The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth

Dental Morphology and Its Variation in Recent Human Populations
Author: G. Richard Scott,Christy G. Turner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521784535
Category: Science
Page: 408
View: 7531

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A global study of dental variation offering insights into modern human origins.

The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth

Dental Morphology and Its Variation in Recent and Fossil Homo sapiens
Author: G. Richard Scott,Christy G. Turner II,Grant C. Townsend,María Martinón-Torres
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316805719
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 7597

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All humans share certain components of tooth structure, but show variation in size and morphology around this shared pattern. This book presents a worldwide synthesis of the global variation in tooth morphology in recent populations. Research has advanced on many fronts since the publication of the first edition, which has become a seminal work on the subject. This revised and updated edition introduces new ideas in dental genetics and ontogeny and summarizes major historical problems addressed by dental morphology. The detailed descriptions of 29 dental variables are fully updated with current data and include details of a new web-based application for using crown and root morphology to evaluate ancestry in forensic cases. A new chapter describes what constitutes a modern human dentition in the context of the hominin fossil record.

Human Tooth Crown and Root Morphology


Author: G. Richard Scott,Joel D. Irish
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107480736
Category: Science
Page: 344
View: 4132

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This guide to scoring crown and root traits in human dentitions substantially builds on a seminal 1991 work by Turner, Nichol, and Scott. It provides detailed descriptions and multiple illustrations of each crown and root trait to help guide researchers to make consistent observations on trait expression, greatly reducing observer error. The book also reflects exciting new developments driven by technology that have significant ramifications for dental anthropology, particularly the recent development of a web-based application that computes the probability that an individual belongs to a particular genogeographic grouping based on combinations of crown and root traits; as such, the utility of these variables is expanded to forensic anthropology. This book is ideal for researchers and graduate students in the fields of dental, physical, and forensic anthropology and will serve as a methodological guide for many years to come.

Measuring Stress in Humans

A Practical Guide for the Field
Author: Gillian H. Ice,Gary D. James
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139459848
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 7040

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The purpose of this 2006 book is to present non-invasive methods of measuring the biological responses to psychosocial stress in humans, in non-laboratory (field) settings. Following the pathways of Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome, the text first describes how to assess the psychosocial stressors of everyday life and then outlines how to measure the psychological, behavioral, neurohumeral, physiological and immunological responses to them. The book concludes with practical information on assessing special populations, analyzing the often-complicated data that are collected in field stress studies and the ethical treatment of human subjects in stress studies. It is intended to be a practical guide for developing and conducting psychophysiological stress research in human biology. This book will assist students and professionals in designing field studies of stress.

Bioarchaeology


Author: Clark Spencer Larsen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052183869X
Category: History
Page: 656
View: 343

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A synthetic treatment of the study of human remains from archaeological contexts for current and future generations of bioarchaeologists.

Anthropological Perspectives on Tooth Morphology

Genetics, Evolution, Variation
Author: G. Richard Scott,Joel D. Irish
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139619500
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 1073

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Researchers have long had an interest in dental morphology as a genetic proxy to reconstruct population history. Much interest was fostered by the use of standard plaques and associated descriptions that comprise the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System, developed by Christy G. Turner, II and students. This system has served as the foundation for hundreds of anthropological studies for over 30 years. In recognition of that success, this volume brings together some of the world's leading dental morphologists to expand upon the concepts and methods presented in the popular The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth (Cambridge, 1997), leading the reader from method to applied research. After a preparatory section on the current knowledge of heritability and gene expression, a series of case studies demonstrate the utility of dental morphological study in both fossil and more recent populations (and individuals), from local to global scales.

Dental Morphology for Anthropology

An Illustrated Manual
Author: Heather J. H. Edgar
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1315300826
Category: Social Science
Page: 202
View: 1879

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This work provides a new, comprehensive update to the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). Drawing upon her extensive experience in informatics, curating data, and dental morphological data acquisition, Edgar has developed accessible and user-friendly standardized images and descriptions of dental morphological variants. The manual provides nearly 400 illustrations that indicate ideal expressions of each dental trait. These drawings are coupled with over 650 photographs of real teeth, indicating real-world examples of each expression. Additionally, trait descriptions have been written to be clear, comparative, and easy to apply. Together, the images and descriptions are presented in a standardized form for quick and clear reference. All of these modifications to ASUDAS make it more usable for students and professionals alike. In addition to these features of the manual, the text makes a brief but strong argument for why dental morphology will continue to be a useful tool in biological anthropology through the 21st century.

