Structures Of Thinking


Author: Karl Mannheim
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113617835X
Category: Social Science
Page: 298
View: 1927

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First published in 1982. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

The Structure of Thinking

A Process-Oriented Account of Mind
Author: Laura E. Wood
Publisher: Andrews UK Limited
ISBN: 1845405862
Category: Philosophy
Page: 293
View: 4494

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Analytic philosophers and cognitive scientists have long argued that the mind is a computer-like syntactical engine, and that all human mental capacities can be described as digital computational processes. This book presents an alternative, naturalistic view of human thinking, arguing that computers are merely sophisticated machines. Computers are only simulating thought when they crunch symbols, not thinking. Human cognition - semantics, de re reference, indexicals, meaning and causation - are all rooted in human experience and life. Without life and experience, these elements of discourse and knowledge refer to nothing. And without these elements of discourse and knowledge, syntax is vacant structure, not thinking.

Towards a Theory of Thinking

Building Blocks for a Conceptual Framework
Author: Britt Glatzeder,Vinod Goel,Albrecht Müller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642031298
Category: Psychology
Page: 380
View: 6671

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What is Thinking? – Trying to Define an Equally Fascinating and Elusive Phenomenon Human thinking is probably the most complex phenomenon that evolution has come up with until now. There exists a broad spectrum of definitions, from subs- ing almost all processes of cognition to limiting it to language-based, sometimes even only to formalizable reasoning processes. We work with a “medium sized” definition according to which thinking encompasses all operations by which cog- tive agents link mental content in order to gain new insights or perspectives. Mental content is, thus, a prerequisite for and the substrate on which thinking operations are executed. The largely unconscious acts of perceptual object stabilization, ca- gorization, emotional evaluation – and retrieving all the above from memory inscriptions – are the processes by which mental content is generated, and are, therefore, seen as prerequisites for thinking operations. In terms of a differentia specifica, the notion of “thinking” is seen as narrower than the notion of “cognition” and as wider than the notion of “reasoning”. Thinking is, thus, seen as a subset of cognition processes; and reasoning processes are seen as a subset of thinking. Besides reasoning, the notion of thinking includes also nonexplicit, intuitive, and associative processes of linking mental content. According to this definition, thinking is not dependant on language, i. e. also many animals and certainly all mammals show early forms of thinking.

Reconstruction of Thinking

Self Development in Zen, Swordsmanship, and Psychotherapy
Author: Robert C. Neville
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780873954952
Category: Philosophy
Page: 350
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The Renaissance development of science fulfilled the ancient ideal of integrating quantitative and qualitative thinking, but failed to recognize valuational thinking and thus deprived moral, aesthetic, and political thought of cognitive status. The task of this book is to reconstruct the concept of thinking in order to exhibit valuation, not reason, as the foundation for thinking and to integrate valuational with quantitative and qualitative modes. Part I explains the broad thesis, interpreting the problem of the foundations for thinking and providing a general theory of value. Part II explains the role of valuation at the imaginative level of thinking with discussions of synthesis, perception, form, and art. The method of reconstruction requires a cosmology that is generated in successive waves.

Epistemology and Psychology of Functions


Author: J. Piaget,J.B. Grize,A. Szeminska,V. Bang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401093210
Category: Science
Page: 219
View: 702

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Years ago, prompted by Grize, Apostel and Papert, we undertook the study of functions, but until now we did not properly understand the relations between functions and operations, and their increasing interactions at the level of 'constituted functions'. By contrast, certain recent studies on 'constitutive functions', or preoperatory functional schemes, have convinced us of the existence of a sort of logic of functions (springing from the schemes of actions) which is prior to the logic of operations (drawn from the general and reversible coordinations between actions). This preoperatory 'logic' accounts for the very general, and until now unexplained, primacy of order relations between 4 and 7 years of age, which is natural since functions are ordered dependences and result from oriented 'applications'. And while this 'logic' ends up in a positive manner in formalizable structures, it has gaps or limitations. Psychologically, we are interested in understanding the system atic errors due to this primacy of order, such ·as the undifferentiation of 'longer' and 'farther', or the non-conservations caused by ordinal estimations (of levels, etc. ), as opposed to extensive or metric evaluations. In a sense which is psychologically very real, this preoperatory logic of constitutive functions represents only the first half of operatory logic, if this can be said, and it is reversibility which allows the construction of the other half by completing the initial one-way structures.

