Sport, Militarism and the Great War

Martial Manliness and Armageddon
Author: Thierry Terret,J. A. Mangan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135760888
Category: Sports & Recreation
Page: 312
View: 9557

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The Great War has been largely ignored by historians of sport. However sport was an integral part of cultural conditioning into both physiological and psychological military efficiency in the decades leading up to it. It is time to acknowledge that the Great War also had an influence on sport in post-war European culture. Both are neglected topics. Sport, Militarism and the Great War deals with four significant aspects of the relationship between sport and war before, during and immediately after the 1914-1918 conflict. First, it explores the creation and consolidation of the cult of martial heroism and chivalric self-sacrifice in the pre-war era. Second, it examines the consequences of the mingling of soldiers from various nations on later sport. Third, it considers the role of the Great War in the transformation of the leisure of the masses. Finally, it examines the links between war, sport and male socialisation. The Great War contributed to a redefinition of European masculinity in the post-war period. The part sport played in this redefinition receives attention. Sport, Militarism and the Great War is in two parts: the Continental (Part I) and the "Anglo-Saxon" (Part II). No study has adopted this bilateral approach to date. Thus, in conception and execution, it is original. With its originality of content and the approaching centenary of the advent of the Great War in 2014, it is anticipated that the book will capture a wide audience. This book was originally published as a special issue of The International Journal of the History of Sport.

Sport and Militarism

Contemporary global perspectives
Author: Michael L. Butterworth
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1134990383
Category: History
Page: 292
View: 3848

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The institutional relationship between sport and the military appears to be intensifying. In the US for example, which faced global criticism for its foreign policy during the "war on terror," militaristic images are commonplace at sporting events. The growing global phenomenon of conflating sport with war calls for closer analysis. This critical, interdisciplinary and international book seeks to identify intersections of sport and militarism as a means to interrogate, interrupt and intervene on behalf of democratic, peaceful politics. Viewing sport as a crucial site in which militarism is made visible and legitimate, the book explores the connections between sport, the military and the state, and their consequent impact on wider culture. Featuring case studies on sports such as association football, baseball and athletics from countries including the US, UK, Germany, Canada, South Africa, Brazil and Japan, each chapter sheds new light on the shifting significance of sport in our society. This book is fascinating reading for all those interested in sport and politics, the sociology of sport, communication studies, the ethics and philosophy of sport, or military sociology.

Militarism in a Global Age

Naval Ambitions in Germany and the United States before World War I
Author: Dirk Bönker
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801464358
Category: History
Page: 440
View: 9106

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At the turn of the twentieth century, the United States and Germany emerged as the two most rapidly developing industrial nation-states of the Atlantic world. The elites and intelligentsias of both countries staked out claims to dominance in the twentieth century. In Militarism in a Global Age, Dirk Bönker explores the far-reaching ambitions of naval officers before World War I as they advanced navalism, a particular brand of modern militarism that stressed the paramount importance of sea power as a historical determinant. Aspiring to make their own countries into self-reliant world powers in an age of global empire and commerce, officers viewed the causes of the industrial nation, global influence, elite rule, and naval power as inseparable. Characterized by both transnational exchanges and national competition, the new maritime militarism was technocratic in its impulses; its makers cast themselves as members of a professional elite that served the nation with its expert knowledge of maritime and global affairs. American and German navalist projects differed less in their principal features than in their eventual trajectories. Over time, the pursuits of these projects channeled the two naval elites in different directions as they developed contrasting outlooks on their bids for world power and maritime force. Combining comparative history with transnational and global history, Militarism in a Global Age challenges traditional, exceptionalist assumptions about militarism and national identity in Germany and the United States in its exploration of empire and geopolitics, warfare and military-operational imaginations, state formation and national governance, and expertise and professionalism.

Great War and Women's Consciousness

Images of Militarism and Womanhood
Author: Claire M. Tylee
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1349204544
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 293
View: 8316

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The literary memory of the Great War is dominated by the writings of Sassoon and Owen, Graves and Blunden. The voice is a male voice. This book is a study of what women wrote about militarism and world war 1

The New American Militarism

How Americans Are Seduced by War
Author: Andrew J. Bacevich
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199323836
Category: History
Page: 304
View: 1573

