Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering


Author: L.A. Feigin,D.I. Svergun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475766246
Category: Science
Page: 335
View: 9460

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Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.

Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules


Author: Dmitri I. Svergun,Michel H. J. Koch,Peter A. Timmins,Roland P. May
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191507032
Category: Science
Page: 368
View: 7645

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Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.

X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization


Author: Challa S.S.R. Kumar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662486067
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 830
View: 4098

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Fifth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

Characterization of Polymer Blends

Miscibility, Morphology and Interfaces
Author: Sabu Thomas,Yves Grohens,P. Jyotishkumar
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527645616
Category: Science
Page: 994
View: 507

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Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.

Physikalische Metallkunde


Author: P. Haasen
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662127024
Category: Science
Page: 333
View: 6286

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Seit 1959 versuche ich in Göttingen, Studierende der Physik nach dem V 01' examen für ein Aufbaustudium der Physikalischen Metallkunde zu interessieren. Diese Aufgabe stellt sich heute an vielen Hochschulen, denn allgemein hat sich der Beruf des Metallkundlers in der Forschung, der Entwicklung metallischer Werkstoffe und ihrer industriellen Produktion als sehr befriedigend und aus sichtsreich erwiesen. Nicht nur ist die Metall-Technik außerordentlich vielseitig und lädt zu wissenschaftlicher Durchdringung ein, sondern auch andere Bereiche der Festkörper-verarbeitenden Industrie benutzen unter der Überschrift" Werk stoffwissenschaften" (Materials Science) zunehmend metallkundliche Methoden, etwa bei keramischen Werkstoffen, Halbleitermaterialien, Kunststoffen usw. Für ein solches Berufsbild ist heute ein Grundstudium der Physik sehr geeignet, während Metallkundler früherer Jahrgänge häufig als Chemiker oder Maschinen bau-Ingenieure begonnen haben. Das Grundstudium der Physik bietet neben strengem mathematischen Rüstzeug verschiedene Vorlesungen und Praktika der Experimentalphysik sowie den theoretisch-physikalischen Kursus incl. der Quantentheorie. Im 5. und 6. Semester leiten Einführungsvorlesungen über Festkörperphysik in das Gebiet der Physikalischen Metallkunde über. Sie lehnen sich auch in Deutschland häufig an das Lehrbuch von Ch. Kittel [1.1] an.

Neutron Scattering in Earth Sciences


Author: Hans-Rudolf Wenk
Publisher: Mineralogical Society of Amer
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 471
View: 7539

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Volume 63 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry provides an introduction for those not yet familiar with neutrons by describing basic features of neutrons and their interaction with matter as well illustrating important applications. The volume is divided into 17 Chapters. The first two chapters introduce properties of neutrons and neutron facilities, setting the stage for applications. Some applications rely on single crystals (Chapter 3) but mostly powders (Chapters 4-5) and bulk polycrystals (Chapters 15-16) are analyzed, at ambient conditions as well as low and high temperature and high pressure (Chapters 7-9). Characterization of magnetic structures remains a core application of neutron scattering (Chapter 6). The analysis of neutron data is not trivial and crystallographic methods have been modified to take account of the complexities, such as the Rietveld technique (Chapter 4) and the pair distribution function (Chapter 11). Information is not only obtained about solids but about liquids, melts and aqueous solutions as well (Chapters 11-13). In fact this field, approached with inelastic scattering (Chapter 10) and small angle scattering (Chapter 13) is opening unprecedented opportunities for earth sciences. Small angle scattering also contributes information about microstructures (Chapter 14). Neutron diffraction has become a favorite method to quantify residual stresses in deformed materials (Chapter 16) as well as preferred orientation patterns (Chapter 15). The volume concludes with a short introduction into neutron tomography and radiography that may well emerge as a principal application of neutron scattering in the future (Chapter 17).

Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

Characterization, Modification and Applications
Author: Manfred Stamm
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540738657
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 324
View: 7464

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In what is an extremely practical and applicable new work, experts provide concise explanations, with examples and illustrations, of the key techniques in this important field. In each case, after basic principles have been reviewed, applications of the experimental techniques are discussed and illustrated with specific examples. Scientists and engineers in research and development will benefit from an application-oriented book that helps them to find solutions to both fundamental and applied problems. They will know that the surfaces and interfaces of polymers play an important role in most of the application areas of polymers, from moulds, foils, and composites, to biomaterials and applications in micro- and nanotechnology.

