Social Science Research and Government

Comparative Essays on Britain and the United States
Author: Martin Bulmer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521323509
Category: Social Science
Page: 406
View: 6780

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This collection of twenty original essays considers the relationship between social science research and government during the last 30 years in Britain and the United States especially the economic and social policies of Reagan and Thatcher governments. These essays will be useful to social science staff, graduate students and to policy-makers working inside government.

Operational Research and the Social Sciences

Author: S.A. Cropper,Michael C. Jackson,Paul Keys
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461307899
Category: Psychology
Page: 723
View: 333

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Twenty five years ago, in 1964, The Operational Research Society's first International Conference (held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge) took as its theme "Operational Research and the Social Sciences". The Conference sessions were organised around topics such as: Organisations and Control; Social Effects of Policies; Conflict Resolution; The Systems Concept; Models, Decisions and Operational Research. An examination of the published proceedings (J.R.Lawrence ed., 1966, Operational Research and the Social Sciences, Tavistock, London) reveals a distinct contrast between the types of contribution made by the representatives of the two academic communities involved. Nevertheless, the Conference served to break down some barriers, largely of ignorance about the objects, methods and findings of each concern. In the ensuing twenty five years, although debate has continued about the relationship between OR and the social sciences, mutual understanding has proved more difficult to achieve than many must have hoped for in 1964.

Beyond Evidence Based Policy in Public Health

The Interplay of Ideas
Author: K. Smith
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137026588
Category: Social Science
Page: 251
View: 2496

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This book explores the complex relationship between public health research and policy, employing tobacco control and health inequalities in the UK as contrasting case studies. It argues that focusing on research-informed ideas usefully draws attention to the centrality of values, politics and advocacy for public health debates.

Social Scientists, Policy, and the State

Author: Stephen Brooks,Alain Gagnon
Publisher: Greenwood Press
Category: Political Science
Page: 184
View: 1092

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This collection of original essays focuses on the relationship of social scientists to the state and public policy in the industrialized democracies. The comparative approach of this book provides the basis for broader generalization about the linkages between social science and social scientist and the modern state and political power. Social Scientists, Policy, and the State brings fresh analysis to specific issues that are important to a more general understanding of these linkages. Part I examines the ways in which social scientists participate in the policy-making process. Part II looks at the uses made of ideas generated by social scientific research and at variations within and relations between the critical and expert roles of the social scientist. Part III discusses the factors that have contributed to change in the relationship of social scientists to power and to the state. This section also includes a detailed discussion about the cultural and structural conditions that facilitate or block the political influence of social scientists. This book should have equal appeal to teachers and researchers in the fields of comparative politics, policy making, and the sociology of knowledge.

The Social Scientific Gaze

The Social Question and the Rise of Academic Social Science in Sweden
Author: Per Wisselgren
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317015584
Category: Social Science
Page: 286
View: 5713

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The social sciences have, ever since they were first established as academic disciplines, played a foundational role in most spheres of modern society - in policy-making, education, the media and public debate - and hence also, indirectly, for our self-understanding as social beings. The Social Scientific Gaze examines the discursive formation of academic social science in the historical context of the 'social question', that is, the protracted and wide-ranging discussions on the social problems of modernity that were being debated with increased intensity during the nineteenth century. Empirically, the study focuses on the Lorén Foundation, a combined private funding agency and early research institute, which was set up in 1885 to promote the rise of Swedish social science and to investigate the social question. Comprising an heuristic case, the close analysis of the Foundation makes it possible not only to reconstruct its basic ideas and practices, but also to situate its activities in broader historical and sociological context. The Social Scientific Gaze argues that the rise of Swedish social science may be seen not only as an 'answer' to the social 'question', but also as one attempt alongside others - including contemporary social literature, the philantropic reform movement, and the introduction of modern social policy - to conceptualize, mobilize and regulate the social sphere. In this process it is furthermore shown how an ambigious yet distinct 'social scientific gaze' was discursively articulated.

