Terrorism As Crime

From Oklahoma City to Al-Qaeda and Beyond
Author: Mark S. Hamm
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814737453
Category: Social Science
Page: 271
View: 2412

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Car bombing, suicide bombing, abduction, smuggling, homicide, and hijacking are all profoundly criminal acts. In Terrorism as Crime Mark S. Hamm presents an understanding of terrorism from a criminological point of view, arguing that the most successful way to understand, detect, prosecute and deter these acts is to use conventional criminal investigation methods. Whether in Oklahoma City or London, Terrorism as Crime demonstrates that criminal activity is the lifeblood of terrorist groups and that there are simple common denominators at work that can remove the mystery surrounding many of these terrorist groups. Once understood the vulnerabilities of these organizations can be exposed. This important volume focuses in on six case studies of crimes committed by jihad and domestic right wing groups, including biographies of more than two dozen terrorists along with descriptions of their organizations, strategies, and terrorist plots. Terrorism as Crime offers an original and significant framework for explaining international and domestic terrorism, as well as how future acts might be detected or exposed.

The Spectacular Few

Prisoner Radicalization and the Evolving Terrorist Threat
Author: Mark S. Hamm
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814723969
Category: Social Science
Page: 237
View: 5704

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“Mark Hamm is, without doubt, the world’s leading expert on prison radicalization. Based on decades of research, this book presents a nuanced and sophisticated picture,. Beautifully written, it is the most complete, and the most empirically rigorous, account of this phenomenon to date. A must read for anyone interested in homegrown radicalization.” —Peter Neumann, Director of the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation (ICSR), King’s College London The Madrid train bombers, shoe-bomber Richard Reid, al-Qaeda in Iraq, and the 9/11 attacks—all were led by men radicalized behind bars. Today’s prisons are hotbeds for personal transformation toward terrorist beliefs and actions due to the increasingly chaotic nature of prison life caused by mass incarceration. In The Spectacular Few, Mark Hamm, a former prison warden, demonstrates how prisoners use criminal cunning, collective resistance and nihilism to incite terrorism. Drawing from a wide range of sources, The Spectacular Few imagines the texture of prisoners’ lives. Hamm covers their criminal thinking styles, the social networks that influenced them, and personal “turning points” that set them on the pathway to violent extremism. Hamm argues that in order to understand terrorism today, we must come to terms with how prisoners are treated behind bars. Mark S. Hamm is a former prison warden from Arizona and currently Professor of Criminology at Indiana State University and a Senior Research Fellow at the Terrorism Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, The City University of New York. His books include Terrorism as Crime: From Oklahoma City to Al-Qaeda and Beyond (NYU Press, 2007). Alternative Criminology series

Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups

Theory, Research, and Prevention
Author: Mark S. Hamm
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437929591
Category:
Page: 245
View: 2224

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This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Examines terrorists¿ involvement in a variety of crimes ranging from motor vehicle violations, immigration fraud, and mfg. illegal firearms to counterfeiting, armed bank robbery, and smuggling weapons of mass destruction. There are 3 parts: (1) Compares the criminality of internat. jihad groups with domestic right-wing groups. (2) Six case studies of crimes includes trial transcripts, official reports, previous scholarship, and interviews with law enforce. officials and former terrorists are used to explore skills that made crimes possible; or events and lack of skill that the prevented crimes. Includes brief bio. of the terrorists along with descriptions of their org., strategies, and plots. (3) Analysis of the themes in closing arguments of the transcripts in Part 2. Illus.

