Soil Science and Management


Author: Edward Plaster
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1418038652
Category: Science
Page: 448
View: 2279

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Soil Science and Management, fifth edition, emphasizes the human interaction with and effect on soils, rather than treating the soil as an independent element. Non-technical and easy-to-understand, Soil Science and Management, fifth edition teaches the essentials of soils from the perspective of farmers, horticulturalists, environmentalists and other who are concerned about how soils work and how they are used more effectively. An emphasis on management and the sustainable use of soil and water resources makes it especially relevant to these audiences. The inclusion of nutrient management, best practices and relevant legal issues and government programs make this text a practical application for students. The images have been updated and are now in full color, reinforcing the content contained in the text. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Soil science and sustainable land management in the tropics


Author: John Keith Syers,D. L. Rimmer
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 290
View: 1162

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Contributors Preface 1. Soil Science and Sustainable Land Management, D. J. Greenland 2. Evaluation of the Soil and Land Resource, M. Latham 3. Proposals for Quantitative Criteria in the Management of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, J. R. O'Callaghan and G. C. L. Wyseure 4. Soil Erosion and Conservation: A Place for Soil Science?, M. Stocking 5. Agroforestry Practices to Control Runoff and Erosion on Steeplands in Ilocos Norte, Philippines, E. O. Agustin and S. Nortcliff 6. The Quaternary Legacy in the Tropics: A Fundamental Property of the Land Resource, M. F. Thomas 7. Effects of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation on Land Quality: Defining Pedogenetic Baselines in the Dondoa District of Tanzania, R. W. Payton and E. K. Shishira 8. Sustainable Regeneration of Surface Tilth in Zimbabwean Vertisols Through Water Management, J. Hussein and M. A. Adey 9. Agrohydrological Modelling: A Tool for Sustainable Development of Land Resources, J. W. Gowing and G. C. L. Wyseure 10. Extending the Growing Season by Efficient Use of Rainfall, J. Tabi Owono, D. A. Rose and R. S. Shiel 11. The Role of Soil Organisms in the Sustainability of Tropical Cropping Systems, M. J. Swift, et al. 12. Can Biological Nitrogen Fixation Sustain Agriculture in the Tropics? 13. Improving the Agricultural Productivity of the Soils of Northeast Thailand Through Soil Organic Matter Management, A. G. O'Donnell, et al. 14. Soil Organic Matter Management in Thailand, J. S. Watson 15. A Diagnostic Approach to Solving Soil Fertility Problems in the Tropics, M. E. Sumner and K. Hylton 16. Physical and Chemical Constraints to Sustainable Soil Use Under Rainfed Conditions in the Humid Tropics of Southeast Asia, I. R. Willett 17. The Use of Simplified Nutrient Balances at Farm Level to Determine Boundary Conditions for Sustainable Production, F. C. T. Guiking, D. M. Jansen, and L. O. Fresco 18. The Economic Context of Soil Science, J. Lingard 19. Soil Science Research in Developing Countries: Towards a Holistic Approach, M. Catizzone 20. Soil Science and Better Land Use in the Tropics, A. J. Bennett Index

Handbook of Soil Sciences

Properties and Processes, Second Edition
Author: Pan Ming Huang,Yuncong Li,Malcolm E. Sumner
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439803064
Category: Science
Page: 1442
View: 2980

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An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for construction and manufacturing. To develop lasting solutions to the challenges of balanced use and stewardship of the Earth, we require a fundamental understanding of soil—from its elastic, porous three-phase system to its components, processes, and reactions. Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes, Second Edition is the first of two volumes that form a comprehensive reference on the discipline of soil science. Completely revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge, this volume covers the traditional areas of soil science: soil physics, soil chemistry, soil mineralogy, soil biology and biochemistry, and pedology. Contributors discuss the application of physical principles to characterize the soil system and mass and energy transport processes within the critical zone. They present significant advances in soil chemistry; describe how minerals are formed and transformed; and provide an introduction to the soil biota. They also examine geomorphology, land use, hydropedology, and subaqueous soils as well as the classification and digital mapping of soil. Critical elements addressed in each section include: Descriptions of concepts and theories Definitions, approaches, methodologies, and procedures Data in tabular and figure format Extensive references This cohesive handbook provides a thorough understanding of soil science principles and practices based on a rigorous, complete, and up-to-date treatment of the subject matter compiled by leading scientists. It is a resource rich in data, offering professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and students their first point of entry into a particular aspect of the soil sciences.