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In this provocative book, Andrew Bacevich warns of a dangerous dual obsession that has taken hold of Americans, both conservatives and liberals alike. It is a marriage of militarism and utopian ideology, of unprecedented military might wed to a blind faith in the universality of American values. This mindset, Bacevich warns, invites endless war and the ever-deepening militarization of U.S. policy. It promises not to perfect but to pervert American ideals and to accelerate the hollowing out of American democracy. In The New American Militarism, Bacevich examines the origins and implications of this misguided enterprise. He shows how American militarism emerged as a reaction to the Vietnam War, when various groups in American society -soldiers, politicians on the make, intellectuals, strategists, Christian evangelicals, even purveyors of pop culture-came to see the revival of military power and the celebration of military values as the antidote to all the ills besetting the country as a consequence of Vietnam and the 1960s. The upshot, acutely evident in the aftermath of 9/11, has been a revival of vast ambitions, this time coupled with a pronounced affinity for the sword. Bacevich urges Americans to restore a sense of realism and a sense of proportion to U.S. policy. He proposes, in short, to bring American purposes and American methods-especially with regard to the role of the military-back into harmony with the nation's founding ideals. For this edition, Bacevich has written a new Afterword in which he considers how American militarism has changed in the past five years. He explores in particular how this ideology has functioned under Barack Obama, who ran for president on a campaign based on hope for change and for a new beginning. Despite such rhetoric, Bacevich powerfully suggests, the attitudes and arrangements giving rise to the new American militarism remain intact and inviolable as ever.

The Pity of War

Explaining World War I
Author: Niall Ferguson
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 078672529X
Category: History
Page: 352
View: 2695

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In The Pity of War, Niall Ferguson makes a simple and provocative argument: that the human atrocity known as the Great War was entirely England's fault. Britain, according to Ferguson, entered into war based on naïve assumptions of German aims—and England's entry into the war transformed a Continental conflict into a world war, which they then badly mishandled, necessitating American involvement. The war was not inevitable, Ferguson argues, but rather the result of the mistaken decisions of individuals who would later claim to have been in the grip of huge impersonal forces.That the war was wicked, horrific, inhuman,is memorialized in part by the poetry of men like Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon, but also by cold statistics. More British soldiers were killed in the first day of the Battle of the Somme than Americans in the Vietnam War; indeed, the total British fatalities in that single battle—some 420,000—exceeds the entire American fatalities for both World Wars. And yet, as Ferguson writes, while the war itself was a disastrous folly, the great majority of men who fought it did so with enthusiasm. Ferguson vividly brings back to life this terrifying period, not through dry citation of chronological chapter and verse but through a series of brilliant chapters focusing on key ways in which we now view the First World War.For anyone wanting to understand why wars are fought, why men are willing to fight them, and why the world is as it is today, there is no sharper nor more stimulating guide than Niall Ferguson's The Pity of War.

The Great and Holy War

How World War I Became a Religious Crusade
Author: Philip Jenkins
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0062105108
Category: Religion
Page: 448
View: 5494

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The Great and Holy War offers the first look at how religion created and prolonged the First World War. At the one-hundredth anniversary of the outbreak of the war, historian Philip Jenkins reveals the powerful religious dimensions of this modern-day crusade, a period that marked a traumatic crisis for Western civilization, with effects that echoed throughout the rest of the twentieth century. The war was fought by the world's leading Christian nations, who presented the conflict as a holy war. Thanks to the emergence of modern media, a steady stream of patriotic and militaristic rhetoric was given to an unprecedented audience, using language that spoke of holy war and crusade, of apocalypse and Armageddon. But this rhetoric was not mere state propaganda. Jenkins reveals how the widespread belief in angels and apparitions, visions and the supernatural was a driving force throughout the war and shaped all three of the major religions—Christianity, Judaism and Islam—paving the way for modern views of religion and violence. The disappointed hopes and moral compromises that followed the war also shaped the political climate of the rest of the century, giving rise to such phenomena as Nazism, totalitarianism, and communism. Connecting numerous remarkable incidents and characters—from Karl Barth to Carl Jung, the Christmas Truce to the Armenian Genocide—Jenkins creates a powerful and persuasive narrative that brings together global politics, history, and spiritual crisis as never before and shows how religion informed and motivated circumstances on all sides of the war.

The Hollywood War Machine

U.S. Militarism and Popular Culture
Author: Carl Boggs
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351543601
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 4563

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The newly expanded and revised edition of The Hollywood War Machine includes wide-ranging exploration of numerous popular military-themed films that have appeared in the close to a decade since the first edition was published. Within the Hollywood movie community, there has not been even the slightest decline in well-financed pictures focusing on warfare and closely-related motifs. The second edition includes a new chapter on recent popular films and another that analyzes the relationship between these movies and the bourgeoning gun culture in the United States, marked in recent years by a dramatic increase in episodes of mass killings.

