Structures Of Thinking


Author: Karl Mannheim
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113617835X
Category: Social Science
Page: 298
View: 4428

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First published in 1982. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Structures Of Thinking


Author: Karl Mannheim
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136178422
Category: Social Science
Page: 298
View: 9917

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First published in 1982. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Structures of Thinking

Concrete Operations
Author: Darrell G. Phillips,Dale Rubley Phillips
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780787210717
Category: Cognition in children
Page: 481
View: 2636

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The Structure of Thinking

A Process-Oriented Account of Mind
Author: Laura E. Wood
Publisher: Andrews UK Limited
ISBN: 1845405862
Category: Philosophy
Page: 293
View: 7612

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Analytic philosophers and cognitive scientists have long argued that the mind is a computer-like syntactical engine, and that all human mental capacities can be described as digital computational processes. This book presents an alternative, naturalistic view of human thinking, arguing that computers are merely sophisticated machines. Computers are only simulating thought when they crunch symbols, not thinking. Human cognition - semantics, de re reference, indexicals, meaning and causation - are all rooted in human experience and life. Without life and experience, these elements of discourse and knowledge refer to nothing. And without these elements of discourse and knowledge, syntax is vacant structure, not thinking.

Towards a Theory of Thinking

Building Blocks for a Conceptual Framework
Author: Britt Glatzeder,Vinod Goel,Albrecht Müller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642031298
Category: Psychology
Page: 380
View: 4536

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What is Thinking? – Trying to Define an Equally Fascinating and Elusive Phenomenon Human thinking is probably the most complex phenomenon that evolution has come up with until now. There exists a broad spectrum of definitions, from subs- ing almost all processes of cognition to limiting it to language-based, sometimes even only to formalizable reasoning processes. We work with a “medium sized” definition according to which thinking encompasses all operations by which cog- tive agents link mental content in order to gain new insights or perspectives. Mental content is, thus, a prerequisite for and the substrate on which thinking operations are executed. The largely unconscious acts of perceptual object stabilization, ca- gorization, emotional evaluation – and retrieving all the above from memory inscriptions – are the processes by which mental content is generated, and are, therefore, seen as prerequisites for thinking operations. In terms of a differentia specifica, the notion of “thinking” is seen as narrower than the notion of “cognition” and as wider than the notion of “reasoning”. Thinking is, thus, seen as a subset of cognition processes; and reasoning processes are seen as a subset of thinking. Besides reasoning, the notion of thinking includes also nonexplicit, intuitive, and associative processes of linking mental content. According to this definition, thinking is not dependant on language, i. e. also many animals and certainly all mammals show early forms of thinking.

Reconstruction of Thinking

Self Development in Zen, Swordsmanship, and Psychotherapy
Author: Robert C. Neville
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780873954952
Category: Philosophy
Page: 350
View: 3619

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The Renaissance development of science fulfilled the ancient ideal of integrating quantitative and qualitative thinking, but failed to recognize valuational thinking and thus deprived moral, aesthetic, and political thought of cognitive status. The task of this book is to reconstruct the concept of thinking in order to exhibit valuation, not reason, as the foundation for thinking and to integrate valuational with quantitative and qualitative modes. Part I explains the broad thesis, interpreting the problem of the foundations for thinking and providing a general theory of value. Part II explains the role of valuation at the imaginative level of thinking with discussions of synthesis, perception, form, and art. The method of reconstruction requires a cosmology that is generated in successive waves.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition
Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 3165

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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

The Intelligible Metropolis

Urban Mentality in Contemporary London Novels
Author: Nora Pleßke
Publisher: transcript Verlag
ISBN: 3839426723
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 576
View: 1646

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Writings on the metropolis generally foreground illimitability, stressing thereby that the urban ultimately remains both illegible and unintelligible. Instead, the purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to demonstrate that mentality as a tool offers orientation in the urban realm. Nora Pleßke develops a model of urban mentality to be employed for cities worldwide. Against the background of the Spatial Turn, she identifies dominant urban-specific structures of London mentality in contemporary London novels, such as Monica Ali's »Brick Lane«, J.G. Ballard's »Millennium People«, Nick Hornby's »A Long Way Down«, and Ian McEwan's »Saturday«.

