (excavations of houses, workshops, and fields). As a result, he is able to integrate the urban-built environment and the lives of the Aztec peoples as reconstructed from excavations. Smith demonstrates the ways in which these city-state capitals were different from Tenochtitlan and convincingly argues that urban design is the direct result of decisions made by political leaders to legitimize their own power and political roles in the states of the Aztec empire.

Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World


Author: Lynn V. Foster
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195183634
Category: History
Page: 402
View: 1644

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This comprehensive and accessible reference explores the greatest and most mysterious of civilizations, hailed for its contributions to science, mathematics, and technology. Each chapter is supplemented by an extensive bibliography as well as photos, original line drawings, and maps.

The Aztec Empire


Author: Felipe Solis Olguin,Emeritus Researcher Eduardo Matos Moctezuma,Michael E Smith,Carl Taube,Richard Townsend,Phil Weigand,Miguel Leon Portilla,Beatriz De La Fuente,William Sanders
Publisher: Guggenheim Museum
ISBN: 9780892073160
Category: Aztec art
Page: 400
View: 9822

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The ultimate exploration of early 16th century Aztec culture features over 500 archaeological objects and works from Mexico and the United States, including jewelry, works of precious metals, and household and ceremonial artifactsQmany of which have never been exhibited before in the U.S. 0-89207-316-0$85.00 / DAP / Distributed Arts Publishers

Economies and Polities in the Aztec Realm


Author: Mary G. Hodge,Michael Ernest Smith
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 478
View: 840

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"The Seventeen papers in this collection deal with various aspects of the relationship between economics and the political units which constituted the Aztec state and its main competitor the Tarascan empire...Until recently Aztec studies were dominated by two rather narrow foci...a preoccupation with the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan coupled with neglect of other cities and the rural countryside, and an over-emphasis on the best-known Native and Spanish chronicles which ignored the vast corpus of lesser known but equally important documentary sources...Fortunately a few archaeologists and ethnohistorians, including the contributors to this volume, insisted on expanding the geographical and conceptual parameters of Aztec studies., They also began to employ recent innovative approaches in archaeology, locational geography, economics, political theory, and history in their quest to understand what really happened in central Mexico during the Postclassic period. The result has been some very exciting new perspectives on this fascinating topic."-Richard A. Diehl; Professor of Anthropology; University of Alabama

Aztecs


Author: Inga Clendinnen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110769356X
Category: History
Page: 574
View: 9410

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In 1521, the city of Tenochtitlan, magnificent centre of the Aztec empire, fell to the Spaniards and their Indian allies. Inga Clendinnen's account of the Aztecs recreates the culture of that city in its last unthreatened years. It provides a vividly dramatic analysis of Aztec ceremony as performance art, binding the key experiences and concerns of social existence in the late imperial city to the mannered violence of their ritual killings.

The Aztecs


Author: Michael E. Smith
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118257197
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 984

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The Aztecs brings to life one of the best-known indigenous civilizations of the Americas in a vivid, comprehensive account of the ancient Aztecs. A thorough examination of Aztec origins and civilization including religion, science, and thought Incorporates the latest archaeological excavations and research into explanations of the Spanish conquest and the continuity of Aztec culture in Central Mexico Expanded coverage includes key topics such as writing, music, royal tombs, and Aztec predictions of the end of the world

Chocolate in Mesoamerica

A Cultural History of Cacao
Author: Cameron L. McNeil
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780813033822
Category: Cooking
Page: 542
View: 8635

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New models of research and analysis, as well as breakthroughs in deciphering Mesoamerican writing, have recently produced a watershed of information on the regional use and importance of cacao, or chocolate as it is commonly called today. McNeil brings together scholars in the fields of archaeology, history, art history, linguistics, epigraphy, botany, chemistry, and cultural anthropology to explore the domestication, preparation, representation, and significance of cacao in ancient and modern communities of the Americas, with a concentration on its use in Mesoamerica. Cacao was used by many cultures in the pre-Columbian Americas as an important part of rituals associated with birth, coming of age, marriage, and death, and was strongly linked with concepts of power and rulership. While Europeans have for hundreds of years claimed that they introduced "chocolate" as a sauce for foods, evidence from ancient royal tombs indicates cacao was used in a range of foods as well as beverages in ancient times. In addition, the volume's authors present information that supports a greater importance for cacao in pre-Columbian South America, where ancient vessels depicting cacao pods have recently been identified. From the botanical structure and chemical makeup of "Theobroma cacao" and methods of identifying it in the archaeological record, to the importance of cacao during the Classic period in Mesoamerica, to the impact of European arrival on the production and use of cacao, to contemporary uses in the Americas, this volume provides a richly informed account of the history and cultural significance of chocolate.

Discovering the Olmecs

An Unconventional History
Author: David C. Grove
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292768303
Category: Social Science
Page: 207
View: 4085

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The Olmecs are renowned for their massive carved stone heads and other sculptures, the first stone monuments produced in Mesoamerica. Seven decades of archaeological research have given us many insights into the lifeways of the Olmecs, who inhabited parts of the modern Mexican states of Veracruz and Tabasco from around 1150 to 400 BC, and there are several good books that summarize the current interpretations of Olmec prehistory. But these formal studies don't describe the field experiences of the archaeologists who made the discoveries. What was it like to endure the Olmec region's heat, humidity, mosquitoes, and ticks to bring that ancient society to light? How did unforeseen events and luck alter carefully planned research programs and the conclusions drawn from them? And, importantly, how did local communities and individuals react to the research projects and discoveries in their territories? In this engaging book, a leading expert on the Olmecs tells those stories from his own experiences and those of his predecessors, colleagues, and students. Beginning with the first modern explorations in the 1920s, David Grove recounts how generations of archaeologists and local residents have uncovered the Olmec past and pieced together a portrait of this ancient civilization that left no written records. The stories are full of fortuitous discoveries and frustrating disappointments, helpful collaborations and deceitful shenanigans. What emerges is an unconventional history of Olmec archaeology, a lively introduction to archaeological fieldwork, and an exceptional overview of all that we currently know about the Olmecs.