Sojourning for Freedom

Black Women, American Communism, and the Making of Black Left Feminism
Author: Erik S. McDuffie
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822350505
Category: History
Page: 311
View: 8882

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Illuminates a pathbreaking black radical feminist politics forged by black women leftists active in the U.S. Communist Party between its founding in 1919 and its demise in the 1950s.

Radicalism at the Crossroads

African American Women Activists in the Cold War
Author: Dayo F. Gore
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814770118
Category: History
Page: 231
View: 6470

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With the exception of a few iconic moments such as Rosa Parks’s 1955 refusal to move to the back of a Montgomery bus, we hear little about what black women activists did prior to 1960. Perhaps this gap is due to the severe repression that radicals of any color in America faced as early as the 1930s, and into the Red Scare of the 1950s. To be radical, and black and a woman was to be forced to the margins and consequently, these women’s stories have been deeply buried and all but forgotten by the general public and historians alike. In this exciting work of historical recovery, Dayo F. Gore unearths and examines a dynamic, extended network of black radical women during the early Cold War, including established Communist Party activists such as Claudia Jones, artists and writers such as Beulah Richardson, and lesser known organizers such as Vicki Garvin and Thelma Dale. These women were part of a black left that laid much of the groundwork for both the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and later strains of black radicalism. Radicalism at the Crossroads offers a sustained and in-depth analysis of the political thought and activism of black women radicals during the Cold War period and adds a new dimension to our understanding of this tumultuous time in United States history.

Left of Karl Marx

The Political Life of Black Communist Claudia Jones
Author: Carole Boyce Davies
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822390329
Category: Social Science
Page: 344
View: 9384

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In Left of Karl Marx, Carole Boyce Davies assesses the activism, writing, and legacy of Claudia Jones (1915–1964), a pioneering Afro-Caribbean radical intellectual, dedicated communist, and feminist. Jones is buried in London’s Highgate Cemetery, to the left of Karl Marx—a location that Boyce Davies finds fitting given how Jones expanded Marxism-Leninism to incorporate gender and race in her political critique and activism. Claudia Cumberbatch Jones was born in Trinidad. In 1924, she moved to New York, where she lived for the next thirty years. She was active in the Communist Party from her early twenties onward. A talented writer and speaker, she traveled throughout the United States lecturing and organizing. In the early 1950s, she wrote a well-known column, “Half the World,” for the Daily Worker. As the U.S. government intensified its efforts to prosecute communists, Jones was arrested several times. She served nearly a year in a U.S. prison before being deported and given asylum by Great Britain in 1955. There she founded The West Indian Gazette and Afro-Asian Caribbean News and the Caribbean Carnival, an annual London festival that continues today as the Notting Hill Carnival. Boyce Davies examines Jones’s thought and journalism, her political and community organizing, and poetry that the activist wrote while she was imprisoned. Looking at the contents of the FBI file on Jones, Boyce Davies contrasts Jones’s own narration of her life with the federal government’s. Left of Karl Marx establishes Jones as a significant figure within Caribbean intellectual traditions, black U.S. feminism, and the history of communism.

Red Chicago

American Communism at Its Grassroots, 1928-35
Author: Randi Storch
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252076389
Category: History
Page: 297
View: 6165

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Realities of the street-level American Communist experience during the worst years of the Depression

Red Feminism

American Communism and the Making of Women's Liberation
Author: Kate Weigand
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801871115
Category: History
Page: 240
View: 849

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"The gulf between first- and second-wave feminism seems less broad thanks to this thoughtful analysis of women's activism with the Communist Party U.S.A. between World War II and the mid-1950s." -- Booklist

Aiming for Pensacola

Fugitive Slaves on the Atlantic and Southern Frontiers
Author: Matthew J. Clavin
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674088255
Category: History
Page: 262
View: 6312

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Before the Civil War, slaves who managed to escape almost always made their way northward along the Underground Railroad. Matthew Clavin recovers the story of fugitive slaves who sought freedom by paradoxically sojourning deeper into the American South toward an unlikely destination: the small seaport of Pensacola, Florida, a gateway to freedom.

Marxism, Reparations and the Black Freedom Struggle


Author: Monica Moorehead
Publisher: World View Forum Pub
ISBN: 9780895671370
Category: Social Science
Page: 197
View: 7456

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From the daily instances of police brutality and racial profiling to the government’s callous disregard of poor and mainly African American people in the wake of the Hurricane Katrina, this remarkable book identifies the continuing struggles for justice among a society still permeated with the racism, oppression, and economic, political, and social discrimination that resulted from the horrendous transatlantic slave trade. Illuminating the often forgotten history of this diaspora and the legacy of brutal prejudice that stemmed from it, this critical argument discusses the fight for reparations within the United States as well as among the peoples of Africa and the Caribbean.

