Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering


Author: L.A. Feigin,D.I. Svergun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475766246
Category: Science
Page: 335
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Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.

Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules


Author: Dmitri I. Svergun,Michel H. J. Koch,Peter A. Timmins,Roland P. May
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191507032
Category: Science
Page: 368
View: 1384

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Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.

Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules


Author: Dmitri I. Svergun,Michel H. J. Koch,Peter A. Timmins,Roland P. May
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191507032
Category: Science
Page: 368
View: 3680

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Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.

Biological Small Angle Scattering: Techniques, Strategies and Tips


Author: Barnali Chaudhuri,Inés G. Muñoz,Shuo Qian,Volker S. Urban
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981106038X
Category: Science
Page: 268
View: 4267

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This book provides a clear, comprehensible and up-to-date description of how Small Angle Scattering (SAS) can help structural biology researchers. SAS is an efficient technique that offers structural information on how biological macromolecules behave in solution. SAS provides distinct and complementary data for integrative structural biology approaches in combination with other widely used probes, such as X-ray crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Mass spectrometry and Cryo-electron Microscopy. The development of brilliant synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beam lines has increased the number of researchers interested in solution scattering. SAS is especially useful for studying conformational changes in proteins, highly flexible proteins, and intrinsically disordered proteins. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with neutron contrast variation is ideally suited for studying multi-component assemblies as well as membrane proteins that are stabilized in surfactant micelles or vesicles. SAS is also used for studying dynamic processes of protein fibrillation in amyloid diseases, and pharmaceutical drug delivery. The combination with size-exclusion chromatography further increases the range of SAS applications. The book is written by leading experts in solution SAS methodologies. The principles and theoretical background of various SAS techniques are included, along with practical aspects that range from sample preparation to data presentation for publication. Topics covered include techniques for improving data quality and analysis, as well as different scientific applications of SAS. With abundant illustrations and practical tips, we hope the clear explanations of the principles and the reviews on the latest progresses will serve as a guide through all aspects of biological solution SAS. The scope of this book is particularly relevant for structural biology researchers who are new to SAS. Advanced users of the technique will find it helpful for exploring the diversity of solution SAS methods and applications. Chapter 3 of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.

Elementary Scattering Theory

For X-ray and Neutron Users
Author: D.S. Sivia
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199228671
Category: Science
Page: 201
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This book provides the basic theoretical background for X-ray and neutron scattering experiments. Since these techniques are increasingly being used by biologists and chemists, as well as physicists, the book is intended to be accessible to a broad spectrum of scientists.

X-ray and Neutron Reflectivity

Principles and Applications
Author: Jean Daillant,Alain Gibaud
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540885889
Category: Science
Page: 350
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ways in which the magnetic interaction between neutrons and magnetic moments can yield information on the magnetization densities of thin ?lms and multilayers. I commend the organizers for having organized a group of expert lecturers to present this subject in a detailed but clear fashion, as the importance of the subject deserves. Argonne, IL S. K. Sinha Contents 1 The Interaction of X-Rays (and Neutrons) with Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 F. de Bergevin 1. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 2 Generalities and De?nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. 3 From the Scattering by an Object to the Propagation in a Medium . 14 1. 4 X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1. 5 X-Rays: Anisotropic Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 1. A Appendix: the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2 Statistical Aspects of Wave Scattering at Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 A. Sentenac and J. Daillant 2. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2. 2 Description of Randomly Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 2. 3 Description of a Surface Scattering Experiment, Coherence Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2. 4 Statistical Formulation of the Diffraction Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 2. 5 Statistical Formulation of the Scattered Intensity Under the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3 Specular Re?ectivity from Smooth and Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 A. Gibaud and G. Vignaud 3. 1 The Re?ected Intensity from an Ideally Flat Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3. 2 X-Ray Re?ectivity in Strati?ed Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 3. 3 From Dynamical to Kinematical Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 3. 4 In?uence of the Roughness on the Matrix Coef?cients . . . . . . . . . . 111 3. A Appendix: The Treatment of Roughness in Specular Re?ectivity . . 113 3. B Appendix: Inversion of re?ectivity data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