Abstraction and Representation

Essays on the Cultural Evolution of Thinking
Author: Peter Damerow
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792338161
Category: History
Page: 418
View: 8664

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This book deals with the development of thinking under different cultural conditions, focusing on the evolution of mathematical thinking in the history of science and education. Starting from Piaget's genetic epistemology, it provides a conceptual framework for describing and explaining the development of cognition by reflective abstractions from systems of actions.

Architecture of Thought


Author: Andrzej Piotrowski
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 0816673047
Category: Architecture
Page: 322
View: 984

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An innovative examination of how material practices and constructed environments have shaped cultures.

Psychology of Media in Europe

The State of the Art — Perspectives for the Future
Author: Peter Winterhoff-Spurk
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3322942511
Category: Social Science
Page: 211
View: 5605

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Die europäische Medienlandschaft ändert sich gegenwärtig durch die Verfügbarkeit neuer Technologien und durch veränderte politische Rahmenbedingungen - wie z. B. die Zulassung privatwirtschaftlicher Sender - in einem schnellen Tempo, das durch die bevorstehende europäische Einigung noch zusätzlich forciert wird. Damit kommen auf die Medienwissenschaft wie auch auf die Medienpsychologie neue Fragestellungen und Anforderungen zu, die von Medienforschern und -praktikern aus zehn europäischen Ländern in diesem in englischer Sprache verfaßten Band aufgezeigt und erörtert werden.

The Development of Thinking and Reasoning


Author: Pierre Barrouillet,Caroline Gauffroy
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135083959
Category: Psychology
Page: 264
View: 5891

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Thinking and reasoning are key activities for human beings. In this book a distinguished set of contributors provides a wide readership with up-to-date scientific advances in the developmental psychology of thinking and reasoning, both at the theoretical and empirical levels. The first part of the book illustrates how modern approaches to the study of thinking and reasoning have gone beyond the Piagetian legacy: through the investigation of avenues previously not explored, and by demonstrating that young children have higher capacities than was assumed within the Piagetian tradition. The second part focuses upon theoretical and empirical investigations of the interplay between logic and intuition in reasoning and decision making, and how these forms of thinking evolve with age, through the general framework of what is known as dual-process theories. Contrary to Piaget’s claim, it becomes apparent that elaborate adult reasoning could rely on some form of intuition. The Development of Thinking and Reasoning provides psychologists, educators and everyone interested in child development with an integrated and up-to-date series of chapters, written by prominent specialists in the areas of thinking, reasoning, and decision making.

The Story of Analytic Philosophy

Plot and Heroes
Author: Anat Biletzki,Anat Matar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134716141
Category: Philosophy
Page: 296
View: 2968

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This unique collection looks at analytic philosophy in its historical context. Prominent philosophers discuss key figures, including Russell and Wittgenstein, methods and results in analytic philosophy to present its story. This volume assesses the challenge posed by changing cultural and philosophical trends and movements.

The Structure of Objects


Author: Kathrin Koslicki
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199539898
Category: Philosophy
Page: 288
View: 541

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The objects we encounter in ordinary life and scientific practice - cars, trees, people, houses, molecules, galaxies, and the like - have long been a fruitful source of perplexity for metaphysicians. The Structure of Objects gives an original analysis of those material objects to which we take ourselves to be committed in our ordinary, scientifically informed discourse. Koslicki focuses on material objects in particular, or, as metaphysicians like to call them "concrete particulars", i.e., objects which occupy a single region of space-time at each time at which they exist and which have a certain range of properties that go along with space- occupancy, such as weight, shape, color, texture, and temperature. The Structure of Objects focuses in particular on the question of how the parts of such objects, assuming that they have parts, are related to the wholes which they compose.

