Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering

Author: L.A. Feigin,D.I. Svergun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475766246
Category: Science
Page: 335
View: 4985

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Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.

Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules

Author: Dmitri I. Svergun,Michel H. J. Koch,Peter A. Timmins,Roland P. May
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191507032
Category: Science
Page: 368
View: 9267

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Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.

X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization

Author: Challa S.S.R. Kumar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662486067
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 830
View: 8082

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Fifth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

Spektroskopie amorpher und kristalliner Festkörper

Author: Dietrich Haarer,Hans W. Spiess
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642578713
Category: Science
Page: 518
View: 9891

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Die verschiedenen Spektroskopiearten werden von den Grundlagen bis hin zu den aktuellen Entwicklungen umfassend behandelt. Das weite Anwendungspotential verdeutlichen anschauliche Beispiele.

Characterization of Polymer Blends

Miscibility, Morphology and Interfaces
Author: Sabu Thomas,Yves Grohens,P. Jyotishkumar
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527645616
Category: Science
Page: 994
View: 8509

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Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.

Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology

Author: Robert Allen Meyers
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780122274275
Category: Physical sciences
Page: 1028
View: 3730

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Following in the footsteps of the earlier editions, hundreds of the most respected scientists and engineers participated in the creation of this new edition, including many Nobel Laureates. The articles are in-depth, yet accessible, and address all of the key areas of physical science--including aeronautics, astronomy, chemistry, communications, computers, earth sciences, electronics, engineering, materials science, mathematics, nuclear technology, physics, power systems, propulsion, and space technology. (Midwest).

Water and Biomolecules

Physical Chemistry of Life Phenomena
Author: Kunihiro Kuwajima,Yuji Goto,Fumio Hirata,Masahide Terazima,Mikio Kataoka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540887873
Category: Science
Page: 307
View: 5243

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Life is produced by the interplay of water and biomolecules. This book deals with the physicochemical aspects of such life phenomena produced by water and biomolecules, and addresses topics including "Protein Dynamics and Functions", "Protein and DNA Folding", and "Protein Amyloidosis". All sections have been written by internationally recognized front-line researchers. The idea for this book was born at the 5th International Symposium "Water and Biomolecules", held in Nara city, Japan, in 2008.

Neutron, x-ray and light scattering

introduction to an investigative tool for colloidal and polymeric systems : proceedings of the European Workshop on Neutron, X-Ray and Light Scattering as an Investigative Tool for Colloidal and Polymeric Systems, Bombannes, France, 27 May-2June, 1990
Author: Peter Lindner
Publisher: North Holland
Category: Science
Page: 375
View: 8932

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This book is devoted to a simple practical approach to neutron, X-ray and light scattering experiments, involving model calculation of the scattering and mathematical transformation. It is intended to attract colloid and polymer scientists using scattering methods in their laboratory or at common research facilities. The primary objective is to explain the current methodology of elastic and quasi-elastic scattering techniques (avoiding both under and over-exploitation of data) rather than a general course on colloids and polymers. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments are presented.

Neutrons, X-rays and Light

Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed Matter
Author: Thomas Zemb,Peter Lindner
Publisher: North-Holland
ISBN: 9780444511225
Category: Science
Page: 541
View: 1280

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Scattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data.

Neutron Scattering in Earth Sciences

Author: Hans-Rudolf Wenk
Publisher: Mineralogical Society of Amer
Category: Science
Page: 471
View: 7353

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Volume 63 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry provides an introduction for those not yet familiar with neutrons by describing basic features of neutrons and their interaction with matter as well illustrating important applications. The volume is divided into 17 Chapters. The first two chapters introduce properties of neutrons and neutron facilities, setting the stage for applications. Some applications rely on single crystals (Chapter 3) but mostly powders (Chapters 4-5) and bulk polycrystals (Chapters 15-16) are analyzed, at ambient conditions as well as low and high temperature and high pressure (Chapters 7-9). Characterization of magnetic structures remains a core application of neutron scattering (Chapter 6). The analysis of neutron data is not trivial and crystallographic methods have been modified to take account of the complexities, such as the Rietveld technique (Chapter 4) and the pair distribution function (Chapter 11). Information is not only obtained about solids but about liquids, melts and aqueous solutions as well (Chapters 11-13). In fact this field, approached with inelastic scattering (Chapter 10) and small angle scattering (Chapter 13) is opening unprecedented opportunities for earth sciences. Small angle scattering also contributes information about microstructures (Chapter 14). Neutron diffraction has become a favorite method to quantify residual stresses in deformed materials (Chapter 16) as well as preferred orientation patterns (Chapter 15). The volume concludes with a short introduction into neutron tomography and radiography that may well emerge as a principal application of neutron scattering in the future (Chapter 17).

Methoden der Biophysikalischen Chemie

Author: Roland Winter,Frank Noll
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3663057941
Category: Science
Page: 590
View: 9147