Technique and Application in Dental Anthropology


Author: Joel D. Irish,Greg C. Nelson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139468111
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 6883

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Bringing together a variety of accomplished dental researchers, this book covers a range of topics germane to the study of human and other primate teeth. The chapters encompass work on individuals to samples, ranging from prehistoric to modern times. The focus throughout the book is the methodology required for the study of modern dental anthropology, comprising the scientific methods in use today - ranging from simple observation to advanced computer-based analyses - which can be utilized by the reader in their own dental research. Originating from the 20th anniversary meeting of the Dental Anthropology Association, this is a valuable reference source for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals in the social and life sciences, as well as clinicians.

What Teeth Reveal about Human Evolution


Author: Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107082102
Category: Nature
Page: 275
View: 2505

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Explores the insights that fossil hominin teeth provide about human evolution, linking findings with current debates in palaeoanthropology.

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology


Author: Dennis Dirkmaat
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118255410
Category: Social Science
Page: 752
View: 6186

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A Companion to Forensic Anthropology presents the most comprehensive assessment of the philosophy, goals, and practice of forensic anthropology currently available, with chapters by renowned international scholars and experts. Highlights the latest advances in forensic anthropology research, as well as the most effective practices and techniques used by professional forensic anthropologists in the field Illustrates the development of skeletal biological profiles and offers important new evidence on statistical validation of these analytical methods. Evaluates the goals and methods of forensic archaeology, including the preservation of context at surface-scattered remains, buried bodies and fatal fire scenes, and recovery and identification issues related to large-scale mass disaster scenes and mass grave excavation.

Social Bioarchaeology


Author: Sabrina C. Agarwal,Bonnie A. Glencross
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444390520
Category: Social Science
Page: 496
View: 4614

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Illustrates new methodological directions in analyzing human social and biological variation Offers a wide array of research on past populations around the globe Explains the central features of bioarchaeological research by key researchers and established experts around the world

A Companion to Dental Anthropology


Author: Joel D. Irish,G. Richard Scott
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118845439
Category: Nature
Page: 560
View: 9578

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Companion to Dental Anthropology presents a collection of original readings addressing all aspects and sub-disciplines of the field of dental anthropology—from its origins and evolution through to the latest scientific research. Represents the most comprehensive coverage of all sub-disciplines of dental anthropology available today Features individual chapters written by experts in their specific area of dental research Includes authors who also present results from their research through case studies or voiced opinions about their work Offers extensive coverage of topics relating to dental evolution, morphometric variation, and pathology

Dental Functional Morphology

How Teeth Work
Author: Peter W. Lucas
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521562362
Category: Medical
Page: 355
View: 7954

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Dental Functional Morphology offers an alternative to the received wisdom that teeth merely crush, cut, shear or grind food and shows how teeth adapt to diet. Providing an analysis of tooth action based on an understanding of how food particles break, it shows how tooth form from the earliest mammals to modern-day humans can be understood using very basic considerations about fracture. It outlines the theoretical basis step by step, explaining the factors governing tooth shape and size and provides an allometric analysis that will revolutionize attitudes to the evolution of the human face and the impact of cooked foods on our dentition. In addition, the basis of the mechanics behind the fracture of different types of food, and methods of measurement are given in an easy-to-use appendix. It will be an important sourcebook for physical anthropologists, dental and food scientists, palaeontologists and those interested in feeding ecology.

The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia

Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics
Author: Michael D. Petraglia,Bridget Allchin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402055621
Category: Social Science
Page: 465
View: 8872

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This is the first volume of its kind on prehistoric cultures of South Asia. The book brings together archaeologists, biological anthropologists, geneticists and linguists in order to provide a comprehensive account of the history and evolution of human populations residing in the subcontinent. New theories and methodologies presented provide new interpretations about the cultural history and evolution of populations in South Asia.

Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine


Author: Jason Payne-James
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780125479707
Category: Law
Page: 2000
View: 2022

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Increasingly, high profile criminal and civil legal actions around the world highlight the interactions between medicine and the law. Forensic and legal medicine describes the body of knowledge that encompasses this interaction. The terms generally embrace forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine. However, the nature of forensic and legal medicine is broad and may extend beyond medical and legal issues, into scientific and technical areas, and include specialist roles such as anthropology, toxicology, odontology and psychiatry. Separate from these issues is the much more widely recognized need to apply moral, ethical and human rights principles in the investigation of certain crimes, whether considering victims or perpetrators. Those involved in the practice of forensic and legal medicine and those in legal, judicial, police and other investigative organizations which require knowledge of aspects of forensic and legal medicine often need to identify appropriate and relevant information. The aim of this Encyclopedia is to provide a reliable starting point for validated information across these fields. The success of lawsuits and prosecutions is dependent on utilizing the best services available, and knowing when to use them appropriately. All aspects of medicine are now scrutinized, not only by medical, legal and scientific professionals - but also by the lay public. Such scrutiny drives and improves standards - and some of these standards have come about as a result of major cases in criminal and civil courts and other tribunals around the world. The drive for much of this scrutiny derives from the intense review that occurs as a result of events taking place throughout the world in criminal and civil courts. Thus, improved methodology of detecting and documenting evidence, ensuring chains of custody and scientifically testing evidence ensures that appropriate judicial outcomes are achieved. Teaching of forensic and legal medicine at an undergraduate level is - on a worldwide basis - underemphasized when compared with therapeutic specialities. Paradoxically, barely a day goes by without at least one medical news story being published of legal and forensic relevance and significance. The need for readily accessible knowledge has never been greater. The Encyclopedia of Forensic & Legal Medicine comprehensively covers forensic and legal medicine (including related specialities and scientific, technical and legal issues) and is available online and in three printed volumes, offering any practitioner in a forensic, medical, healthcare, legal, judicial, or investigative field easily accessible and authoritative overviews on a wide range of topics. The work is edited and written by experienced professionals with medical, legal or dual training - and who are internationally renowned for their experience or expertise within their areas of specialty. The Editorial Board reflects the multidisciplinary, multi-jurisdictional and global emphasis of forensic and legal medicine. The individual articles are written in a clear and concise manner and are supplemented by diagrams, tables and full-color images. Key further reading and extensive cross-referencing make this work an invaluable reference source for undergraduates and graduates looking for an introduction to key fields and experts reading outside their specialization. Online access to the Encyclopedia is available on ScienceDirect. The online version will offer all that the print version does plus smooth linking, eg, to cross-referenced articles, powerful search functions, and more. Visit www.info.sciencedirect.com/reference_works/index.shtml for contact and subscription information. Access options are available even if you're not an existing ScienceDirect customer. * Brings together all appropriate aspects of forensic medicine and legal medicine * Contains color figures, sample forms and other materials that the reader can adapt for their own practice * Also avaiable in an on-line version which provides numerous additional reference and research tools, additional multimedia, & powerful search functions

Human Paleobiology


Author: Robert B. Eckhardt
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139427081
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 563

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Human Paleobiology provides a unifying framework for the study of human populations, both past and present, to a range of changing environments. It integrates evidence from studies of human adaptability, comparative primatology, and molecular genetics to document consistent measures of genetic distance between subspecies, species and other taxonomic groupings. These findings support the interpretation of the biology of humans in terms of a smaller number of populations characterised by higher levels of genetic continuity than previously hypothesised. Using this as a basis, Robert Eckhardt then goes on to analyse problems in human paleobiology including phenotypic differentiation, patterns of species range expansion and phyletic succession in terms of the patterns and processes still observable in extant populations. This book will be a challenging and stimulating read for students and researchers interested in human paleobiology or evolutionary anthropology.

Current research in Egyptology, 2000


Author: Angela McDonald,Christina Riggs
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 143
View: 1065

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A collection of 17 papers by graduate students, taken from a symposium held at Oxford in 2000, presenting new and on-going research on a variety of aspects of Egytptian society, art, culture and history. Subjects include: royal sculpture, women's public health, dental health, transportation of quarried stone, tomb construction, Byzantine Egypt, and much more.