Contributions to a Philosophy of Technology

Studies in the Structure of Thinking in the Technological Sciences
Author: F. Rapp
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401021821
Category: Philosophy
Page: 229
View: 3789

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The highly sophisticated techniques of modern engineering are normally conceived of in practical terms. Corresponding to the instrumental function of technology, they are designed to direct the forces of nature according to human purposes. Yet, as soon as the realm of mere skills is exceeded, the intended useful results can only be achieved through planned and preconceived action processes involving the deliberately considered application of well designed tools and devices. This is to say that in all complex cases theoretical reasoning becomes an indispensable means to accomplish the pragmatic technological aims. Hence the abstracting from the actual concrete function of technology opens the way to concentrate attention on the general conceptual framework involved. If this approach is adopted the relevant knowledge and the procedures applied clearly exhibit a logic of their own. This point of view leads to a methodological and even an epistemological analysis of the theoretical structure and the specific methods of procedure characteristic of modern technology. Investigations of this kind, that can be described as belonging to an ana lytical philosophy of technology, form the topic of this anthology. The type of research in question here is closely akin to that of the philosophy of science. But it is an astonishing fact that the commonly accepted and carefully investigated philosophy of science has not yet found its counterpart in an established philosophy of technology.

Irony of Theology and the Nature of Religious Thought


Author: Donald Wiebe
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
ISBN: 9780773510159
Category: Philosophy
Page: 261
View: 6004

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Donald Wiebe critically examines the pervasive assumption that theology is a form of religious thought that is both compatible with and supportive of religious faith. The irony, he argues, is that theology is in fact detrimental to religion and the religious way of life.

Surplus

Spinoza, Lacan
Author: A. Kiarina Kordela
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791470206
Category: Philosophy
Page: 195
View: 9504

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Maintains that Lacanian psychoanalysis is the proper continuation of the line of thought from Spinoza to Marx.

From Karl Mannheim


Author: Karl Mannheim
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781560006572
Category: Social Science
Page: 568
View: 5856

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Karl Mannheim's thought cuts across much of twentieth-century sociology, politics, history, philosophy, and psychology. This enlarged anthology convincingly demonstrates his centrality to present-day interpetive social and political theory. The posthumous publication of Structures of Thinking and the full text of Conservatism have made From Karl Mannheim more relevant than ever. It demonstrates his self-awareness and self-critical rhetoric, his sensitivity to cultural contexts, his experimental approach to systems of ideology, his recognition of multiple modes of knowing, and other features of his unfinished theorizing. There is a strong affinity between Mannheim and contemporary interest in problems of cultural interpretation. New sensitivity to the issue of relativism in both social and cultural studies also depends heavily on Mannheim. The recent demise of communism in Eastern Europe and Russia has focused attention once more on relations between intellectuals in politics, and Mannheim is arguably the most influential thinker who placed this relationship at the center of informed discussion. The range and variety of the articles in this volume reveal him, once again, as a formidable experimental and innovative thinker. This expanded edition includes Mannheim's brilliant essay 'The Problem of Generations." In a new substantial introduction, Volker Meja and David Kettler analyze previously unpublished writings by Mannheim. From Karl Mannheim is essential reading for social and political theorists, as well as for psychologists. As Emory S. Bogardus noted: "Mannheim's life-work is seen as an important, far-reaching and thoughtful complement to the work of sociologists who concentrate their research in terms of behavioral science."

Knowing Tomorrow?

How Science Deals with the Future
Author: Patrick A. Duin
Publisher: Eburon Uitgeverij B.V.
ISBN: 9059722299
Category: Science
Page: 222
View: 4932

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In a society characterized by turbulence and change, predicting the future has become an invaluable skill for managers, politicians, and scientists alike. As a result, scientific researchers have become increasingly interested in the study of the future. In Knowing Tomorrow?, an international team of contributors analyzes how the concept of the future is being addressed across academic disciplines. From the perspectives as varied as psychology, philosophy, economics, and astronomy, this groundbreaking volume examines how scholars have incorporated the future in their work. By illustrating how future research can be applied and evaluated, Knowing Tomorrow? establishes this growing field as a discipline in its own right.