Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences


Author: Daniel S. Wilks
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123850223
Category: Mathematics
Page: 676
View: 8355

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This revised and expanded text explains the latest statistical methods that are being used to describe, analyze, test, and forecast atmospheric data. It features numerous worked examples, illustrations, equations, and exercises with separate solutions. The book will help advanced students and professionals understand and communicate what their data sets have to say, and make sense of the scientific literature in meteorology, climatology, and related disciplines.

A Guide to Empirical Orthogonal Functions for Climate Data Analysis


Author: Antonio Navarra,Valeria Simoncini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048137022
Category: Science
Page: 151
View: 9393

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Climatology and meteorology have basically been a descriptive science until it became possible to use numerical models, but it is crucial to the success of the strategy that the model must be a good representation of the real climate system of the Earth. Models are required to reproduce not only the mean properties of climate, but also its variability and the strong spatial relations between climate variability in geographically diverse regions. Quantitative techniques were developed to explore the climate variability and its relations between different geographical locations. Methods were borrowed from descriptive statistics, where they were developed to analyze variance of related observations-variable pairs, or to identify unknown relations between variables. A Guide to Empirical Orthogonal Functions for Climate Data Analysis uses a different approach, trying to introduce the reader to a practical application of the methods, including data sets from climate simulations and MATLAB codes for the algorithms. All pictures and examples used in the book may be reproduced by using the data sets and the routines available in the book . Though the main thrust of the book is for climatological examples, the treatment is sufficiently general that the discussion is also useful for students and practitioners in other fields. Supplementary datasets are available via http://extra.springer.com

Geodäsie


Author: Wolfgang Torge
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110198177
Category: Science
Page: 379
View: 3004

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Das Buch gibt einen systematischen Überblick über die grundlegenden Theorien, die Bezugssysteme und die Mess- und Auswertemethoden der Geodäsie, wobei der Beitrag der geodätischen Raumtechniken zur Positionierung und zur Schwerefeldbestimmung besonders herausgestellt wird. Diese Methoden haben auch zu einem für die Praxis wichtigen Wandel in der Einrichtung geodätischer Grundlagennetze geführt. Zur interdisziplinären Geodynamikforschung kann die Geodäsie damit ebenfalls wesentliche Beiträge leisten. Der gegenwärtige Stand der Geodäsie wird durch eine Vielzahl von Beispielen aus Messung, Auswertung und Analyse illustriert, ein umfangreiches Literaturverzeichnis erleichtert ein weitergehendes Studium. Das Buch vermittelt einen umfassenden Überblick über die tiefgreifenden Veränderungen, welche die Geodäsie in den vergangenen zwanzig Jahren erfahren hat.

Studies in the Atmospheric Sciences


Author: Mark L. Berliner,Douglas Nychka,Timothy Hoar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387987576
Category: Mathematics
Page: 199
View: 986

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The need to understand and predict the processes that influence the Earth's atmosphere is one of the grand scientific challenges for the next century. Due to the complexity of observational data and the variability of geophysical phenomena at many spatial and temporal scales, statistical science has an important role to play in this effort. This volume is a series of case studies and review chapters that cover many of the recent developments in statistical methodology that are useful for interpreting atmospheric data. Although the applications in this volume target atmospheric sciences, the statistical methodology is general and addresses many common problems that arise in the analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data. For this reason, it would also serve as a statistical source for graduate students and other researchers across a broad range of geophysical and environmental sciences. L. Mark Berliner is Professor of Statistics at Ohio State University. He has served as Project Leader for the Geophysical Statistics Project (GSP) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), 1995-97. Douglas Nychka is the current GSP Leader and a Senior Scientist at NCAR. Timothy Hoar is an Associate Scientist at NCAR.