Manliness and Militarism

Educating Young Boys in Ontario for War
Author: Mark Howard Moss
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 9780195415940
Category: History
Page: 216
View: 5487

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Euphoria swept Canada, and especially Ontario, with the outbreak of World War I. But why were people excited by the prospect of war? What popular attitudes about war had become ingrained in the society? This book examines the cult of manliness as it developed in Victorian and Edwardian Ontario, revealing a number of factors that fed the eagerness of youth to prove their mettle on the battlefields of Europe.

Addicted to War

Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism : an Illustrated Expos�
Author: N.A
Publisher: AK Press
ISBN: 9781904859017
Category: History
Page: 77
View: 6931

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A hard-hitting illustrated expose of the world's most powerful and destructive military.

Love and War

How Militarism Shapes Sexuality and Romance
Author: Tom Digby
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231168403
Category: Philosophy
Page: 240
View: 1860

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Ideas of masculinity and femininity become sharply defined in war-reliant societies, resulting in a presumed enmity between men and women. This so-called battle of the sexes intensifies in tandem with dispositions to fight actual wars. These are among the fascinating discoveries Tom Digby shares in Love and War, which describes the making and manipulation of gender in both militaristic and nonmilitaristic societies and the consequences for men and women in their personal, romantic, sexual, and professional lives. Drawing on cross-cultural comparisons and examples from popular media, including sports culture, the rise of ÒgonzoÓ and ÒbangbusÓ pornography, and ÒInternet trolls,Ó Digby shows how misogyny and toughness are deployed to construct masculinity in ways that undermine relations between women and men. Through diverse philosophical methodologies, he identifies the cultural elements that contribute to heterosexual antagonism, such as an enduring faith in male force to solve problems, the glorification of violent men who suppress caring emotions, the devaluation of menÕs physical and emotional lives, an imaginary gender binary, male privilege premised on the subordination of women, and the use of misogyny to encourage masculine behavior. Digby tracks the Òcollateral damageÓ of this disabling misogyny in the lives of both men and women, but ends on a hopeful note. He ultimately finds the link between war and gender to be dissolving in many societies: war is becoming degendered, and gender is becoming demilitarized.

Militarism, Sport, Europe

War Without Weapons
Author: J A Mangan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135773173
Category: Sports & Recreation
Page: 240
View: 2161

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A collection of essays exploring the relationship between sport and war, bringing together established authors that include Peter Beck, Hans Bonde, J.A. Mangan and Gertrud Pfister, and emerging authors such as Penelope Kissoudi, Orestis Kustrin, Callum McKenzie and Roberta Vescovi.

Playing War

Children and the Paradoxes of Modern Militarism in Japan
Author: Sabine Frühstück
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520295447
Category: History
Page: 280
View: 3415

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"For over a century throughout Japan and beyond, children and concepts of childhood have been appropriated as tools for decidedly unchildlike purposes: to validate, moralize, humanize, and naturalize war, and to sentimentalize peace. Playing War argues that modern conceptions of war insist on and exploit a specific and static notion of the child: that the child, though the embodiment of vulnerability and innocence, nonetheless possesses an inherent will to war, and that this seemingly contradictory creature demonstrates what it means to be human. In examining the intersection of children/childhood with war/military, Sabine Freuhsteuck identifies the insidious factors perpetuating this alliance, thus rethinking the very foundations of modern militarism. She also interrogates how essentialist notions of both childhood and war have been productively intertwined; how assumptions about childhood and war have converged; and how children and childhood have worked as symbolic constructions and powerful rhetorical tools, particularly in the decades between the nation and empire-building efforts of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries up to the uneven manifestations of globalization at the beginning of the twenty-first."--Provided by publisher.

A Hobbit, a Wardrobe, and a Great War

How J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis Rediscovered Faith, Friendship, and Heroism in the Cataclysm of 1914-18
Author: Joseph Loconte
Publisher: Thomas Nelson
ISBN: 0718021770
Category: Religion
Page: 256
View: 6506

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The untold story of how the First World War shaped the lives, faith, and writings of J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis The First World War laid waste to a continent and permanently altered the political and religious landscape of the West. For a generation of men and women, it brought the end of innocence—and the end of faith. Yet for J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis, the Great War deepened their spiritual quest. Both men served as soldiers on the Western Front, survived the trenches, and used the experience of that conflict to ignite their Christian imagination. Had there been no Great War, there would have been noHobbit, no Lord of the Rings, no Narnia, and perhaps no conversion to Christianity by C. S. Lewis. Unlike a generation of young writers who lost faith in the God of the Bible, Tolkien and Lewis produced epic stories infused with the themes of guilt and grace, sorrow and consolation. Giving an unabashedly Christian vision of hope in a world tortured by doubt and disillusionment, the two writers created works that changed the course of literature and shaped the faith of millions. This is the first book to explore their work in light of the spiritual crisis sparked by the conflict.

