Social Inequality


Author: Kathryn Neckerman
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610444205
Category: Social Science
Page: 1044
View: 2139

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Inequality in income, earnings, and wealth has risen dramatically in the United States over the past three decades. Most research into this issue has focused on the causes—global trade, new technology, and economic policy—rather than the consequences of inequality. In Social Inequality, a group of the nation's leading social scientists opens a wide-ranging inquiry into the social implications of rising economic inequality. Beginning with a critical evaluation of the existing research, they assess whether the recent run-up in economic inequality has been accompanied by rising inequality in social domains such as the quality of family and neighborhood life, equal access to education and health care, job satisfaction, and political participation. Marcia Meyers and colleagues find that many low-income mothers cannot afford market-based child care, which contributes to inequality both at the present time—by reducing maternal employment and family income—and through the long-term consequences of informal or low-quality care on children's educational achievement. At the other end of the educational spectrum, Thomas Kane links the growing inequality in college attendance to rising tuition and cuts in financial aid. Neil Fligstein and Taek-Jin Shin show how both job security and job satisfaction have decreased for low-wage workers compared with their higher-paid counterparts. Those who fall behind economically may also suffer diminished access to essential social resources like health care. John Mullahy, Stephanie Robert, and Barbara Wolfe discuss why higher inequality may lead to poorer health: wider inequality might mean increased stress-related ailments for the poor, and it might also be associated with public health care policies that favor the privileged. On the political front, Richard Freeman concludes that political participation has become more stratified as incomes have become more unequal. Workers at the bottom of the income scale may simply be too hard-pressed or too demoralized to care about political participation. Social Inequality concludes with a comprehensive section on the methodological problems involved in disentangling the effects of inequality from other economic factors, which will be of great benefit to future investigators. While today's widening inequality may be a temporary episode, the danger is that the current economic divisions may set in motion a self-perpetuating cycle of social disadvantage. The most comprehensive review of this quandary to date, Social Inequality maps out a new agenda for research on inequality in America with important implications for public policy.

Social Inequality

Forms, Causes, and Consequences
Author: Charles E. Hurst,Heather M. Fitz Gibbon,Anne M. Nurse
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134995849
Category: Social Science
Page: 460
View: 7892

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Like past editions, this ninth edition of Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and Consequences is a user-friendly introduction to the study of social inequality. This book conveys the pervasiveness and extensiveness of social inequality in the United States within a comparative context, to show how inequality occurs, how it affects all of us, and what is being done about it. This edition benefits from a variety of changes that have significantly strengthened the text. The authors pay increased attention to disability, transgender issues, intersectionality, experiences of Muslims, Hispanic populations, and immigration. The 9th edition also includes content on the fall-out from the recession across various groups. The sections on global inequalities have been greatly updated, emphasizing comparative inequalities and the impact of the process of globalization on inequality internationally. The authors have also added material on several current social movements, including Occupy Wall Street, Black Lives Matter, and Marriage Equality.

Social Inequality: Patterns and Processes

13th Edition
Author: Martin Marger
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
ISBN: 0077519388
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 1828

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Social Inequality: Patterns and Processes introduces key concepts, theories, research findings, and trends associated with the major forms of social inequality. Students will gain a keen awareness of the subtle and often unseen ways in which inequality is structured, and how it impinges on virtually all facets of individual and group life. The 6th edition carries on the tradition of highly accessible and concise narratives, and includes extensive coverage of the latest issues in society both domestic and cross-nationally.

Social Inequality

A Student's Guide
Author: Louise Warwick-Booth
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1446293114
Category: Social Science
Page: 256
View: 4573

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"What makes this book stand out for me is that, as well as being theoretically informed and clearly written, its structure lends itself unmistakeably to teaching... If our aim is to teach truly engaged students, it should be our job to provide truly engaging materials. This is what you will find with this particular book. It will help to inform your disciplinary teaching of social inequality across the social sciences and it will provide a solid basis for your seminar work with students." - Helen Jones, Higher Education Academy "Warwick-Booth has provided a highly readable introductory text that will be accessible to everyone interested in this area of study, and I highly recommend it for those embarking on studies of social inequality." - LSE Review of Books What is the state of social inequality today? How can you situate yourself in the debates? This is an essential book that not only introduces you to the key areas, definitions and debates within the field, but also gives you the opportunity to reflect upon the roots of inequality and to critically analyse power relations today. With international examples and a clear interdisciplinary approach throughout, the book encourages you to look at social inequality as a complex social phenomenon that needs to be understood in a global context. This book: Looks at social divisions across societies Explores global processes and changes that are affecting inequalities Discusses social inequality in relation to class, gender and race Examines current social policy approaches to explore how these relate to inequality Reflects upon the potential solutions to inequalities This engaging and accessible introduction to social inequality is an invaluable resource for students across the social sciences. Louise Warwick-Booth is Senior Lecturer in Health Policy at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK.