Soil Quality and Biofuel Production


Author: Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780415998307
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 222
View: 6196

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From its humble beginning in the late 19th century―when Henry Ford’s first car was designed to run on ethanol―biofuel production has been on the rise with more than 26 billion liters produced in the U.S. in 2007. Ethanol made from biomass (rather than grains) holds great promise, including numerous economic and environmental benefits. However, the adverse interactions of energy, climate, food, and soil quality cannot be ignored. In eight concise chapters, Soil Quality and Biofuel Production presents a state-of-the-knowledge review of soil properties and processes negatively impacted by crop residue removal. It outlines the ecological consequences of biofuels and evaluates land use in the production of raw material for biofuel. The book then spotlights pressing issues related to corn and cellulosic ethanol and also soil erosion. It offers advice for achieving economic balance in the competition for arable land between food and biofuel along with residue harvest management techniques. A thought-provoking discussion of the opportunities and challenges that biofuel presents rounds out the book’s coverage. The logistics of producing biomass in a sustainable manner remain a major challenge and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. Serious questions linger concerning viable sources of biofuel feedstock, competition for resources needed to produce biomass, and energy output/input ratios. Soil Quality and Biofuel Production provides environmental scientists and agricultural engineers with the knowledge they need to address them.

Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agroecosystems


Author: Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466513462
Category: Nature
Page: 568
View: 977

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With the use of high-level soil management technology, Africa could feed several billion people, yet food production has generally stagnated since the 1960s. No matter how powerful the seed technology, the seedling emerging from it can flourish only in a healthy soil. Accordingly, crop yields in Africa, South Asia, and the Caribbean could be doubled or tripled through adoption of technologies based on laws of sustainable soil management. Principles of Sustainable Soil Management in Agroecosystems describes the application of these laws to enhance ecosystem services while restoring degraded soils and promoting sustainable use. With chapters contributed by world-class soil scientists, ecologists, and social scientists, this book outlines critical changes in management of agricultural soils necessary to achieve food security and meet the food demands of the present and projected future population. These changes include conversion to no-till and conservation agriculture; adoption of strategies of integrated nutrient management, water harvesting, and use of drip sub-irrigation; complex cropping/farming systems such as cover cropping and agroforestry; and use of nano-enhanced fertilizers. The book is based on the premise that it is not possible to extract more from a soil than what is put into it without degrading its quality. The strategy is to replace what is removed, respond wisely to what is changed, and be pro-active to what may happen because of natural and anthropogenic perturbations. The chapters, which exemplify these ideas, cover a range of topics including organic farming, soil fertility, crop-symbiotic soil microbiota, human-driven soil degradation, soil degradation and restoration, carbon sink capacity of soils, soil renewal and sustainability, and the marginality principle.

Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths


Author: Georges Stoops,Vera Marcelino,Florias Mees
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080932309
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 752
View: 9876