Comic Book Crime

Truth, Justice, and the American Way
Author: Nickie D. Phillips,Staci Strobl
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814767885
Category: Social Science
Page: 289
View: 6785

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Superman, Batman, Daredevil, and Wonder Woman are iconic cultural figures that embody values of order, fairness, justice, and retribution. Comic Book Crime digs deep into these and other celebrated characters, providing a comprehensive understanding of crime and justice in contemporary American comic books. This is a world where justice is delivered, where heroes save ordinary citizens from certain doom, where evil is easily identified and thwarted by powers far greater than mere mortals could possess. Nickie Phillips and Staci Strobl explore these representations and show that comic books, as a historically important American cultural medium, participate in both reflecting and shaping an American ideological identity that is often focused on ideas of the apocalypse, utopia, retribution, and nationalism. Through an analysis of approximately 200 comic books sold from 2002 to 2010, as well as several years of immersion in comic book fan culture, Phillips and Strobl reveal the kinds of themes and plots popular comics feature in a post-9/11 context. They discuss heroes’ calculations of “deathworthiness,” or who should be killed in meting out justice, and how these judgments have as much to do with the hero’s character as they do with the actions of the villains. This fascinating volume also analyzes how class, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation are used to construct difference for both the heroes and the villains in ways that are both conservative and progressive. Engaging, sharp, and insightful, Comic Book Crime is a fresh take on the very meaning of truth, justice, and the American way.

Banished to the Homeland

Dominican Deportees and Their Stories of Exile
Author: David C. Brotherton,Luis Barrios
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231520328
Category: Law
Page: 320
View: 3418

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The 1996 U.S. Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act has led to the forcible deportation of tens of thousands of Dominicans from the United States. Following thousands of these individuals over a seven-year period, David C. Brotherton and Luis Barrios use a unique combination of sociological and criminological reasoning to isolate the forces that motivate emigrants to leave their homeland and then commit crimes in the Unites States violating the very terms of their stay. Housed in urban landscapes rife with gangs, drugs, and tenuous working conditions, these individuals, the authors find, repeatedly play out a tragic scenario, influenced by long-standing historical injustices, punitive politics, and increasingly conservative attitudes undermining basic human rights and freedoms. Brotherton and Barrios conclude that a simultaneous process of cultural inclusion and socioeconomic exclusion best explains the trajectory of emigration, settlement, and rejection, and they mark in the behavior of deportees the contradictory effects of dependency and colonialism: the seductive draw of capitalism typified by the American dream versus the material needs of immigrant life; the interests of an elite security state versus the desires of immigrant workers and families to succeed; and the ambitions of the Latino community versus the political realities of those designing crime and immigration laws, which disadvantage poor and vulnerable populations. Filled with riveting life stories and uncommon ethnographic research, this volume relates the modern deportee's journey to broader theoretical studies in transnationalism, assimilation, and social control.

The Culture of Punishment

Prison, Society, and Spectacle
Author: Michelle Brown
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814799994
Category: Social Science
Page: 251
View: 5393

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Analyzes social aspects of prison, covering various theories about the role and function of punishment in society in the United States, including how the culture of imprisonment carries over into everyday life through television shows, movies, prison tourism, and other avenues, and examines the negative impact of penal spectatorship.

The Promise

The Families of Sandy Hook and the Long Road to Gun Safety
Author: Matt Bennett
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815725876
Category: Political Science
Page: 26
View: 6772

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Bennett chronicles the attempts of the families with children who were shot at Sandy Hook Elementary to change gun laws and explains why it is so difficult to pass effective legislation to limit gun sales. THE BROOKINGS ESSAY: In the spirit of its commitment to high-quality, independent research, the Brookings Institution has commissioned works on major topics of public policy by distinguished authors, including Brookings scholars. The Brookings Essay is a multi-platform product aimed to engage readers in open dialogue and debate. The views expressed, however, are solely those of the author. Available in ebook only.

In Bad Company

America's Terrorist Underground
Author: Mark S. Hamm
Publisher: UPNE
ISBN: 9781555534929
Category: Political Science
Page: 336
View: 5542

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Discusses the impact and ideology of the underground radical right movement in the United States through an examination of one of its most powerful and influencial groups, the Aryan Republican Army.