X-Ray Diffraction Imaging of Biological Cells


Author: Masayoshi Nakasako
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 443156618X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 228
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In this book, the author describes the development of the experimental diffraction setup and structural analysis of non-crystalline particles from material science and biology. Recent advances in X-ray free electron laser (XFEL)-coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiments allow for the structural analysis of non-crystalline particles to a resolution of 7 nm, and to a resolution of 20 nm for biological materials. Now XFEL-CXDI marks the dawn of a new era in structural analys of non-crystalline particles with dimensions larger than 100 nm, which was quite impossible in the 20th century. To conduct CXDI experiments in both synchrotron and XFEL facilities, the author has developed apparatuses, named KOTOBUKI-1 and TAKASAGO-6 for cryogenic diffraction experiments on frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at around 66 K. At the synchrotron facility, cryogenic diffraction experiments dramatically reduce radiation damage of specimen particles and allow tomography CXDI experiments. In addition, in XFEL experiments, non-crystalline particles scattered on thin support membranes and flash-cooled can be used to efficiently increase the rate of XFEL pulses. The rate, which depends on the number density of scattered particles and the size of X-ray beams, is currently 20-90%, probably the world record in XFEL-CXDI experiments. The experiment setups and results are introduced in this book. The author has also developed software suitable for efficiently processing of diffraction patterns and retrieving electron density maps of specimen particles based on the diffraction theory used in CXDI.

Small-Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids

Applications to Energy Storage and Environmental Science
Author: Yuri B. Melnichenko
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319011049
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 314
View: 2408

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This book examines the meso- and nanoscopic aspects of fluid adsorption in porous solids using a non-invasive method of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Starting with a brief summary of the basic assumptions and results of the theory of small-angle scattering from porous media, the author focuses on the practical aspects and methodology of the ambient and high pressure SANS and SAXS experiments and corresponding data analysis. It is illustrated with results of studies of the vapor and supercritical fluid adsorption in porous materials published during the last decade, obtained both for man-made materials (e.g. porous fractal silica, Vycor glass, activated carbon) and geological samples (e.g. sandstones, shales and coal). In order to serve the needs of broad readership, the results are presented in the relevant context (e.g. petroleum exploration, anthropogenic carbon capture and sequestration, ion adsorption in supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, etc.).

Modern Aspects of Small-Angle Scattering


Author: H. Brumberger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401584575
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 463
View: 5076

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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Como, Italy, May 12--22, 1993

Scattering Methods and their Application in Colloid and Interface Science


Author: Otto Glatter
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128135816
Category: Science
Page: 404
View: 1828

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Scattering Methods and their Application in Colloid and Interface Science offers an overview of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques (SAXS & SANS), as well as static and dynamic light scattering (SLS & DLS). These scattering techniques are central to the study of soft matter, such as colloidal dispersions and surfactant self-assembly. The theoretical concepts are followed by an overview of instrumentation and a detailed description of the evaluation techniques in the first part of the book. In the second part, several typical application examples are used to show the strength and limitations of these techniques. Features the latest input from the world-leading expert with personal experience in all the fields covered (SAXS, SANS, SLS and DLS) Includes unified notation throughout the book to enhance its readability Provides—in a single source—scattering theory, evaluation of techniques and a variety of applications

Neutrons, X-rays and Light

Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed Matter
Author: Thomas Zemb,Peter Lindner
Publisher: North-Holland
ISBN: 9780444511225
Category: Science
Page: 541
View: 2370

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Scattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data.

Characterization of Polymer Blends

Miscibility, Morphology and Interfaces
Author: Sabu Thomas,Yves Grohens,P. Jyotishkumar
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527645616
Category: Science
Page: 994
View: 4150

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Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.

Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy


Author: Françoise Hippert,Erik Geissler,Jean Louis Hodeau,Eddy Lelièvre-Berna,Jean-René Regnard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402033370
Category: Science
Page: 566
View: 5833

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- Up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources - Multi-technique approach set around a central theme, rather than a monograph on one technique - Emphasis on the complementarity of neutron spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy which are usually treated in separate books

Field Emission Electronics


Author: Nikolay Egorov,Evgeny Sheshin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319565613
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 568
View: 7343

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This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes


Author: Ales Iglic
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123812674
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 5492