Science and Social Inequality

Feminist and Postcolonial Issues
Author: Sandra Harding
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 0252073045
Category: Science
Page: 205
View: 3572

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Rethinking the ways modern science encodes destructive political philosophies

The Hidden Cost of Being African American

How Wealth Perpetuates Inequality
Author: Thomas M. Shapiro
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195181388
Category: Social Science
Page: 238
View: 4152

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Shapiro, the author of "Black Wealth/White Wealth," blends personal stories, interviews, empirical data, and analysis to illuminate how family assets produce dramatic consequences in the everyday lives of ordinary citizens.

Injustice (revised Edition)

Why Social Inequality Still Persists
Author: Daniel Dorling,Dorling, Danny
Publisher: Policy Press
ISBN: 1447320751
Category: Political Science
Page: 473
View: 8818

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In the five years since the first edition of Danny Dorling's Injustice was published, poverty, hunger, and destitution have increased dramatically in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Globally, the richest 1% have never held a greater share of world wealth, while the share held by most of the other 99% has collapsed, with more and more people in debt, especially the young. And as long as we tolerate the injustices that underpin this inequality, it will persist and, terrifyingly, continue to grow. This fully rewritten and updated edition of Dorling's approachable yet authoritative, hard-hitting, and uncompromising book revisits his claim that the five social evils identified by Beveridge at the dawn of the British welfare state (ignorance, want, idleness, squalor, and disease) are being replaced by five new tenets of injustice: elitism is efficient; exclusion is necessary; prejudice is natural; greed is good; and despair is inevitable. By showing these beliefs are unfounded, Dorling offers hope of a more equal society even in these most remarkable and dangerous times. With every year that passes, it is more evident that Dorling's call to action is essential reading for anyone concerned with social justice.

Social Inequality and Public Health


Author: Salvatore J. Babones
Publisher: Policy Press
ISBN: 9781847423207
Category: Medical
Page: 243
View: 5080

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This book brings together the latest research findings from some of the most respected medical and social scientists in the world, surveying four pathways to understanding the social determinants of health.

Climate Change and Social Inequality

The Health and Social Costs of Global Warming
Author: Merrill Singer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351594818
Category: Social Science
Page: 248
View: 3044

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The year 2016 was the hottest year on record and the third consecutive record-breaking year in planet temperatures. The following year was the hottest in a non-El Nino year. Of the seventeen hottest years ever recorded, sixteen have occurred since 2000, indicating the trend in climate change is toward an ever warmer Earth. However, climate change does not occur in a social vacuum; it reflects relations between social groups and forces us to contemplate the ways in which we think about and engage with the environment and each other. Employing the experience-near anthropological lens to consider human social life in an environmental context, this book examines the fateful global intersection of ongoing climate change and widening social inequality. Over the course of the volume, Singer argues that the social and economic precarity of poorer populations and communities—from villagers to the urban disadvantaged in both the global North and global South—is exacerbated by climate change, putting some people at considerably enhanced risk compared to their wealthier counterparts. Moreover, the book adopts and supports the argument that the key driver of global climatic and environmental change is the global economy controlled primarily by the world’s upper class, which profits from a ceaseless engine of increased production for national middle classes who have been converted into constant consumers. Drawing on case studies from Alaska, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Haiti and Mali, Climate Change and Social Inequality will be of great interest to students and scholars of climate change and climate science, environmental anthropology, medical ecology and the anthropology of global health.

Understanding Social Inequality


Author: Tim Butler,Paul Watt
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9780761963707
Category: Social Science
Page: 222
View: 5154

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Moving beyond the traditional dichotomies of social theory, Understanding Social Inequality brings the study of social stratification and inequality into the 21st century. Starting with the widely agreed "fact" that the world is becoming more unequal, this book pulls together the "identity of displacement" in sociology and the "spaces of flow" of geography to show how place has become an increasingly important focus for understanding new trends in social inequality. The book charts a path through current debates and issues that studies of social inequality cannot afford to ignore. Accessible and engagingly written, this book stimulates the "sociological imagination", prompting readers to link personal experiences and public issues.