In the Cause of Freedom

Radical Black Internationalism from Harlem to London, 1917-1939
Author: Minkah Makalani
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807869161
Category: Social Science
Page: 328
View: 3042

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In this intellectual history, Minkah Makalani reveals how early-twentieth-century black radicals organized an international movement centered on ending racial oppression, colonialism, class exploitation, and global white supremacy. Focused primarily on two organizations, the Harlem-based African Blood Brotherhood, whose members became the first black Communists in the United States, and the International African Service Bureau, the major black anticolonial group in 1930s London, In the Cause of Freedom examines the ideas, initiatives, and networks of interwar black radicals, as well as how they communicated across continents. Through a detailed analysis of black radical periodicals and extensive research in U.S., English, Dutch, and Soviet archives, Makalani explores how black radicals thought about race; understood the ties between African diasporic, Asian, and international workers' struggles; theorized the connections between colonialism and racial oppression; and confronted the limitations of international leftist organizations. Considering black radicals of Harlem and London together for the first time, In the Cause of Freedom reorients the story of blacks and Communism from questions of autonomy and the Kremlin's reach to show the emergence of radical black internationalism separate from, and independent of, the white Left.

Global Feminisms Since 1945


Author: Bonnie G. Smith
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415184915
Category: Social Science
Page: 319
View: 6148

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Global Feminisms Since 1945 is an innovative historical introduction to the issues of contemporary feminism, with a truly global perspective. It is a concise anthology considering the similarities and differences between feminisms in West and East, North and South, and highlighting class, racial, ethnic and imperial tensions and claims in the twentieth century. The book analyses the roots, development and, in some cases, the conclusions of feminisms and how they have interacted. From the European and American feminist movements to those in the ex-Soviet Union and women's rights groups in Africa and East Asia, Global Feminisms Since 1945 examines the key economic, technological, sexual, reproductive, ecological and political debates.

The Rise and Fall of the Associated Negro Press

Claude Barnett's Pan-African News and the Jim Crow Paradox
Author: Gerald Horne
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252099761
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 6372

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For more than fifty years, the Chicago-based Associated Negro Press (ANP) fought racism at home and grew into an international news organization abroad. At its head stood founder Claude Barnett, one of the most influential African Americans of his day and a gifted, if unofficial, diplomat who forged links with figures as diverse as Jawaharlal Nehru, Zora Neale Hurston, and Richard Nixon. Gerald Horne weaves Barnett's fascinating life story through a groundbreaking history of the ANP, including its deep dedication to Pan-Africanism. An activist force in journalism, Barnett also helped send doctors and teachers to Africa, advised African governments, gave priority to foreign newsgathering, and saw the African American struggle in global terms. Yet Horne also confronts Barnett's contradictions. A member of the African American elite, Barnett's sympathies with black aspirations often clashed with his ethics and a powerful desire to join the upper echelons of business and government. In the end, Barnett's activist success undid his work. Horne traces the dramatic story of the ANP's collapse as the mainstream press, retreating from Jim Crow, finally covered black issues and hired African American journalists.

Earl Browder

the failure of American communism
Author: James Gilbert Ryan
Publisher: University Alabama Press
ISBN: N.A
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 332
View: 996

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A Kansas farm boy corrupted by the perks of power. “Ryan’s study may well stand for many years as the definitive biography.”--Society “This meticulously researched study, which has made excellent use of both Soviet records and FBI files, shows how fatally flawed was Browder’s attempt to reconcile Stalinism, Americanism, and his own grandiose ambitions. A valuable contribution to the history of American radicalism, this book is highly recommended for all readers interested in the history of American politics and social movements.”--Choice “The first comprehensive biography of the Communist leader . . . the body of the book centers on Browder’s years as the [Communist] party’s national leader from the early 1930s to his removal as secretary general and subsequent expulsion from the CPUSA (American Communist Party) after 1945. The book’s most significant characteristic is the extensive use of recently opened files on the CPUSA housed in the Russian Center for the Preservation and Study of Documents of Recent History in Moscow.”--Journal of American History James G. Ryan is Professor of History at Texas A&M University at Galveston and coeditor of The Historical Dictionary of the Gilded Age.