The Al-Qaeda Organization and the Islamic State Organization

History, Doctrine, Modus Operandi, and U.S. Policy to Degrade and Defeat Terrorism Conducted in the Name of Sunni Islam
Author: Paul Kamolnick
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781387581122
Category: Reference
Page: 362
View: 8566

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"The al-Qaeda Organization (AQO) and the Islamic State Organization (ISO) are transnational adversaries that conduct terrorism in the name of Sunni Islam. It is declared U.S. Government (USG) policy to degrade, defeat, and destroy them. The present book has been written to assist policymakers, military planners, strategists, and professional military educators whose mission demands a deep understanding of strategically-relevant differences between these two transnational terrorist entities. In it, one shall find a careful comparative analysis across three key strategically relevant dimensions: essential doctrine, beliefs, and worldview; strategic concept, including terrorist modus operandi; and specific implications and recommendations for current USG policy and strategy. Key questions that are addressed include: How is each terrorist entity related historically and doctrinally to the broader phenomenon of transnational Sunni 'jihadism'? What is the exact nature of the ISO? How, if at all, does ISO differ in strategically relevant ways from AQO? What doctrinal differences essentially define these entities? How does each understand and operationalize strategy? What critical requirements and vulnerabilities characterize each entity? Finally, what implications, recommendations, and proposals are advanced that are of particular interest to USG strategists and professional military educators?"--Publisher's web site.

Understanding and Influencing Public Support for Insurgency and Terrorism


Author: Paul K. Davis,Eric V. Larson,Zachary Haldeman,Mustafa Oguz,Yashodhara Rana
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 9780833058775
Category: Political Science
Page: 270
View: 1548

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Using and testing a conceptual model that draws on social science and particularly social movement theory, this volume examines public support for al-Qa'ida's transnational jihadist movement, the Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan, the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in Turkey, and the Maoist insurgency in Nepal. The authors discuss which factors were most salient across cases, how their importance varied in each case, and how this understanding can inform strategy.

Graffiti Lives

Beyond the Tag in New York's Urban Underground
Author: Gregory J. Snyder
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814740456
Category: Social Science
Page: 241
View: 450

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Surveys New York's current graffiti scene, with artist profiles, a historical overview, and discussions about the myths associated with the art form, concerns about its appearance in public spaces, and career possibilities beyond the streets.

Radicalization, Terrorism, and Conflict


Author: Tali Walters,Rachel Monaghan
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 144385090X
Category: Law
Page: 335
View: 4529

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Radicalization, Terrorism, and Conflict is a collection of scholarly works, authored by international researchers and leading thinkers, addressing contemporary, history-making issues in international security and terrorism from an interdisciplinary perspective. Contributors to this edited volume represent global perspectives, ideas, analysis, and research. Radicalization, Terrorism, and Conflict transmits relevant findings, theory, and policy ideas for scholars of security and terrorism studies, for policy makers, and to the general public who are interested in keeping up with this global area of concern. It provides a jumping-off point for conversation and collaboration that can lead to new knowledge and broader understanding. As an interdisciplinary collection of manuscripts, this book integrates and synthesizes theory, research, and public policy analysis in an effort to solve the complex questions and problems presented by this topic. Recognition of the need to approach the problems of radicalization, terrorism, and interpersonal conflict from an interdisciplinary perspective is gaining strength within academic settings, policy institutes, and global conferences. Unlike most recent edited books on the subject that are on the market at this time, Radicalization, Terrorism, and Conflict provides an interdisciplinary approach to understanding related current issues. This approach encourages a broader perspective and thought process, trans-discipline and global collaboration and cooperation, and an integrated synthesis of knowledge. Radicalization, Terrorism, and Conflict opens with an analysis of the ongoing phenomenon of the Arab Spring. In Section 1, contributors look at how players in the theatres of local and international terror become radicalized. Section 2 analyzes how terrorism becomes manifest in the global theatre and how governments and their actors attempt to prevent it. Section 3 presents research to bring understanding to the actors’ behavior and provide settings for future collaboration in understanding these phenomena.

