Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering


Author: L.A. Feigin,D.I. Svergun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475766246
Category: Science
Page: 335
View: 4549

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Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.

Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules


Author: Dmitri I. Svergun,Michel H. J. Koch,Peter A. Timmins,Roland P. May
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199639531
Category: Science
Page: 358
View: 2714

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Small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons is a technique that allows one to study the structures and interactions of disordered materials like polymers in the solid state, melt or solution or metal clusters in alloys. It is also the method of choice to characterize biological macromolecules in solution, in particular when they cannot be crystallized. A further advantage of the technique is that it can easily be combined with standard perturbation methods such as temperature and pressure jumps and stopped flow mixing thus offering useful information complementary to spectroscopic methods. The book describes all aspects of the technique: instrumentation, sample requirements, data interpretation and modelling methods in a comprehensive way and gives examples of applications in various fields of biophysics and biochemistry. Appendices describe the mathematical background and additional resources relevant to the method.

Modern Aspects of Small-Angle Scattering


Author: H. Brumberger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401584575
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 463
View: 6567

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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Como, Italy, May 12--22, 1993

Proteins in Solution and at Interfaces

Methods and Applications in Biotechnology and Materials Science
Author: Juan M. Ruso,Ángel Piñeiro
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118523172
Category: Science
Page: 500
View: 4112

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Explores new applications emerging from our latest understanding of proteins in solution and at interfaces Proteins in solution and at interfaces increasingly serve as the starting point for exciting new applications, from biomimetic materials to nanoparticle patterning. This book surveys the state of the science in the field, offering investigators a current understanding of the characteristics of proteins in solution and at interfaces as well as the techniques used to study these characteristics. Moreover, the authors explore many of the new and emerging applications that have resulted from the most recent studies. Topics include protein and protein aggregate structure; computational and experimental techniques to study protein structure, aggregation, and adsorption; proteins in non-standard conditions; and applications in biotechnology. Proteins in Solution and at Interfaces is divided into two parts: Part One introduces concepts as well as theoretical and experimental techniques that are used to study protein systems, including X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, small angle scattering, and spectroscopic methods Part Two examines current and emerging applications, including nanomaterials, natural fibrous proteins, and biomolecular thermodynamics The book's twenty-three chapters have been contributed by leading experts in the field. These contributions are based on a thorough review of the latest peer-reviewed findings as well as the authors' own research experience. Chapters begin with a discussion of core concepts and then gradually build in complexity, concluding with a forecast of future developments. Readers will not only gain a current understanding of proteins in solution and at interfaces, but also will discover how theoretical and technical developments in the field can be translated into new applications in material design, genetic engineering, personalized medicine, drug delivery, biosensors, and biotechnology.