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Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 9, continues to include invited chapters on a broad range of topics, covering both main arrangements of the reconstituted system, namely planar lipid bilayers and spherical liposomes. The invited authors present the latest results in this exciting multidisciplinary field of their own research group. Many of the contributors working in both fields over many decades were in close collaboration with the late Prof. H. Ti Tien, the founding editor of this book series. There are also chapters written by some of the younger generation of scientists included in this series. This volume keeps in mind the broader goal with both systems, planar lipid bilayers and spherical liposomes, which is the further development of this interdisciplinary field worldwide. Incorporates contributions from newcomers and established and experienced researchers Explores the planar lipid bilayer systems and spherical liposomes from both theoretical and experimental perspectives Serves as an indispensable source of information for new scientists

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction

The Commonwealth and International Library: Selected Readings in Physics
Author: G. E. Bacon
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483158292
Category: Science
Page: 378
View: 9029

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X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction describes the developments of the X-ray and the various research done in neutron diffraction. Part I of the book concerns the principles and applications of the X-ray and neutrons through their origins from classical crystallography. The book explains the use of diffraction methods to show the highly regular arrangement of atoms that forms a continuous pattern in three-dimensional space. The text evaluates the limitations and benefits of using the different types of radiation sources, whether these are X-rays, neutrons, or electrons. Part II is a collection of reprints discussing the development of techniques that includes a modification of the Bragg method, which is a method of X-ray crystal analysis. One paper presents an improved numerical method of two-dimensional Fourier synthesis for crystals. This method uses a greatly reduced process of arrangement of sets of figures found in the two-dimensional Fourier series. The book also notes the theoretical considerations and the practical details, and then addresses precautions against possible inclusions of errors in this method. The text deals as well with the magnetic scattering of neutrons, and one paper presents a simple method of gathering information about the magnetic moment of the neutron besides the traditional Stern-Gerlach method. Nuclear scientists and physicists, atomic researchers, and nuclear engineers will greatly appreciate the book.

Methods of X-ray and Neutron Scattering in Polymer Science


Author: Ryong-Joon Roe
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195113211
Category: Science
Page: 331
View: 9312

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Methods of X-ray and Neutron Scattering in Polymer Science presents the basic theories underlying x-ray and neutron scattering--two of the most powerful tools for characterizing materials--and also covers the various techniques that have been developed for their application to the study of polymers. While there is a great deal of similarity between the x-ray and neutron scattering methods, the two were developed in different time periods by different groups of scientists, and as a result very distinct terminologies evolved to explain the same phenomena. In this unique text the two are presented together from the very beginning, with a consistent set of symbols and terminologies, so that students can become equally familiar with both from the outset. Also, to help students gain a unified view of diffraction, the distinction between wide-angle diffraction and small-angle scattering is postponed until late in the text. Methods of X-ray and Neutron Scattering in Polymer Science emphasizes basic concepts rather than details of specific techniques and derives relationships from first premises wherever possible. Beginning with coverage of the basic properties of x-rays and neutrons and their scattering from matter, it goes on to discuss methods of studying specific types of samples or properties. Topics covered include single-component crystalline and amorphous polymers; the small-angle scattering technique; binary, single-phase systems such as polymer blend and polymer solution; the technique of reflectivity measurement; and polymer dynamics by means of inelastic neutron scattering. A perfect introductory textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in polymer science,Methods of X-ray and Neutron Scattering in Polymer Science also serves as a helpful self-study tool for polymer scientists seeking an introduction to scattering techniques. Further reading lists at the end of each chapter encourage readers to explore more advanced topics on their own.

Magnetoviscous Effects in Ferrofluids


Author: Stefan Odenbach
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540455442
Category: Science
Page: 154
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Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles or ferrofluids can be effectively controlled by magnetic fields, which opens up a fascinating field for basic research into fluid dynamics as well as a host of applications in engineering and medicine. The introductory chapter provides the reader with basic information on the structure, and magnetic and viscous properties of ferrofluids. The bulk of this monograph is based on the author's own research activity and deals with ferrohydrodynamics, especially with the magnetoviscous effects. In particular, the author studies in detail the interparticle interactions so far often neglected but of great importance in concentrated ferrofluids. The basic theory and the most recent experimental findings are presented, making the book interesting reading for physicists or engineers interested in smart materials.