Neutron, x-ray and light scattering

introduction to an investigative tool for colloidal and polymeric systems : proceedings of the European Workshop on Neutron, X-Ray and Light Scattering as an Investigative Tool for Colloidal and Polymeric Systems, Bombannes, France, 27 May-2June, 1990
Author: Peter Lindner
Publisher: North Holland
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 375
View: 8121

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This book is devoted to a simple practical approach to neutron, X-ray and light scattering experiments, involving model calculation of the scattering and mathematical transformation. It is intended to attract colloid and polymer scientists using scattering methods in their laboratory or at common research facilities. The primary objective is to explain the current methodology of elastic and quasi-elastic scattering techniques (avoiding both under and over-exploitation of data) rather than a general course on colloids and polymers. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments are presented.

Design of the Small Angle Neutron Scattering instrument at the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron Source

applications to the study of nanostructured materials
Author: Nicholas B. Remmes,Indiana University, Bloomington
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category:
Page: 470
View: 4038

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SANS measurements of a family of tripodal organo-silicon dendrimer molecules using the IPNS SAND and the NCNR NG3 SANS instruments are presented. Variations in the scattering curves are compared for solutions of the dendrimers at multiple concentrations in d-heptane, d-DCM, and d-toluene. Models of both the particle form factor and the structure factor are presented. The measurements suggest a distinct difference between the size and behavior of the highest generation dendrimer in two of the solvents (d-DCM and d-toluene) as compared to a third (d-heptane). Additionally, the dendrimer molecules appear to be forming short chains in solution.

Biological Small Angle Scattering: Techniques, Strategies and Tips


Author: Barnali Chaudhuri,Inés G. Muñoz,Shuo Qian,Volker S. Urban
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981106038X
Category: Science
Page: 268
View: 7789

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This book provides a clear, comprehensible and up-to-date description of how Small Angle Scattering (SAS) can help structural biology researchers. SAS is an efficient technique that offers structural information on how biological macromolecules behave in solution. SAS provides distinct and complementary data for integrative structural biology approaches in combination with other widely used probes, such as X-ray crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Mass spectrometry and Cryo-electron Microscopy. The development of brilliant synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beam lines has increased the number of researchers interested in solution scattering. SAS is especially useful for studying conformational changes in proteins, highly flexible proteins, and intrinsically disordered proteins. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with neutron contrast variation is ideally suited for studying multi-component assemblies as well as membrane proteins that are stabilized in surfactant micelles or vesicles. SAS is also used for studying dynamic processes of protein fibrillation in amyloid diseases, and pharmaceutical drug delivery. The combination with size-exclusion chromatography further increases the range of SAS applications. The book is written by leading experts in solution SAS methodologies. The principles and theoretical background of various SAS techniques are included, along with practical aspects that range from sample preparation to data presentation for publication. Topics covered include techniques for improving data quality and analysis, as well as different scientific applications of SAS. With abundant illustrations and practical tips, we hope the clear explanations of the principles and the reviews on the latest progresses will serve as a guide through all aspects of biological solution SAS. The scope of this book is particularly relevant for structural biology researchers who are new to SAS. Advanced users of the technique will find it helpful for exploring the diversity of solution SAS methods and applications. Chapter 3 of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.

Biophysical Techniques in Photosynthesis


Author: J. Amesz,A.J. Hoff
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9780792336426
Category: Science
Page: 411
View: 478

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Progress in photosynthesis research is strongly dependent on instrumentation. It is therefore not surpr- ing that the impressive advances that have been made in recent decades are paralleled by equally impressive advances in sensitivity and sophistication of physical equipment and methods. This trend started already shortly after the war, in work by pioneers like Lou Duysens, the late Stacy French, Britton Chance, Horst Witt, George Feher and others, but it really gained momentum in the seventies and especially the eighties when pulsed lasers, pulsed EPR spectrometers and solid-state electronics acquired a more and more prominent role on the scene of scientific research. This book is different from most others because it focuses on the techniques rather than on the scientific questions involved. Its purpose is three-fold, and this purpose is reflected in each chapter: (i) to give the reader sufficient insight in the basic principles of a method to understand its applications (ii) to give information on the practical aspects of the method and (iii) to discuss some of the results obtained in photosynthesis research in order to provide insight in its potentalities. We hope that in this way the reader will obtain sufficient information for a critical assessment of the relevant literature, and, perhaps more important, will gain inspiration to tackle problems in his own field of research. The book is not intended to give a comprehensive review of photosynthesis, but nevertheless offers various views on the exciting developments that are going on.