The Development of Thinking and Reasoning


Author: Pierre Barrouillet,Caroline Gauffroy
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135083959
Category: Psychology
Page: 264
View: 2045

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Thinking and reasoning are key activities for human beings. In this book a distinguished set of contributors provides a wide readership with up-to-date scientific advances in the developmental psychology of thinking and reasoning, both at the theoretical and empirical levels. The first part of the book illustrates how modern approaches to the study of thinking and reasoning have gone beyond the Piagetian legacy: through the investigation of avenues previously not explored, and by demonstrating that young children have higher capacities than was assumed within the Piagetian tradition. The second part focuses upon theoretical and empirical investigations of the interplay between logic and intuition in reasoning and decision making, and how these forms of thinking evolve with age, through the general framework of what is known as dual-process theories. Contrary to Piaget’s claim, it becomes apparent that elaborate adult reasoning could rely on some form of intuition. The Development of Thinking and Reasoning provides psychologists, educators and everyone interested in child development with an integrated and up-to-date series of chapters, written by prominent specialists in the areas of thinking, reasoning, and decision making.

Architecture of Thought


Author: Andrzej Piotrowski
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 0816673047
Category: Architecture
Page: 322
View: 1596

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An innovative examination of how material practices and constructed environments have shaped cultures.

That Workshop Book

New Systems and Structures for Classrooms that Read, Write, and Think
Author: Samantha Bennett
Publisher: Heinemann Educational Books
ISBN: 9780325011929
Category: Education
Page: 222
View: 6670

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Shows a new generation of teachers how the systems, structures, routines, and rituals that support successful workshops combine with thinking, planning, and conferring to drive students' growth, inform assessment and instruction, and increase teachers' professional satisfaction. And it shows those already using the workshop how to increase its instructional power by seeing its big ideas and its component parts in fresh, dynamic ways.

Making Thinking Visible

How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for All Learners
Author: Ron Ritchhart,Mark Church,Karin Morrison
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118015032
Category: Education
Page: 320
View: 3148

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A proven program for enhancing students' thinking and comprehension abilities Visible Thinking is a research-based approach to teaching thinking, begun at Harvard's Project Zero, that develops students' thinking dispositions, while at the same time deepening their understanding of the topics they study. Rather than a set of fixed lessons, Visible Thinking is a varied collection of practices, including thinking routines?small sets of questions or a short sequence of steps?as well as the documentation of student thinking. Using this process thinking becomes visible as the students' different viewpoints are expressed, documented, discussed and reflected upon. Helps direct student thinking and structure classroom discussion Can be applied with students at all grade levels and in all content areas Includes easy-to-implement classroom strategies The book also comes with a DVD of video clips featuring Visible Thinking in practice in different classrooms.

Getting to "Got It!"

Helping Struggling Students Learn How to Learn
Author: Betty K. Garner
Publisher: ASCD
ISBN: 1416612424
Category: Education
Page: 168
View: 3200