Black Intersectionalities

A Critique for the 21st Century
Author: Monica Michlin,Jean-Paul Rocchi
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 178138553X
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 258
View: 1090

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Black Intersectionalities: A Critique for the 21st Century explores the complex interrelationships between race, gender, and sex as these are conceptualised within contemporary thought. Markers of identity are too often isolated and presented as definitive, then examined and theorised, a process that further naturalises their absoluteness; thus socially generated constructs become socialising categories that assume coercive power. The resulting set of oppositions isolate and delimit: male or female, black or white, straight or gay. A new kind of intervention is needed, an intervention that recognises the validity of the researcher's own self-reflexivity. Focusing on the way identity is both constructed and constructive, the collection examines the frameworks and practices that deny transgressive possibilities. It seeks to engage in a consciousness raising exercise that documents the damaging nature of assigned social positions and either/or identity constructions. It seeks to progress beyond the socially prescribed categories of race, gender and sex, recognising the need to combine intellectualization and feeling, rationality and affectivity, abstraction and emotion, consciousness and desire. It seeks to develop new types of transdisciplinary frameworks where subjective and political spaces can be universalized while remaining particular, leaving texts open so that identity remains imagined, plural, and continuously shifting. Such an approach restores the complexity of what it means to be human.

Louise Thompson Patterson

A Life of Struggle for Justice
Author: Keith Gilyard
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822372312
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 328
View: 505

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Born in 1901, Louise Thompson Patterson was a leading and transformative figure in radical African American politics. Throughout most of the twentieth century she embodied a dedicated resistance to racial, economic, and gender exploitation. In this, the first biography of Patterson, Keith Gilyard tells her compelling story, from her childhood on the West Coast, where she suffered isolation and persecution, to her participation in the Harlem Renaissance and beyond. In the 1930s and 1940s she became central, along with Paul Robeson, to the labor movement, and later, in the 1950s, she steered proto-black-feminist activities. Patterson was also crucial to the efforts in the 1970s to free political prisoners, most notably Angela Davis. In the 1980s and 1990s she continued to work as a progressive activist and public intellectual. To read her story is to witness the courage, sacrifice, vision, and discipline of someone who spent decades working to achieve justice and liberation for all.

Facing the Rising Sun

African Americans, Japan, and the Rise of Afro-Asian Solidarity
Author: Gerald Horne
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 147985493X
Category: History
Page: 240
View: 7514

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The surprising alliance between Japan and pro-Tokyo African Americans during World War II In November 1942 in East St. Louis, Illinois a group of African Americans engaged in military drills were eagerly awaiting a Japanese invasion of the U.S.— an invasion that they planned to join. Since the rise of Japan as a superpower less than a century earlier, African Americans across class and ideological lines had saluted the Asian nation, not least because they thought its very existence undermined the pervasive notion of “white supremacy.” The list of supporters included Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey, and particularly W.E.B. Du Bois. Facing the Rising Sun tells the story of the widespread pro-Tokyo sentiment among African Americans during World War II, arguing that the solidarity between the two groups was significantly corrosive to the U.S. war effort. Gerald Horne demonstrates that Black Nationalists of various stripes were the vanguard of this trend—including followers of Garvey and the precursor of the Nation of Islam. Indeed, many of them called themselves “Asiatic”, not African. Following World War II, Japanese-influenced “Afro-Asian” solidarity did not die, but rather foreshadowed Dr. Martin Luther King’s tie to Gandhi’s India and Black Nationalists’ post-1970s fascination with Maoist China and Ho’s Vietnam. Based upon exhaustive research, including the trial transcripts of the pro-Tokyo African Americans who were tried during the war, congressional archives and records of the Negro press, this book also provides essential background for what many analysts consider the coming “Asian Century.” An insightful glimpse into the Black Nationalists’ struggle for global leverage and new allies, Facing the Rising Sun provides a complex, holistic perspective on a painful period in African American history, and a unique glimpse into the meaning of “the enemy of my enemy is my friend.”

Paradise Redefined

Transnational Chinese Students and the Quest for Flexible Citizenship in the Developed World
Author: Vanessa Fong
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804772673
Category: Education
Page: 267
View: 9171

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This book picks up where author Vanessa Fong left off in Only Hope: Coming of Age under China's One-Child Policy (Stanford, 2004), and continues by telling the stories of the Chinese youth who left China in their teens and 20s to study in Australia, Europe, Japan, New Zealand, North America, or Singapore. Fong examines the expectations and experiences of Chinese students who go abroad in search of opportunity, and the factors that cause some to return to China and others to stay abroad.