International transmission of population policy experience

proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on the International Transmission of Population Policy Experience, New York City, 27-30 June 1988
Author: United Nations. Dept. of International Economic and Social Affairs
Publisher: N.A
Category: Population policy
Page: 183
View: 7179

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Intelligence and Government in Britain and the United States: A Comparative Perspective [2 volumes]

A Comparative Perspective
Author: Philip H.J. Davies
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440802815
Category: Political Science
Page: 826
View: 6268

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Bringing a dose of reality to the stuff of literary thrillers, this masterful study is the first closely detailed, comparative analysis of the evolution of the modern British and American intelligence communities. • U.S. and U.K. case studies that draw on archival and published sources and on interviews with practitioners • Parallel timelines for principal national intelligence coordinating bodies in the United States and United Kingdom • Organization charts for the United States Intelligence Board and the U.K. Joint Intelligence Organisation, both from the early 1960s • An extensive glossary of terms and abbreviations used in the British and American intelligence communities • An extensive bibliography

Sociology and Its Publics

The Forms and Fates of Disciplinary Organization
Author: Terence C. Halliday,Morris Janowitz
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226313801
Category: Social Science
Page: 429
View: 7627

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Sociology faces troubling developments as it enters its second century in the United States. A loss of theoretical coherence and a sense of disciplinary fragmentation, a decline in the quality of its recruits, the cooptation of its clients, a muted public voice, and sinking prestige in governmental circles—these are only a few of the trends signalling a need for renewed debate about how sociology is organized. In this volume, some of the most authoritative voices in the field confront these conditions, offering a variety of perspectives as they challenge sociologists to self-examination.

Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences

Author: James Mahoney,Dietrich Rueschemeyer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107717558
Category: Political Science
Page: 468
View: 1720

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This book systematically investigates the past accomplishments and future agendas of contemporary comparative-historical analysis. Its core essays explore three major issues: the accumulation of knowledge in the field over the past three decades, the analytic tools used to study temporal process and historical patterns, and the methodologies available for making inferences and for building theories. The introductory and concluding essays situate the field as a whole by comparing it to alternative approaches within the social sciences. Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences will serve as an invaluable resource for scholars in the field, and it will represent a challenge to many other social scientists - especially those who have raised skeptical concerns about comparative-historical analysis in the past.

Bringing the State Back In

Author: Peter B. Evans,Dietrich Rueschemeyer,Theda Skocpol,Social Science Research Council (U.S.). Committee on States and Social Structures,Joint Committee on Latin American Studies,Joint Committee on Western Europe
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521313131
Category: Political Science
Page: 390
View: 2082

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Until recently, dominant theoretical paradigms in the comparative social sciences did not highlight states as organizational structures or as potentially autonomous actors. Indeed, the term 'state' was rarely used. Current work, however, increasingly views the state as an agent which, although influenced by the society that surrounds it, also shapes social and political processes. The contributors to this volume, which includes some of the best recent interdisciplinary scholarship on states in relation to social structures, make use of theoretically engaged comparative and historical investigations to provide improved conceptualizations of states and how they operate. Each of the book's major parts presents a related set of analytical issues about modern states, which are explored in the context of a wide range of times and places, both contemporary and historical, and in developing and advanced-industrial nations. The first part examines state strategies in newly developing countries. The second part analyzes war making and state making in early modern Europe, and discusses states in relation to the post-World War II international economy. The third part pursues new insights into how states influence political cleavages and collective action. In the final chapter, the editors bring together the questions raised by the contributors and suggest tentative conclusions that emerge from an overview of all the articles. As a programmatic work that proposes new directions for the analysis of modern states, the volume will appeal to a wide range of teachers and students of political science, political economy, sociology, history, and anthropology.

Social Policy in the Smaller European Union States

Author: Gary B. Cohen,Ben W. Ansell,Robert Henry Cox,Jane Gingrich
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857452649
Category: Political Science
Page: 300
View: 4889

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In Europe and around the world, social policies and welfare services have faced increasing pressure in recent years as a result of political, economic, and social changes. Just as Europe was a leader in the development of the welfare state and the supportive structures of corporatist politics from the 1920s onward, Europe in particular has experienced stresses from globalization and striking innovation in welfare policies. While debates in the United Kingdom, Germany, and France often attract wide international attention, smaller European countries-Belgium, Denmark, Austria, or Finland-are often overlooked. This volume seeks to correct this unfortunate oversight as these smaller countries serve as models for reform, undertaking experiments that only later gain the attention of stymied reformers in the larger countries.