Die Stratosphäre

Phänomene, Geschichte, Relevanz
Author: Karin Labitzke
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642599893
Category: Science
Page: 178
View: 3765

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In diesem Buch wird einerseits die spannende Entdeckung der Stratosphäre selbst und verschiedener unerwarteter Phänomene in der Stratosphäre beschrieben: ein bemannter Ballonflug im Jahr 1901 bis in 11 km Höhe; eine Expedition zum Victoriasee im Jahr 1908; die Entdeckung der Ozonschicht um 1930, des "Berliner Phänomens" im Jahr 1952, des Einflusses von Vulkaneruptionen im Jahr 1982, des Ozonlochs im Jahr 1985 und des Einflusses der Sonnenaktivität im Jahr 1987. Andererseits wird gezeigt, wie diese Erscheinungen miteinander verknüpft sind und wie sie anthropogene und natürliche Schwankungen in unserem Klimasystem verursachen. Am Beispiel der Stratosphäre soll das Buch zum Verständnis der Erforschung komplizierter Zusammenhänge in der Natur beitragen.

The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth's Climate

A Workshop Report
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on the Effects of Solar Variability on Earth's Climate
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309265649
Category: Science
Page: 70
View: 3203

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On September 8-9, 2011, experts in solar physics, climate models, paleoclimatology, and atmospheric science assembled at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado for a workshop to consider the Sun's variability over time and potential Sun-climate connections. While it does not provide findings, recommendations, or consensus on the current state of the science, The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth's Climate: A Workshop Report briefly introduces the primary topics discussed by presenters at the event. As context for these topics, the summary includes background information on the potential Sun-climate connection, the measurement record from space, and potential perturbations of climate due to long-term solar variability. This workshop report also summarizes some of the science questions explored by the participants as potential future research endeavors.

Achievements, History and Challenges in Geophysics

60th Anniversary of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences
Author: Robert Bialik,Mariusz Majdański,Mateusz Moskalik
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319075993
Category: Science
Page: 417
View: 8692

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Over the last six decades, the field of geophysics has experienced rapid development. Seismic methods, magnetic studies, hydrology and atmospheric sciences have expanded thanks to a boom in the computer sciences and measurement techniques. The frontiers of geophysics have also expanded, now including research on the polar areas, both Arctic and Antarctic. All these events are clearly reflected in the 60-year-long history of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences. This volume describes the most prominent achievements, the history of research and also the future potential of the Institute of Geophysics PAS. It describes measurements in various projects, methods of interpreting scientific data, and last but not least the people who have driven this research in many scientific projects.

Eine kurze Geschichte des Klimas

von der Entstehung der Erde bis heute
Author: Karl-Heinz Ludwig
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 9783406565571
Category:
Page: 215
View: 6042

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Klimafaktoren, Entwicklung des Klimas in der Erdgeschichte, Auswirkungen auf die Evolution von Pflanzen, Tieren und Menschen, aktuelle Probleme des Klimaschutzes u.v.m.

Das Werden Der Welten


Author: Svante Arrhenius
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3864446783
Category:
Page: 220
View: 6939

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Ein Werk des Nobelpreistr gers Svante Arrhenius, Nachdruck des Originals von 1908.

Artificial Intelligence Methods in the Environmental Sciences


Author: Sue Ellen Haupt,Antonello Pasini,Caren Marzban
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402091192
Category: Science
Page: 424
View: 6111

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How can environmental scientists and engineers use the increasing amount of available data to enhance our understanding of planet Earth, its systems and processes? This book describes various potential approaches based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, including neural networks, decision trees, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic. Part I contains a series of tutorials describing the methods and the important considerations in applying them. In Part II, many practical examples illustrate the power of these techniques on actual environmental problems. International experts bring to life ways to apply AI to problems in the environmental sciences. While one culture entwines ideas with a thread, another links them with a red line. Thus, a “red thread“ ties the book together, weaving a tapestry that pictures the ‘natural’ data-driven AI methods in the light of the more traditional modeling techniques, and demonstrating the power of these data-based methods.