Social Inequalities and Occupational Stratification

Methods and Concepts in the ... Analysis of Social Distance
Author: Paul Lambert
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137022531
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 7892

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This book explores how structures of social inequality are linked to the social connections that people hold. The authors focus upon occupational inequalities where they see, for example, that the typical friendship patterns of people from one occupation are often very different to those of people from another. Social Inequalities and Occupational Stratification leverages empirical data about differences in social connections to chart structures of social distance and social inequality. Several of its chapters provide coverage of the long-standing CAMSIS project and its approach to analysing social interaction patterns in terms of a single dimension related to social inequality. Lambert and Griffiths also explore different ways that statistical methods and tools of social network analysis can be used to study the relationship between social distance and social stratification. .

The Shape of Social Inequality

Stratification and Ethnicity in Comparative Perspective
Author: David Bills
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080459356
Category: Mathematics
Page: 506
View: 616

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This volume brings together former students, colleagues, and others influenced by the sociological scholarship of Archibald O. Haller to celebrate Haller's many contributions to theory and research on social stratification and mobility. All of the chapters respond to Haller's programmatic agenda for stratification research: "A full program aimed at understanding stratification requires: first, that we know what stratification structures consist of and how they may vary; second, that we identify the individual and collective consequences of the different states and rates of change of such structures; and third, seeing that some degree of stratification seems to be present everywhere, that we identify the factors that make stratification structures change." The contributors to this Festschrift address such topics as the changing nature of stratification regimes, the enduring significance of class analysis, the stratifying dimensions of race, ethnicity, and gender, and the interplay between educational systems and labor market outcomes. Many of the chapters adopt an explicitly cross-societal comparative perspective on processes and consequences of social stratification. The volume offers both conceptually and empirically important new analyses of the shape of social stratification.

Globalized Labour Markets and Social Inequality in Europe


Author: H. Blossfeld,S. Buchholz,D. Hofäcker,K. Kolb
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230319882
Category: Political Science
Page: 327
View: 942

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Based on contributions from international experts, this volume provides an up-to-date account of globalization's influences on individual life courses in nine different modern societies, and of cross-nationally varying political strategies to mediate this influence.

The Digital Divide

The Internet and Social Inequality in International Perspective
Author: Massimo Ragnedda,Glenn W. Muschert
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135088357
Category: Computers
Page: 344
View: 4067

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This book provides an in-depth comparative analysis of inequality and the stratification of the digital sphere. Grounded in classical sociological theories of inequality, as well as empirical evidence, this book defines ‘the digital divide’ as the unequal access and utility of internet communications technologies and explores how it has the potential to replicate existing social inequalities, as well as create new forms of stratification. The Digital Divide examines how various demographic and socio-economic factors including income, education, age and gender, as well as infrastructure, products and services affect how the internet is used and accessed. Comprised of six parts, the first section examines theories of the digital divide, and then looks in turn at: Highly developed nations and regions (including the USA, the EU and Japan); Emerging large powers (Brazil, China, India, Russia); Eastern European countries (Estonia, Romania, Serbia); Arab and Middle Eastern nations (Egypt, Iran, Israel); Under-studied areas (East and Central Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa). Providing an interwoven analysis of the international inequalities in internet usage and access, this important work offers a comprehensive approach to studying the digital divide around the globe. It is an important resource for academic and students in sociology, social policy, communication studies, media studies and all those interested in the questions and issues around social inequality.

Inside Toyland

Working, Shopping, and Social Inequality
Author: Christine L. Williams
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520939493
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 4255

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"I got my first job working in a toy store when I was 41 years old." So begins sociologist Christine Williams's description of her stint as a low-wage worker at two national toy store chains: one upscale shop and one big box outlet. In this provocative, perceptive, and lively book, studded with rich observations from the shop floor, Williams chronicles her experiences as a cashier, salesperson, and stocker and provides broad-ranging, often startling, insights into the social impact of shopping for toys. Taking a new look at what selling and buying for kids are all about, she illuminates the politics of how we shop, exposes the realities of low-wage retail work, and discovers how class, race, and gender manifest and reproduce themselves in our shopping-mall culture. Despite their differences, Williams finds that both toy stores perpetuate social inequality in a variety of ways. She observes that workers are often assigned to different tasks and functions on the basis of gender and race; that racial dynamics between black staff and white customers can play out in complex and intense ways; that unions can't protect workers from harassment from supervisors or demeaning customers even in the upscale toy store. And she discovers how lessons that adults teach to children about shopping can legitimize economic and social hierarchies. In the end, however, Inside Toyland is not an anticonsumer diatribe. Williams discusses specific changes in labor law and in the organization of the retail industry that can better promote social justice.