Criminology Theory and Terrorism

New Applications and Approaches
Author: Joshua D. Freilich,Gary LaFree
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317512014
Category: Social Science
Page: 214
View: 5836

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Although there has been an increase in research on terrorism across the social and behavioural sciences in the past few decades, until recently most of this work has originated from political science, psychology or economics. Therefore, our focus in this book on criminological conceptual frameworks and empirical studies that engage terrorism and responses to it is unique. We include a distinguished group of researchers that offer their distinctive insights into criminological perspectives on terrorism. The contributors focus on criminological perspectives that have rarely, if ever, been previously applied to the study of terrorism. This includes a range of perspectives from rational choice to social disorganization; from strain to routine activities theory. This volume will advance understanding of terrorism by taking advantage of criminological contributions, and at the same time will serve as a useful update to the criminologists and their students already working in this area. It would also be a helpful introduction to those criminologists and their students who would like to be more engaged in this important area of research. This book was originally published as a special issue of Terrorism and Political Violence.

The Domestic Terrorist Threat

Background and Issues for Congress
Author: Jerome Bjelopera
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781503020924
Category:
Page: 70
View: 6612

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The emphasis of counterterrorism policy in the United States since Al Qaeda's attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) has been on jihadist terrorism. However, in the last decade, domestic terrorists-people who commit crimes within the homeland and draw inspiration from U.S.-based extremist ideologies and movements-have killed American citizens and damaged property across the country. Not all of these criminals have been prosecuted under terrorism statutes. This latter point is not meant to imply that domestic terrorists should be taken any less seriously than other terrorists.

The Age of Lone Wolf Terrorism


Author: Mark S. Hamm,Ramón Spaaij
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231543778
Category: Political Science
Page: 304
View: 1166

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The lethality of lone-wolf terrorism has reached an all-time high in the United States. Isolated individuals using firearms with high-capacity magazines are committing brutally efficient killings with the aim of terrorizing others, yet there is little consensus on what connects these crimes and the motivations behind them. In The Age of Lone Wolf Terrorism, terrorism experts Mark S. Hamm and Ramón Spaaij combine criminological theory with empirical and ethnographic research to map the pathways of lone-wolf radicalization, helping with the identification of suspected behaviors and recognizing patterns of indoctrination. Reviewing comprehensive data on these actors, including more than two hundred terrorist incidents, Hamm and Spaaij find that a combination of personal and political grievances lead lone wolves to befriend online sympathizers—whether jihadists, white supremacists, or other antigovernment extremists—and then announce their intent to commit terror when triggered. Hamm and Spaaij carefully distinguish between lone wolves and individuals radicalized within a group dynamic. This important difference is what makes this book such a significant manual for professionals seeking richer insight into the transformation of alienated individuals into armed warriors. Hamm and Spaaij conclude with an analysis of recent FBI sting operations designed to prevent lone-wolf terrorism in the United States, describing who gets targeted, strategies for luring suspects, and the ethics of arresting and prosecuting citizens.

Power, Politics And Crime


Author: William J Chambliss
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429977719
Category: Social Science
Page: 208
View: 789

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In the United States today, we are on the verge of fulfilling a nightmare scenario. Parents are fearful of letting their children play in their own yards and elderly people are afraid to leave their homes. The bogeyman in this rampant panic about crime is the young black male, who, in the media and public image, is a ?superpredator? lurking on every street corner ready to attack any prey that is vulnerable. But is crime in America really as bad as the public has been made to believe?Power, Politics, and Crime argues that the current panic over crime has been manufactured by the media, law enforcement bureaucracies, and the private prison industry. It shows how the definition of criminal behavior systematically singles out the inner-city African American. But urban minorities aren't the only victims. Although crime rates have been declining for 25 years, vast amounts of money pour into the criminal justice-industrial complex, diverting scarce resources from other social services such as education, social welfare, and health care. While in recent years downsizing has affected almost every segment of the public sector, the criminal justice bureaucracies have seen an unprecedented expansion.Through ethnographic observations, analysis of census data, and historical research, William Chambliss describes what is happening, why it has come about, and what can be done about it. He explores the genesis of crime as a political issue, and the effect that crime policies have had on different segments of the population. The book is more than a statement about the politics of crime and punishment?it's a powerful indictment of contemporary law enforcement practices in the United States.In addition to updating the data the author has added a discussion of the "declining crime rate." Contrary to presentations in the media and by law enforcement agencies, the rate has been declining for over 25 years and therefore cannot be attributed to any "get tough on crime" policies so dear to the hearts of prosecutors and politicians. Chapter Seven, "Crime Myths and Smokescreens" has been completely revised and updated. Updates include a discussion of the recent scandal in the Los Angeles Police Department which has resulted in criminal charges against police officers and the release of numerous convicted felons because of falsified evidence and testimony on the part of police officers. The attack on Louima in the police station in New York as well as the shooting of Diallo are discussed in some detail as well as other recent exposures of police brutality and corruption. The sections on white collar, corporate, and state crimes have been updated and recent examples added to the text.