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Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regolith, 2nd edition, provides researchers and students with a global tool for interpretation of micromorphological features of regoliths and soils. After an introduction and general overview by the editors, micromorphological aspects of regoliths (e.g. saprolites, unconsolidated sediments, transported materials) are highlighted, followed by a systematic and coherent discussion of the micromorphological expression of various pedogenic processes. This is done by discussing diagnostic horizons, materials and processes. The following topics are also treated: freeze-thaw features, redoximorphic features, calcareous and gypsiferous formations, textural features, spodic and oxic horizons, andic and volcanic materials, organic and surface horizons, laterites, surface crusts, salts, biogenic and inorganic siliceous materials, authigenic silicates, phosphates, thionic and derived materials, and features related to faunal activity. The last chapters address the impact of anthropic activities, with regard to archaeology and palaeopedology. Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regolith, 2nd edition, is written by a team of well-known, global experts in the field who all used a single set of concepts and terminology, making it a valuable interdisciplinary reference. The first exhaustive publication on interpretation of micromorphological features Covers related topics, making micromorphology more attractive and accessible for geographers, archaeologists and quaternary geologists Thematic treatment of a range of soil micromorphology fields broadens the content’s applications Authored by a multi-disciplinary team, ensuring thorough coverage of archaeological, geological, and earth science disciplines

Food Security and Soil Quality


Author: Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439800588
Category: Nature
Page: 430
View: 9900

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Just five years ago, it was generally believed that the number of food insecure people in the world was on continuous decline. Unfortunately, widespread soil degradation along with resistance to recommended agronomic practices, and little attempt to restore degraded soils have conspired with significant droughts (in regions that could least tolerate them) to swell the ranks of the food insecure to over a billion people. The U.N. Millennium Development Goals’ intent to halve hunger by 2015 will not be realized. Food Security and Soil Quality brings together leading experts from across the world to provide a concise and factually supported exploration of the problem at hand and the critical steps needed to reverse it. Edited by Rattan Lal, and B.A. Stewart, two of the world’s most respected soil scientists, this important work — Assesses farming systems and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa, with special emphasis on land degradation Examines concerns with and approaches to soil quality management in Brazil and China Details achievable methods for improving soil quality for sustainable production Provides an insightful comparison of temporal changes in agricultural systems productivity in Punjab, India and Ohio Discusses the human dimension of the crisis including the influence of culture and spiritual beliefs Dr. Lal himself writes that despite the existence of scientific data on sustainable management of soil and water resources, problems of soil and environmental degradation have persisted and have been aggravated. And that these problems are rooted in land misuse and soil mismanagement. This book does provide policymakers and others with an understanding of the depth, complexity, and immediacy of this crisis, but more than a call to action, it also offers soil scientists working in this area with an understanding of what is being done and what needs to be done. Most importantly, this book helps us understand that the situation is not beyond remediation were we to act with great resolve and a sense of urgency. A tree's leaves may be ever so good, So may its bark, so may its wood; But unless you put the right thing to its root, It never will show much flower or fruit. — from Leaves Compared With Flowers, by Robert Frost

Soil Classification

A Global Desk Reference
Author: Hari Eswaran,Robert Ahrens,Thomas J. Rice,Bobby A. Stewart
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420040364
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 280
View: 1708

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Developments in soil classification have accompanied parallel progress in our understanding of the soil system. However the theories behind the classifications and the purposes for which they were created have changed over time. The editors hope that this comprehensive synthesis will help to rally soil scientists around the world to develop an acceptable classification system for soils. It is only when the global soil science community agrees to such a system that we can truly say that we have science. Soil Classification: A Global Desk Reference is the first book to illustrate the current state of national and international soil classification systems. In this groundbreaking reference, distinguished soil scientists, many of whom were involved in the design of their respective national or international systems, evaluate developments in soil classification during the last century. They review the concepts, practices, and goals that led to the creation of individual classification systems and recommend modifications to classification systems to meet new demands. The documentation in this book serves as a foundation for the revision of existing soil taxonomies and the creation of new ones.

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect


Author: R. Lal,Ronald F. Follett
Publisher: ASA-CSSA-SSSA
ISBN: 9780891188506
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 410
View: 9122

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This book is about the concept of the Greenhouse Effect is more than a century old,but today the observed and predicted climate changes. This second edition of Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect is essential reading for understandingthe processes, properties, and practices affecting the soil carbon pool and its dynamics.