Embodying Militarism

Exploring the Spaces and Bodies In-Between
Author: Synne L. Dyvik,Lauren Greenwood
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351770705
Category: History
Page: 142
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How are militarism and militarisation embodied and why is it important to study these concepts together? This volume highlights a lack of research into people’s emotions, bodies and experiences in global politics, and brings these important dimensions to bear on how we study militarism and process of militarisation. This collection showcases innovative research that examines people’s everyday lived experience and the multiple ways militarism is enshrined in our societies. Emphasising the benefits of interdisciplinary thinking, its chapters interrogate a range of methodological, ethical, and theoretical questions related to embodiment and militarism from a range of empirical contexts. Authors from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds reveal the myriad of ways in which militarism is experienced by gendered, raced, aged, and sexed bodies. The volume covers a wide range of topics, including the impact of social media; gender, queer, and feminist research on the military; the challenges of writing about embodied experience; and the commercialisation of military fitness in civilian life. This book fills a gap in the study of militarism and militarisation and will be of interest to students and scholars of critical military studies, security studies, and war studies. It was originally published as a special issue of the journal Critical Military Studies.

The Marketing of War in the Age of Neo-Militarism


Author: Kostas Gouliamos,Christos Kassimeris
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136475141
Category: History
Page: 290
View: 9379

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The post-9/11 era and the overall impact of international terrorism have generated much debate regarding the role of military apparatus in modern society. This book assesses the inherent meaning of the militarization from a critical, interdisciplinary perspective. Against the background of democracy and capitalism, The Marketing of War in the Age of Neo-Militarism challenges prevailing accounts of the "military-industrial complex" as it explores significant interrelated themes denoting the accelerating process of militarization of society. Designed to address pressing socio-political phenomena, this book is the first of its genre contesting conventional wisdom about the perceived link between war and the "military-industrial complex." It is unique not merely because of its approach, but also for its thorough analysis of deeply affected social institutions and processes such as education, popular culture, geopolitics, military expenditure, space and the environment. Contributing authors advance the discussion by exposing factual information demonstrating the nature and scope of society’s militarization. Their analysis is also broadened to encompass key concepts and diverse aspects of the subject matter that provoke a lively debate. The book offers compelling arguments that will be indispensable to scholars, students, professionals, and policy and decision makers with an interest in social and political sciences as well as in other related fields.

Democratic Militarism

Voting, Wealth, and War
Author: Jonathan D. Caverley
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139917307
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 4612

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Why are democracies pursuing more military conflicts, but achieving worse results? Democratic Militarism shows that a combination of economic inequality and military technical change enables an average voter to pay very little of the costs of large militaries and armed conflict, in terms of both death and taxes. Jonathan Caverley provides an original statistical analysis of public opinion and international aggression, combined with historical evidence from the late Victorian British Empire, the US Vietnam War effort, and Israel's Second Lebanon War. This book undermines conventional wisdom regarding democracy's exceptional foreign policy characteristics, and challenges elite-centered explanations for poor foreign policy. This accessible and wide ranging book offers a new account of democratic warfare, and will help readers to understand the implications of the revolution in military affairs.

Violence and the German Soldier in the Great War

Killing, Dying, Surviving
Author: Benjamin Ziemann
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474239609
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 9354

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Translated into English as the Winner of the Geisteswissenschaften International Translation Prize for Work in the Humanities and Social Sciences 2015. During the Great War, mass killing took place on an unprecedented scale. Violence and the German Soldier in the Great War explores the practice of violence in the German army and demonstrates how he killing of enemy troops, the deaths of German soldiers and their survival were entwined. As the war reached its climax in 1918, German soldiers refused to continue killing in their droves, and thus made an active contribution to the German defeat and ensuing revolution. Examining the postwar period, the chapters of this book also discuss the contested issue of a 'brutalization' of German society as a prerequisite of the Nazi mass movement. Biographical case studies on key figures such as Ernst Jünger demonstrate how the killing of enemy troops by German soldiers followed a complex set of rules. Benjamin Ziemann makes a wealth of extensive archival work available to an Anglophone audience for the first time, enhancing our understanding of the German army and its practices of violence during the First World War as well as the implications of this brutalization in post-war Germany. This book provides new insights into a crucial topic for students of twentieth-century German history and the First World War.

Militarism and the British Left, 1902-1914


Author: M. Johnson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137274131
Category: Political Science
Page: 247
View: 7226

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Militarism has traditionally been regarded as a phenomenon of the political right. As this book demonstrates, however, various groups on the political left in Britain during the years before the Great War were able to accommodate, and even assimilate, militaristic ideas, sentiments, and policies to a remarkable degree.