Sex Workers, Psychics, and Numbers Runners

Black Women in New York City's Underground Economy
Author: LaShawn Harris
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252098420
Category: Social Science
Page: 296
View: 3693

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During the early twentieth century, a diverse group of African American women carved out unique niches for themselves within New York City's expansive informal economy. LaShawn Harris illuminates the labor patterns and economic activity of three perennials within this kaleidoscope of underground industry: sex work, numbers running for gambling enterprises, and the supernatural consulting business. Mining police and prison records, newspaper accounts, and period literature, Harris teases out answers to essential questions about these women and their working lives. She also offers a surprising revelation, arguing that the burgeoning underground economy served as a catalyst in working-class black women TMs creation of the employment opportunities, occupational identities, and survival strategies that provided them with financial stability and a sense of labor autonomy and mobility. At the same time, urban black women, all striving for economic and social prospects and pleasures, experienced the conspicuous and hidden dangers associated with newfound labor opportunities.

Living for the Revolution

Black Feminist Organizations, 1968–1980
Author: Kimberly Springer
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822386852
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 2563

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The first in-depth analysis of the black feminist movement, Living for the Revolution fills in a crucial but overlooked chapter in African American, women’s, and social movement history. Through original oral history interviews with key activists and analysis of previously unexamined organizational records, Kimberly Springer traces the emergence, life, and decline of several black feminist organizations: the Third World Women’s Alliance, Black Women Organized for Action, the National Black Feminist Organization, the National Alliance of Black Feminists, and the Combahee River Collective. The first of these to form was founded in 1968; all five were defunct by 1980. Springer demonstrates that these organizations led the way in articulating an activist vision formed by the intersections of race, gender, class, and sexuality. The organizations that Springer examines were the first to explicitly use feminist theory to further the work of previous black women’s organizations. As she describes, they emerged in response to marginalization in the civil rights and women’s movements, stereotyping in popular culture, and misrepresentation in public policy. Springer compares the organizations’ ideologies, goals, activities, memberships, leadership styles, finances, and communication strategies. Reflecting on the conflicts, lack of resources, and burnout that led to the demise of these groups, she considers the future of black feminist organizing, particularly at the national level. Living for the Revolution is an essential reference: it provides the history of a movement that influenced black feminist theory and civil rights activism for decades to come.

Red International and Black Caribbean

Communists in New York City, Mexico and the West Indies, 1919-1939
Author: Margaret Stevens
Publisher: Pluto Press (UK)
ISBN: 9780745337272
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 6903

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This is the history of the black radicals who organised as Communists between the two imperialist wars of the twentieth century. It explores the political roots of a dozen organisations and parties in New York City, Mexico and the Black Caribbean, including the Anti-Imperialist League, and the American Negro Labour Congress and the Haiti Patriotic League, and reveals a history of myriad connections and shared struggle across the continent.This book reclaims the centrality of class consciousness and political solidarity amongst these black radicals, who are too often represented as separate from the international Communist movement which emerged after the Russian Revolution in 1917. Instead, it describes the inner workings of the 'Red International' in relation to struggles against racial and colonial oppression. It introduces a cast of radical characters including Richard Moore, Otto Huiswoud, Navares Sager, Grace Campbell, Rose Pastor Stokes and Wilfred Domingo.Challenging the 'great men' narrative, Margaret Stevens emphasises the role of women in their capacity as laborers; the struggles of peasants of colour; and of black workers in and around Communist parties.

After War

The Weight of Life at Walter Reed
Author: Zoë H. Wool
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822375095
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 4271

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In After War Zoë H. Wool explores how the American soldiers most severely injured in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars struggle to build some kind of ordinary life while recovering at Walter Reed Army Medical Center from grievous injuries like lost limbs and traumatic brain injury. Between 2007 and 2008, Wool spent time with many of these mostly male soldiers and their families and loved ones in an effort to understand what it's like to be blown up and then pulled toward an ideal and ordinary civilian life in a place where the possibilities of such a life are called into question. Contextualizing these soldiers within a broader political and moral framework, Wool considers the soldier body as a historically, politically, and morally laden national icon of normative masculinity. She shows how injury, disability, and the reality of soldiers' experiences and lives unsettle this icon and disrupt the all-too-common narrative of the heroic wounded veteran as the embodiment of patriotic self-sacrifice. For these soldiers, the uncanny ordinariness of seemingly extraordinary everyday circumstances and practices at Walter Reed create a reality that will never be normal.