Catchment2Coast: A Systems Approach to Coupled River-Coastal Ecosystem Science and Management


Author: P.M.S. Monteiro,M. Marchand
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1607504472
Category: Science
Page: 92
View: 7074

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Catchment2Coast was an interdisciplinary research and modelling project that aimed to improve understanding of the linkages between coastal ecosystems and the adjacent river catchments. The project involved nine partner organisations from three European and three southern African countries, including Mozambique, where the project was conducted. Catchment2Coast has tackled a problem which is at the interface of many different domains: between river and the sea, between bay and ocean, between water and soil, but also between ecology and economy. It used a variety of tools and methods, ranging from continuous hydrodynamic monitoring and biochemistry flux measurements to remote sensing and mathematical modelling techniques. But perhaps even more important was the integration of disciplines that took place during the project, which consisted of experts from different countries both from Europe and Southern Africa. The knowledge gained through this research provides a sound basis for the setting of environmental flow requirements for the Maputo, Incomati and similar river systems in sub-Saharan Africa. And what is more, it may serve as an example and stimulus for continued cooperation between experts from different disciplinary and cultural backgrounds.

The Ecology and Management of Wetlands

Volume 1: Ecology of Wetlands
Author: Donal D. Hook,W. H. McKee Jr,H. K. Smith,James Gregory,V. G. Burrell Jr,M. Richard DeVoe,R. E. Sojka,Stephen Gilbert,Roger Banks,L. H. Stolzy,Chris Brooks,Thomas D. Matthews,T. H. Shear
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468483781
Category: Science
Page: 592
View: 1973

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This book contains the proceedings of a symposium held at the College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 16-20 June 1986. The seed for this symposium arose from a group of physiologists , soU scientists and biochemists that met in Leningrad, USSR in July 1975 at the 12th Botanical Conference in a Session organized by Professor B.B. Vartepetian. This group and others later conspired to contribute to a book entitled Plant Life in Anaerobic Environments (eds. D. D. Hook and R. M. M. Crawford, Ann Arbor Science, 1978). Several contributors to the book suggested in 1983 that a broad-scoped symposium on wetlands would be useful (a) in facilitating communication among the diverse research groups involved in wetlands research (b) in bringing researchers and managers together and (c) in presenting a com prehensive and balanced coverage on the status of ecology ami management of wetlands from a global perspective. With this encouragement, the senior editor organized a Plan ning Committee that encompassed expertise from many disciplines of wetland scientists and managers. This Committee, with input from their colleagues around the world, organized a symposium that addressed almost every aspect of wetland ecology and management.

Soil and Climate


Author: Rattan Lal,B. A. Stewart
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0429945442
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 434
View: 3573

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Climate is a soil-forming factor and soil can mitigate climate change through a reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases and sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Thus, there is a growing interest in soil management practices capable of mitigating climate change and enhancing environmental quality. Soil and Climate addresses global issues through soil management and outlines strategies for advancing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This volume in the Advances in Soil Science series is specifically devoted to describe state-of-the-knowledge regarding the climate–soil nexus in relation to: Soil Processes: weathering, decomposition of organic matter, erosion, leaching, salinization, biochemical, transformations, gaseous flux, and elemental cycling, Soil Properties: physical, chemical, biological, and ecological, Atmospheric Chemistry: gaseous concentrations of (CO2, CH4, N2O), water vapors, soot, dust, and particulate matter, Mitigation and Adaptation: source and sink of GHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O), land use and soil management, soil C sink capacity, permafrost, Soil Management: sequestration of organic and inorganic C, nutrient requirements, water demands, coupled cycling of H2O, N, P, S, and Policy and Outreach: carbon farming, payments for ecosystem services, COP21, SDGs, land degradation neutrality Special topics on soil as a source or sink of CO2, silicate weathering and carbon sequestration, nutrients required for carbon sequestration, physical protection and the mean resident time, and predicting soil carbon stocks are discussed in detail throughout the book.