Elite Schooling and Social Inequality

Privilege and Power in Ireland's Top Private Schools
Author: Aline Courtois
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137522771
Category: Education
Page: 227
View: 7425

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This book is the first significant sociological study of Ireland’s elite private schools. It takes the reader behind the gates of these secretive institutions, and offers a compelling analysis of their role in the reproduction of social inequality in Ireland. From the selection process to past pupils’ union events, from the dorms to the rugby pitch, the book unravels how these schools gradually reinforce exclusionary practices and socialize their students to power and privilege. It tackles the myths of meritocracy and classlessness in Ireland, while also providing keys to understanding the social practices and legitimacy of elites. By bringing out the voices of past pupils, parents and school staff and incorporating vivid ethnographic descriptions, the book provides a rare snapshot into a privileged world largely hidden from view. It offers a unique contribution to research on elite education as well as to the broader fields of sociology of education and inequality. As such, it will appeal to researchers, practitioners and the general public alike, in Ireland and beyond.

Social Inequality Across the Generations

The Role of Compensation and Multiplication in Resource Accumulation
Author: Jani Erola,Elina Kilpi-Jakonen
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1786432560
Category:
Page: 240
View: 4608

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Social Inequality Across the Generations provides an innovative perspective on social stratification studies by advancing the theoretical and empirical case for the influence of resource compensation. It examines whether resource compensation is a successful mechanism for social mobility, contrasting it against competing types of resource accumulation such as multiplication. This book is the first to cover extensively the role of compensation in intergenerational attainment – a new and rapidly spreading concept in stratification research.

Models of Secondary Education and Social Inequality

An International Comparison
Author: Hans-Peter Blossfeld,Sandra Buchholz,Jan Skopek,Moris Triventi
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1785367269
Category:
Page: 456
View: 7449

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From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious eduLIFE Lifelong Learning series provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment. The international perspective allows illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.

The Social Life of Economic Inequalities in Contemporary Latin America

Decades of Change
Author: Margit Ystanes,Iselin Åsedotter Strønen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331961536X
Category: Social Science
Page: 289
View: 4982

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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This edited volume examines how economic processes have worked upon social lives and social realities in Latin America during the past decades. Through tracing the effects of the neoliberal epoch into the era of the so-called pink tide, the book seeks to understand to what extent the turn to the left at the start of the millennium managed to challenge historically constituted configurations of inequality. A central argument in the book is that in spite of economic reforms and social advances on a range of arenas, the fundamental tenants of socio-economic inequalities have not been challenged substantially. As several countries are now experiencing a return to right-wing politics, this collection helps us better understand why inequalities are so entrenched in the Latin American continent, but also the complex and creative ways that it is continuously contested. The book directs itself to students, scholars and anyone interested in Latin America, economic anthropology, political anthropology, left-wing politics, poverty and socio-economic inequalities.

Higher Education and Social Inequalities

University Admissions, Experiences, and Outcomes
Author: Richard Waller,Nicola Ingram,Michael R.M. Ward
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315449706
Category: Social Science
Page: 248
View: 706

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A university education has long been seen as the gateway to upward social mobility for individuals from lower socio-economic backgrounds, and as a way of reproducing social advantage for the better off. With the number of young people from the very highest socio-economic groups entering university in the UK having effectively been at saturation point for several decades, the expansion witnessed in participation rates over the last few decades has largely been achieved by a modest broadening of the base of the undergraduate population in terms of both social class and ethnic diversity. However, a growing body of evidence exists in the continuation of unequal graduate outcomes. This can be seen in terms of employment trajectories in the UK. The issue of just who enjoys access to which university, and the experiences and outcomes of graduates from different institutions remain central to questions of social justice, notably higher education’s contribution to social mobility and to the reproduction of social inequality. This collection of contemporary original writings explores these issues in a range of specific contexts, and through employing a range of theoretical and methodological approaches. The relationship between higher education and social mobility has probably never been under closer scrutiny. This volume will appeal to academics, policy makers, and commentators alike. Higher Education and Social Inequalities is an important contribution to the public and academic debate.