Neutron Scattering in Biology

Techniques and Applications
Author: Jörg Fitter,Thomas Gutberlet,John Katsaras
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540291084
Category: Medical
Page: 557
View: 4840

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The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

Methods in Protein Structure and Stability Analysis: Conformational stability, size, shape, and surface of protein molecules


Author: Vladimir N. Uversky,Evgeniĭ Anatolʹevich Permi︠a︡kov
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781600217043
Category: Science
Page: 404
View: 5993

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Protein research is a frontier field in science. Proteins are widely distributed in plants and animals and are the principal constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, and consist essentially of combinations of a-amino acids in peptide linkages. Twenty different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, and serve as enzymes, structural elements, hormones, immunoglobulins, etc., and are involved throughout the body, and in photosynthesis. This book gathers new leading-edge research from throughout the world in this exciting and exploding field of research.

Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes


Author: Ales Iglic
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123812674
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 1584

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Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 9, continues to include invited chapters on a broad range of topics, covering both main arrangements of the reconstituted system, namely planar lipid bilayers and spherical liposomes. The invited authors present the latest results in this exciting multidisciplinary field of their own research group. Many of the contributors working in both fields over many decades were in close collaboration with the late Prof. H. Ti Tien, the founding editor of this book series. There are also chapters written by some of the younger generation of scientists included in this series. This volume keeps in mind the broader goal with both systems, planar lipid bilayers and spherical liposomes, which is the further development of this interdisciplinary field worldwide. Incorporates contributions from newcomers and established and experienced researchers Explores the planar lipid bilayer systems and spherical liposomes from both theoretical and experimental perspectives Serves as an indispensable source of information for new scientists

Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization


Author: Rehab O. Abdel Rahman,Ravil Z. Rakhimov,Nailia R. Rakhimova,Michael I. Ojovan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118511972
Category: Science
Page: 248
View: 6784

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Cementitious materials are an essential part in any radioactive waste disposal facility. Conditioning processes such as cementation are used to convert waste into a stable solid form that is insoluble and will prevent dispersion to the surrounding environment. It is incredibly important to understand the long-term behavior of these materials. This book summarises approaches and current practices in use of cementitious materials for nuclear waste immobilisation. It gives a unique description of the most important aspects of cements as nuclear waste forms: starting with a description of wastes, analyzing the cementitious systems used for immobilization and describing the technologies used, and ending with analysis of cementitious waste forms and their long term behavior in an envisaged disposal environment. Extensive research has been devoted to study the feasibility of using cement or cement based materials in immobilizing and solidifying different radioactive wastes. However, these research results are scattered. This work provides the reader with both the science and technology of the immobilization process, and the cementitious materials used to immobilize nuclear waste. It summarizes current knowledge in the field, and highlights important areas that need more investigation. The chapters include: Introduction, Portland cement, Alternative cements, Cement characterization and testing, Radioactive waste cementation, Waste cementation technology, Cementitious wasteform durability and performance assessment.

Polymer Microscopy


Author: Linda C. Sawyer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400931395
Category: Science
Page: 303
View: 3007

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Modern materials include a vast array of polymers and plastics which are found in applications such as housing, appliances, clothing and household textiles and automotive and aerospace industries. Thus research scientists, engineers and materials science graduate students need to be aware of the methods and techniques required to understand the structure-property relations of polymer materials. This book will review the field of the microscopy of polymers. There is a vast literature which describes the research results obtained by study of polymer materials using microscopy and other complementary analytical techniques and such studies are best left to journals on specific topics. The major objective of this text is to provide the basic microscopy techniques and specimen preparation methods applicable to polymers. The book will attempt to provide enough detail so that the methods described can be applied, and also to reference appropriate publications for the investigator interested in more detail. The selection of two authors for this text came from the desire for a comprehen sive review of polymer microscopy with emphasis on methods and techniques, rather than on research results. The synergism provided by two authors with widely varied backgrounds was thought to be important: one author (LCS) has an industrial focus and a background in chemistry whilst the other (DTG) has an academic environment and offers a background in polymer physics.