Evapotranspiration and Water Research as Related to Riparian and Phreatophyte Management

An Abstract Bibliography
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Evapotranspiration
Page: 192
View: 7198

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The purpose of this abstract bibliography is to bring together published information that will help land managers and research workers to: (1) Evaluate relations of vegetation to water loss and (2) estimate the probable effect of water yield on manipulating vegetation.

Optimizing Nitrogen Management in Food and Energy Production and Environmental Protection

Proceedings of the 2nd International Nitrogen Conference on Science and Policy, Potomac, MD, USA, 14-18 October 2001
Author: J. Galloway,C. Jordan,Joe Wisniewski,J.W. Erisman,E. Cowling
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9789026519277
Category: Science
Page: 1022
View: 4056

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The production of food and energy interfere with the natural nitrogen cycle of the earth. Many of these changes are beneficial, while others are detrimental to societies and the environment. The changing nature of nitrogen in the global environment crosses scientific disciplines, geographical boundaries and political divisions and challenges the creative minds of natural and social scientists, economists, engineers, business leaders and planners. The papers in this book give readers a panoramic view of the changing nature of reactive nitrogen in the global environment, enabling them to make better choices about nitrogen management in food production and consumption, energy production and use, and environmental protection.

Soils and Environment


Author: Steve Ellis,Tony Mellor
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113491508X
Category: Science
Page: 392
View: 5003

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Soils represent the result of a complex set of interacting processes and are an integral component of the environment. Yet soils remain the most undervalued and misused of the Earth's resources. This work examines the fundamental importance of soils. Combining practical analysis and interpretation with a theoretical approach, the authors discuss the properties of soils, debate the environmental factors that influence their development, and address their resulting spatial characteristics on a global scale. Examining the impact of environmental controls on soil formation this book also analyzes the role of soils as components of natural environmental systems, and soil-human interactions. A glossary of terms aids the less scientific reader. Adopting macro and micro-scale, pure and applied, spatial and temporal, and natural and human related approaches, this book offers an understanding of soils within an environmental context. As environmental problems, such as pollution, acidification, erosion and climatic change become matters of greater concern, this work offers an understanding for readers across a spectrum of environmentally-related subjects.

Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems and Management


Author: R.F. Follett,J.L. Hatfield
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9780080537566
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 538
View: 473

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Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems, and Management is the first volume to provide a holistic perspective and comprehensive treatment of nitrogen from field, to ecosystem, to treatment of urban and rural drinking water supplies, while also including a historical overview, human health impacts and policy considerations. It provides a worldwide perspective on nitrogen and agriculture. Nitrogen is one of the most critical elements required in agricultural systems for the production of crops for feed, food and fiber. The ever-increasing world population requires increasing use of nitrogen in agriculture to supply human needs for dietary protein. Worldwide demand for nitrogen will increase as a direct response to increasing population. Strategies and perspectives are considered to improve nitrogen-use efficiency. Issues of nitrogen in crop and human nutrition, and transport and transformations along the continuum from farm field to ground water, watersheds, streams, rivers, and coastal marine environments are discussed. Described are aerial transport of nitrogen from livestock and agricultural systems and the potential for deposition and impacts. The current status of nitrogen in the environment in selected terrestrial and coastal environments and crop and forest ecosystems and development of emerging technologies to minimize nitrogen impacts on the environment are addressed. The nitrogen cycle provides a framework for assessing broad scale or even global strategies to improve nitrogen use efficiency. Growing human populations are the driving force that requires increased nitrogen inputs. These increasing inputs into the food-production system directly result in increased livestock and human-excretory nitrogen contribution into the environment. The scope of this book is diverse, covering a range of topics and issues from furthering our understanding of nitrogen in the environment to policy considerations at both farm and national scales.

Transactions, 15th World Congress of Soil Science

Acapulco, Mexico, July 10-16, 1994
Author: Jorge D. Etchevers B.,International Society of Soil Science,Sociedad Mexicana de la Ciencia del Suelo
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: N.A
View: 8946

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