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat


Author: N.A
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437940234
Category:
Page: 141
View: 3072

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From May 2009 through October 2011, arrests were made for 32 "homegrown," jihadist-inspired terrorist plots by American citizens or legal permanent residents of the United States. Two of these resulted in attacks--U.S. Army Major Nidal Hasan's alleged assault at Fort Hood in Texas and Abdulhakim Muhammed's shooting at the U.S. Army-Navy Career Center in Little Rock, AR--and produced 14 deaths. By comparison, in more than seven years from the September 11, 2001, terrorist strikes (9/11) through April 2009, there were 21 such plots. Two resulted in attacks, and no more than six plots occurred in a single year (2006). The apparent spike in such activity from May 2009 to October 2011 suggests that at least some Americans--even if a tiny minority--continue to be susceptible to ideologies supporting a violent form of jihad. This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The term "jihadist" describes radicalized individuals using Islam as an ideological and/or religious justification for their belief in the establishment of a global caliphate, or jurisdiction governed by a Muslim civil and religious leader known as a caliph. The term "violent jihadist" characterizes jihadists who have made the jump to illegally supporting, plotting, or directly engaging in violent terrorist activity. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities. Appendix A provides details about each of the post-9/11 homegrown jihadist terrorist plots and attacks. Finally, the report offers policy considerations for Congress.

The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research


Author: Alex P. Schmid
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1136810404
Category: Political Science
Page: 736
View: 4919

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This major new Handbook synthesises more than two decades of scholarly research, and provides a comprehensive overview of the field of terrorism studies. The content of the Handbook is based on the responses to a questionnaire by nearly 100 experts from more than 20 countries as well as the specific expertise and experience of the volume editor and the various contributors. Together, they guide the reader through the voluminous literature on terrorism, and propose a new consensus definition of terrorism, based on an extensive review of existing conceptualisations. The work also features a large collection of typologies and surveys a wide range of theories of terrorism. Additional chapters survey terrorist databases and provide a guide to available resources on terrorism in libraries and on the Internet. It also includes the most comprehensive World Directory of Extremist, Terrorist and other Organizations associated with Guerrilla Warfare, Political Violence, Protest and Organized- and Cyber-Crime. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research will be an essential work of reference for students and researchers of terrorism and political violence, security studies, criminology, political science and international relations, and of great interest to policymakers and professionals in the field of counter-terrorism.

Ethnography at the Edge

Crime, Deviance, and Field Research
Author: Jeff Ferrell
Publisher: UPNE
ISBN: 9781555533403
Category: Social Science
Page: 309
View: 4053

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Pioneering criminologists and sociologists vividly recount the personal and professional tribulations of conducting field research with deviant and criminal subcultures.

Building a Global Terrorism Database


Author: Gary LaFree
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437929362
Category:
Page: 209
View: 5028

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This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Report of a project to code and verify a previously unavailable data set composed of 67,165 terrorist events recorded for the entire world from 1970 to 1997. This unique database was originally collected by the PGIS Corp. Global Intell. Service (PGIS). This database documents every known terrorist event across countries and time including different types of terrorist events by specific date and geographical region. It is the most comprehensive open source data set on terrorism that has ever been available to researchers. PGIS employees identified and coded terrorism incidents from a variety of sources, including wire services, U.S. State Dept. reports, other U.S. and foreign gov¿t. reports, U.S. and foreign newspapers, etc.