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It's one of the great mysteries of teaching: Why do some students "get it" and some students don't? In this book, Betty K. Garner focuses on why students struggle and what teachers can do to help them become self-directed learners. Difficulty reading, remembering, paying attention, or following directions are not the reasons students fail but symptoms of the true problem: underdeveloped cognitive structures--the mental processes necessary to connect new information with prior knowledge; organize information into patterns and relationships; formulate rules that make information processing automatic, fast, and predictable; and abstract generalizable principles that allow them to transfer and apply learning. Each chapter focuses on a key cognitive structure and uses real-life accounts to illustrate how learners construct meaning by using recognition, memorization, conservation of constancy, classification, spatial orientation, temporal orientation, and metaphorical thinking. The author's simple techniques stress reflective awareness and visualization. It's by helping students to be conscious of what their senses are telling them, encouraging them to visualize the information for processing, and then prompting them to ask questions and figure out solutions on their own that teachers can best help students develop the tools they need to * Gather, organize, and make sense of information, * Become cognitively engaged and internally motivated to achieve, and * Experience learning as a dynamic process of creating and changing. Suggestions for using these techniques in daily classroom practice, advice on lesson planning for cognitive engagement, and guidelines for conducting reflective research expand this book's practical applications. Use it not only to help struggling students break through hidden barriers but to empower all students with tools that will last a lifetime.

The Structure of Objects


Author: Kathrin Koslicki
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199539898
Category: Philosophy
Page: 288
View: 6397

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The objects we encounter in ordinary life and scientific practice - cars, trees, people, houses, molecules, galaxies, and the like - have long been a fruitful source of perplexity for metaphysicians. The Structure of Objects gives an original analysis of those material objects to which we take ourselves to be committed in our ordinary, scientifically informed discourse. Koslicki focuses on material objects in particular, or, as metaphysicians like to call them "concrete particulars", i.e., objects which occupy a single region of space-time at each time at which they exist and which have a certain range of properties that go along with space- occupancy, such as weight, shape, color, texture, and temperature. The Structure of Objects focuses in particular on the question of how the parts of such objects, assuming that they have parts, are related to the wholes which they compose.

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory


Author: Stephen Jay Gould
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674417925
Category: Science
Page: 1464
View: 1800

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The world’s most revered and eloquent interpreter of evolutionary ideas offers here a work of explanatory force unprecedented in our time—a landmark publication, both for its historical sweep and for its scientific vision. With characteristic attention to detail, Stephen Jay Gould first describes the content and discusses the history and origins of the three core commitments of classical Darwinism: that natural selection works on organisms, not genes or species; that it is almost exclusively the mechanism of adaptive evolutionary change; and that these changes are incremental, not drastic. Next, he examines the three critiques that currently challenge this classic Darwinian edifice: that selection operates on multiple levels, from the gene to the group; that evolution proceeds by a variety of mechanisms, not just natural selection; and that causes operating at broader scales, including catastrophes, have figured prominently in the course of evolution. Then, in a stunning tour de force that will likely stimulate discussion and debate for decades, Gould proposes his own system for integrating these classical commitments and contemporary critiques into a new structure of evolutionary thought. In 2001 the Library of Congress named Stephen Jay Gould one of America’s eighty-three Living Legends—people who embody the “quintessentially American ideal of individual creativity, conviction, dedication, and exuberance.” Each of these qualities finds full expression in this peerless work, the likes of which the scientific world has not seen—and may not see again—for well over a century.

The Story of Analytic Philosophy

Plot and Heroes
Author: Anat Biletzki,Anat Matar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134716141
Category: Philosophy
Page: 296
View: 5572

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This unique collection looks at analytic philosophy in its historical context. Prominent philosophers discuss key figures, including Russell and Wittgenstein, methods and results in analytic philosophy to present its story. This volume assesses the challenge posed by changing cultural and philosophical trends and movements.

Abstraction and Representation

Essays on the Cultural Evolution of Thinking
Author: Peter Damerow
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792338161
Category: History
Page: 418
View: 9698

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This book deals with the development of thinking under different cultural conditions, focusing on the evolution of mathematical thinking in the history of science and education. Starting from Piaget's genetic epistemology, it provides a conceptual framework for describing and explaining the development of cognition by reflective abstractions from systems of actions.

Surplus

Spinoza, Lacan
Author: A. Kiarina Kordela
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791470206
Category: Philosophy
Page: 195
View: 619

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Maintains that Lacanian psychoanalysis is the proper continuation of the line of thought from Spinoza to Marx.