Science and Technology in British Politics

Author: Norman J. Vig
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483155277
Category: Science
Page: 202
View: 1176

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Science and Technology in British Politics covers the issues in science policy, which arose during 1959-1964 over British government policy and administration for supporting the advancement of science and technology. The book discusses relevant aspects of the political climate that contributed to the “politicization of science, as well as on internal pressures for reform. The text also describes the contrasting approaches of the Conservative and Labor Parties and the role of Parliament and interest groups in science policymaking. The book concludes by tackling the political discussion of science policy. The text will be useful to students of politics.

Comparative Education, Terrorism and Human Security

From Critical Pedagogy to Peacebuilding?
Author: W. Nelles
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1403982392
Category: Education
Page: 266
View: 3977

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Policy decisions in education have changed drastically as a result of the recent threats to our international and national security. In this timely and compelling collection, authors discuss the significance of policy decisions on education systems, and argue that all forms of violence, including terrorism, are often reproduced through education. Authors incorporate case studies from a broad spectrum of countries to make a case for peace-building alternatives and non-military security cooperation. Comparative Education, Terrorism and Human Security will highlight education systems around the globe that sustain violence, will bring together human security and preventive diplomacy research to predict future trends, will explore foreign policy implications that could lead to non-violent interventions abroad, and will provide teachers and policymakers with relevant reflections on reform. This book arrives at a time when many of us are wondering what education systems can do to eliminate/perpetuate violence and will be the only one of its kind to address these questions on a global scale.

Beliefs in Government

Author: Max Kaase,Kenneth Newton
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191521027
Category: Political Science
Page: 236
View: 8609

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This concise overview volume pulls together the empirical findings of the Beliefs in Government series and sets them in the broad context of mass politics in modern Europe. Its conclusions about political participation, mass political opinion, postmaterialism and postmodernism, and democratic change and stability break new ground in political science.

Corruption, Inequality, and the Rule of Law

The Bulging Pocket Makes the Easy Life
Author: Eric M. Uslaner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139472372
Category: Political Science
Page: 345
View: 2066

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Corruption flouts rules of fairness and gives some people advantages that others don't have. Corruption is persistent; there is little evidence that countries can escape the curse of corruption easily - or at all. Instead of focusing on institutional reform, in this book Eric M. Uslaner suggests that the roots of corruption lie in economic and legal inequality, low levels of generalized trust (which are not readily changed), and poor policy choices (which may be more likely to change). Economic inequality provides a fertile breeding ground for corruption, which, in turn, leads to further inequalities. Just as corruption is persistent, inequality and trust do not change much over time, according to Uslaner's cross-national aggregate analyses. He argues that high inequality leads to low trust and high corruption, and then to more inequality - an inequality trap - and identifies direct linkages between inequality and trust in surveys of the mass public and elites in transition countries.

Privatization in Four European Countries

Comparative Studies in Government-third Sector Relationships
Author: Ralph M. Kramer
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
ISBN: 9781563241321
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 220
View: 675

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Based on a pathbreaking comparative study, this book helps answer questions such as: Why and how are NPOs used to implement public policy and with what consequences? How can voluntary agencies preserve their autonomy when receiving public funds? How can government obtain accountability for public funds when they support voluntary organizations? It utilizes data from comparative case studies of 90 voluntary agencies in England, the Netherlands, Italy, and Norway.

What Future for Social Security?