From Depositional Systems to Sedimentary Successions on the Norwegian Continental Margin


Author: Allard W. Martinius,R. Ravnås,J. A. Howell,R. J. Steel,J. P. Wonham
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118920457
Category: Science
Page: 712
View: 1670

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The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS), focus of this special publication, is a prolific hydrocarbon region and both exploration and production activity remains high to this day with a positive production outlook. A key element today and in the future is to couple technological developments to improving our understanding of specific geological situations. The theme of the publication reflects the immense efforts made by all industry operators and their academic partners on the NCS to understand in detail the structural setting, sedimentology and stratigraphy of the hydrocarbon bearing units and their source and seal. The papers cover a wide spectrum of depositional environments ranging from alluvial fans to deepwater fans, in almost every climate type from arid through humid to glacial, and in a variety of tectonic settings. Special attention is given to the integration of both analogue studies and process-based models with the insights gained from extensive subsurface datasets.

GeoENV IV - Geostatistics for Environmental Applications


Author: Xavier Sanchez-Vila,Jesus Carrera,J. Jaime Gómez-Hernández
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402021145
Category: Mathematics
Page: 541
View: 1908

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This volume contains forty-one selected full-text contributions from the Fourth European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Applications, geoENV IV, held in Barcelona, Spain, November 2002. The objective of the editors was to compile a set of papers from which the reader could perceive how geostatistics is applied within the environmental sciences. A few selected theoretical contributions are also included. The papers are organized in the following sections: -Air pollution and satellite images, -Ecology and environment, -Hydrogeology, -Climatology and rainfall, -Oceanography, -Soil science, -Methodology. Applications of geostatistics vary from particle matter analysis, land cover classification, space-time ozone mapping, downscaling of precipitation, contaminant transport in the subsurface, aquifer reclamation, analysis of Iberian hare or phytoplankton abundance, coastal current patterns, to soil pollution by heavy metals or dioxins. At the back of the book nineteen posters presented at the congress are included. The combination of full texts and posters provides a picture of the tendencies that can presently be found in Europe regarding the applications of geostatistics for environmentally related problems. Audience: After four editions the geoENV Congress Series has established itself as a 'must' to all scientists working in the field of geostatistics for environmental applications. Each geoENV congress covers the developments which have occurred during the preceding two years, but always with a highly applied focus. It is precisely this focus on the applications to environmental sciences which makes the geoENV volumes unique and of great interest and practical value to geostatisticians working both in academia and in industry.

Statistical Postprocessing of Ensemble Forecasts


Author: Stéphane Vannitsem,Daniel S. Wilks,Jakob Messner
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 012812248X
Category: Science
Page: 362
View: 1283

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Statistical Postprocessing of Ensemble Forecasts brings together chapters contributed by international subject-matter experts describing the current state of the art in the statistical postprocessing of ensemble forecasts. The book illustrates the use of these methods in several important applications including weather, hydrological and climate forecasts, and renewable energy forecasting. After an introductory section on ensemble forecasts and prediction systems, the second section of the book is devoted to exposition of the methods available for statistical postprocessing of ensemble forecasts: univariate and multivariate ensemble postprocessing are first reviewed by Wilks (Chapters 3), then Schefzik and Möller (Chapter 4), and the more specialized perspective necessary for postprocessing forecasts for extremes is presented by Friederichs, Wahl, and Buschow (Chapter 5). The second section concludes with a discussion of forecast verification methods devised specifically for evaluation of ensemble forecasts (Chapter 6 by Thorarinsdottir and Schuhen). The third section of this book is devoted to applications of ensemble postprocessing. Practical aspects of ensemble postprocessing are first detailed in Chapter 7 (Hamill), including an extended and illustrative case study. Chapters 8 (Hemri), 9 (Pinson and Messner), and 10 (Van Schaeybroeck and Vannitsem) discuss ensemble postprocessing specifically for hydrological applications, postprocessing in support of renewable energy applications, and postprocessing of long-range forecasts from months to decades. Finally, Chapter 11 (Messner) provides a guide to the ensemble-postprocessing software available in the R programming language, which should greatly help readers implement many of the ideas presented in this book. Edited by three experts with strong and complementary expertise in statistical postprocessing of ensemble forecasts, this book assesses the new and rapidly developing field of ensemble forecast postprocessing as an extension of the use of statistical corrections to traditional deterministic forecasts. Statistical Postprocessing of Ensemble Forecasts is an essential resource for researchers, operational practitioners, and students in weather, seasonal, and climate forecasting, as well as users of such forecasts in fields involving renewable energy, conventional energy, hydrology, environmental engineering, and agriculture. Consolidates, for the first time, the methodologies and applications of ensemble forecasts in one succinct place Provides real-world examples of methods used to formulate forecasts Presents the tools needed to make the best use of multiple model forecasts in a timely and efficient manner

Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis VIII

8th International Symposium on Intelligent Data Analysis, IDA 2009, Lyon, France, August 31 - September 2, 2009, Proceedings
Author: Niall M. Adams,Céline Robardet,Arno Siebes,Jean-Francois Boulicaut
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642039146
Category: Computers
Page: 418
View: 971

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis, IDA 2009, held in Lyon, France, August 31 – September 2, 2009. The 33 revised papers, 18 full oral presentations and 15 poster and short oral presentations, presented were carefully reviewed and selected from almost 80 submissions. All current aspects of this interdisciplinary field are addressed; for example interactive tools to guide and support data analysis in complex scenarios, increasing availability of automatically collected data, tools that intelligently support and assist human analysts, how to control clustering results and isotonic classification trees. In general the areas covered include statistics, machine learning, data mining, classification and pattern recognition, clustering, applications, modeling, and interactive dynamic data visualization.

Statistical Programs of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2012


Author: Office of Management and Budget (U S )
Publisher: Government Printing Office
ISBN: 9780160893643
Category:
Page: 92
View: 3107

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This report fulfills OMB's responsibility under the Paperwork Reduction Act to report annually to Congress on the status and budget for each major statistical program. The report provides information on more than 80 agencies that have budgets of $500,000 or more for statistical activities for FY 2010, FY 2011, or FY 2012. Chapter 1 highlights Congressional action on the President's FY 2011 budget request and the President's proposed FY 2012 funding for statistical activities. The chapter also includes information about statistical work performed by agencies on a reimbursable basis and about agency purchases of statistical services and projects. Chapter 2 presents significant changes proposed for Federal statistical activities in the FY 2012 budget. Chapter 3 provides information on plans for improving Federal statistical programs.

Earth Science and Applications from Space

A Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey
Author: Committee on the Assessment of NASA's Earth Science Program,Space Studies Board,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309257034
Category: Science
Page: 99
View: 1654

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Understanding the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment and their implications requires a foundation of integrated observations of land, sea, air and space, on which to build credible information products, forecast models, and other tools for making informed decisions. The 2007 National Research Council report on decadal survey called for a renewal of the national commitment to a program of Earth observations in which attention to securing practical benefits for humankind plays an equal role with the quest to acquire new knowledge about the Earth system. NASA responded favorably and aggressively to this survey, embracing its overall recommendations for Earth observations, missions, technology investments, and priorities for the underlying science. As a result, the science and applications communities have made significant progress over the past 5 years. However, the Committee on Assessment of NASA's Earth Science Program found that the survey vision is being realized at a far slower pace than was recommended, principally because the required budget was not achieved. Exacerbating the budget shortfalls, NASA Earth science programs experienced launch failures and delays and the cost of implementing missions increased substantially as a result of changes in mission scope, increases in launch vehicle costs and/or the lack of availability of a medium-class launch vehicle, under-estimation of costs by the decadal survey, and unfunded programmatic changes that were required by Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. In addition, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has made significant reductions in scope to its future Earth environmental observing satellites as it contends with budget shortfalls. Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey recommends a number of steps to better manage existing programs and to implement future programs that will be recommended by the next decadal survey. The report also highlights the urgent need for the Executive Branch to develop and implement an overarching multiagency national strategy for Earth observations from space, a key recommendation of the 2007 decadal survey that remains unfulfilled.