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In immer stärkerem Maße steht das molekulare Verständnis der Lebensvorgänge im Vordergrund heutiger naturwissenschaftlicher Forschungsarbeiten. Die Dis ziplinen der Biophysikalischen Chemie und Biophysik haben daher in den letzten Jahrzehnten sehr an Bedeutung gewonnen und auch zu großen Entdeckungen in Biochemie, Biologie und Medizin geführt. Der große Erfolg dieses sich immer stärker ausweitenden Wissenschaftszweigs ist insbesondere auf die Fortschritte der physikalisch-chemischen Untersuchungsmethoden zurückzuführen, die es heute erlauben, selbst komplexe biochemische Systeme hinsichtlich ihrer strukturellen und dynamischen Eigenschaften zu analysieren. Er ist aber auch der Tatsache zu verdanken, daß die traditionellen Grenzen zwischen Chemie, Physik und Biologie auf diesem stark interdisziplinär angelegten Forschungsgebiet in den letzten Jahren immer mehr gefallen sind. Dieses Buch hat das Ziel, ein prinzipielles Verständnis der biophysikalisch chemischen Untersuchungsmethoden und ihrer Anwendungsmöglichkeiten zu vermitteln. Es wird zunächst ein Überblick über die Strukturprinzipien biolo gischer Moleküle gegeben. Nach der Einführung in die Prinzipien der einzelnen Methoden werden dann repräsentative Anwendungsbeispiele besprochen, sowohl historisch interessante Beispiele als auch Arbeiten aus der neueren Literatur. Das Buch entstand aus einer Vorlesung für Studenten der Chemie im Hauptstudium. Das gezeigte Interesse und der Mangel an aktuellen einführenden Werken zu dieser Thematik bestärkte uns, dieses Buch zu schreiben. Es ist gleichermaßen auch für Biologen, Pharmazeuten und Physiker geeignet. Da es eine Einführung in die grundlegenden Konzepte der "Methoden der Biophysika lischen Chemie" darstellt, werden nur Grundkenntnisse der Chemie bzw.

Biophysical Techniques in Photosynthesis

Author: J. Amesz,A.J. Hoff
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9780792336426
Category: Science
Page: 411
View: 4218

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Progress in photosynthesis research is strongly dependent on instrumentation. It is therefore not surpr- ing that the impressive advances that have been made in recent decades are paralleled by equally impressive advances in sensitivity and sophistication of physical equipment and methods. This trend started already shortly after the war, in work by pioneers like Lou Duysens, the late Stacy French, Britton Chance, Horst Witt, George Feher and others, but it really gained momentum in the seventies and especially the eighties when pulsed lasers, pulsed EPR spectrometers and solid-state electronics acquired a more and more prominent role on the scene of scientific research. This book is different from most others because it focuses on the techniques rather than on the scientific questions involved. Its purpose is three-fold, and this purpose is reflected in each chapter: (i) to give the reader sufficient insight in the basic principles of a method to understand its applications (ii) to give information on the practical aspects of the method and (iii) to discuss some of the results obtained in photosynthesis research in order to provide insight in its potentalities. We hope that in this way the reader will obtain sufficient information for a critical assessment of the relevant literature, and, perhaps more important, will gain inspiration to tackle problems in his own field of research. The book is not intended to give a comprehensive review of photosynthesis, but nevertheless offers various views on the exciting developments that are going on.

Design of the Small Angle Neutron Scattering instrument at the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron Source

applications to the study of nanostructured materials
Author: Nicholas B. Remmes,Indiana University, Bloomington
Publisher: N.A
Page: 470
View: 8475

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SANS measurements of a family of tripodal organo-silicon dendrimer molecules using the IPNS SAND and the NCNR NG3 SANS instruments are presented. Variations in the scattering curves are compared for solutions of the dendrimers at multiple concentrations in d-heptane, d-DCM, and d-toluene. Models of both the particle form factor and the structure factor are presented. The measurements suggest a distinct difference between the size and behavior of the highest generation dendrimer in two of the solvents (d-DCM and d-toluene) as compared to a third (d-heptane). Additionally, the dendrimer molecules appear to be forming short chains in solution.

Microstructure in Powders

Spin-echo Small-angle Neutron Scattering Measurements
Author: Robert Anders Andersson
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 9781586039066
Category: Science
Page: 131
View: 3256

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"A Spin-Echo Small Angle Scattering (SESANS) instrument is capable of studying samples containing large inhomogeneities, large in a sense that they extend across the mesoscopic and microscopic domains. Thus, being applicable to samples of polymers, colloids, dairy products, powders, clays, etc. All of this in a simple and more direct way than existing small-angle neutron-scattering instruments. In essence, there is confidence enough to start exploring the real samples - samples that SESANS is made for. The SESANS experiments conducted and presented in this book will bring insight in the relationship between micro- and macroscopics of fine cohesive powders. The aim is to inspire for future research on samples made up of large disordered heterogeneities through discussing many of the correlation functions expected in these systems."--BOOK JACKET.

Structure and Dynamics of Polymer and Colloidal Systems

Author: Redouane Borsali,R. Pecora
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402005015
Category: Science
Page: 477
View: 3980

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This volume is based on lectures given at the NATO-Advanced Study Institute on Structure and Dynamics of Polymer and Colloid Systems held in Les Houches, France from September 14-24, 1999. The meeting arose from a perceived need to bring together scientists studying the polymer and colloid fields. Although these fields are intertwined and share many techniques (e. g. , light, neutron and x-ray scattering), it is remarkable how little the approaches and concepts used by the one field penetrate the other. For instance, the theory of spherical colloids is very highly developed and many of the concepts developed for these systems can be extended to those with non-spherical morphology, such as solutions of rigid rod polymers. In addition, mixtures of polymers and colloids, both in the bulk and at interfaces, are the basis for many industrial products. Methods are now rapidly being developed for understanding the structure and dynamics in polymer/colloid mixtures at the molecular level, but the point of view of the colloid scientist is often rather different from that of the polymer scientist. The NATO-ASI brought together polymer and colloid scientists, including many young researchers, who presented and discussed recent developments in these fields and the possibilities for cross-fertilization This volume contains articles on a wide variety of topics at the research forefront of the polymer and colloid fields by some of the world's foremost experts at a level accessible to graduate students, post-docs and researchers.