Debates and Reforms in National and Cross-national Perspective
Author: Jochen Clasen
Publisher: Policy Press
ISBN: 9781861344106
Category: Political Science
Page: 274
View: 1637

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It is widely assumed today that the 'welfare state' is contracting or retrenching as an effect of the close scrutiny to which entitlement to social security benefits is being subject in most developed countries. In this book, fifteen authorities from nine different countries - the UK, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Spain, Denmark, Finland, Norway and the US - investigate to what extent this assumption is warranted. Taking into account developments and initiatives at every administrative level from sub-national employment agencies to the OECD and the World Bank, they draw on both data and theories in a broad spectrum of related disciplines, including political science, economics, sociology, and law. Detailed materials allow the reader to formulate well-defined responses to such crucial questions as: is there indeed waning public support for social security?; is the 'demographic time bomb' of an ageing population as serious as we are often led to believe?; how seriously do supranational reform proposals tend to underestimate cross-national differences?; to what degree is 'activation policy' merely rhetorical?; to what extent do employment office staff reformulate and redefine policies 'on the ground' to accommodate specific case-by-case realities? Specific criteria for entitlement (eg disability) and such central issues as 'gendered' assumptions, access to benefit programmes, and the involvement of trade unions are examined in a variety of contexts. As an authoritative assessment of the current state of social security reform - its critical issues, its direction, and its potential impacts - What future for social security? is an incomparable work and is sure to be of great value to academics as well as professionals and officials concerned with social programmes at any government level.

Family Policy Matters

How Policymaking Affects Families and What Professionals Can Do
Author: Karen Bogenschneider
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135013802
Category: Family & Relationships
Page: 442
View: 5827

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This best-selling text integrates the latest research and cutting-edge practice to make an evidence-based case for family policy. It uses examples from around the globe to explain how families support society and how policies support families. The book also moves beyond analysis to action with pragmatic processes and procedures for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of policies by viewing them through the lens of family impact. Highlights of the new edition include: Extensive revisions with many new references and policies that reflect recent changes in the economy, politics, and family forms and familes. Many new learning tools including guiding questions, more tables and figures, chapter glossaries, discussion questions, and chapter summaries. Enhanced global perspective with a new chapter (5) that features what policies nations have put in place to strengthen and support families. A new chapter (8) that views how family considerations can improve the effectiveness of policy decisions on issues such as early childhood care and education, health care, juvenile crime, long-term care, parent education, and welfare reform. A new chapter (11) on what the policy process and policymakers are really like including how a bill becomes a law. A new chapter (12) that provides a theoretical and empirical rationale for viewing issues through the family impact lens and what innovative tools and procedures exist for analyzing the family impact of organizations, policies, programs, and practices. Several chapters that review what professionals can do in the policy arena and how they can foster compromise and common ground. Updated web-based teaching materials including sample syllabi, classroom activities and assignments, daily lesson plans, test questions, instructor insights, video links, web resources, and more. Part 1 highlights what family policy is and why it’s important and how family life in the U.S. differs from other countries. Part 2 examines the contributions family considerations can bring to issues such as early childhood education, health care, juvenile crime, long-term care, and welfare reform. Part 3 explains why polarization has stymied progress in family policymaking and guidelines for fostering compromise. Insights are drawn from the history of family policy over the last century. Part 4 provides strategies for getting involved in family policymaking. It reviews: the processes policymaking institutions use to enact legislation; new techniques for assessing the family impact of policies and programs; strategies for building better public policies; and various professional roles and careers for building family policy. The book concludes with a summary of how and where we go from here. Intended for advanced undergraduate and/or graduate courses in family or social policy taught in human development and family studies, psychology, counseling, social work, sociology, public policy, home economics, consumer science, and education, researchers and practitioners alike appreciate this book’s integration of theory, research, and practice.

Arts Management

Author: Derrick Chong
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415236829
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 156
View: 9006

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Presenting this critical overview, at a time when interest in aesthetics and managements studies is rapidly increasing, Derrick Chong explores a vital sub-discipline: arts management. Using a diverse range of sources that include contributions from contemporary artists, prominent management theorists and the experience of arts managers, topics discussed include: arts research cultural entrepreneurship collaborations in the arts artistic leadership institutional identity arts marketing creative approaches to financing organizational forms and dynamics. The book makes a concerted effort to address the artistic, managerial and social obligations of arts and cultural organisations operating in contemporary urban environs. As such, it is a must-read for students and scholars of business, management and art.