In-situ Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Investigation of Transient Nanostructure of Multi-phase Polymer Materials Under Mechanical Deformation


Author: Ahmad Zeinolebadi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642354130
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 106
View: 8199

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The results in this dissertation set the ground to answer a fundamental question in data-driven polymer material science: "Why don't prepared composites show less fatigue than the pure plastics?" A simultaneous analysis of mechanical testing and small angle X-Ray scattering from the DESY source in Hamburg has been applied to approach this question, which is also central to the European research project "Nanotough", and the results are clearly presented in this book. The evolution of the materials structure is visualized and quantitatively analyzed from exhaustive sequences of scattering images. Three different classes of polymer composites are presented as typical and illustrative examples. The obtained results illustrate that the interactions of their components can cause unpredictable structural effects, ultimaltely leading to a weakening of the material, where a reinforcement was expected.

Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering


Author: L.A. Feigin,D.I. Svergun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475766246
Category: Science
Page: 335
View: 7654

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Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.

Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules


Author: Dmitri I. Svergun,Michel H. J. Koch,Peter A. Timmins,Roland P. May
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199639531
Category: Science
Page: 358
View: 9140

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Small-angle scattering of X-rays or neutrons is a technique that allows one to study the structures and interactions of disordered materials like polymers in the solid state, melt or solution or metal clusters in alloys. It is also the method of choice to characterize biological macromolecules in solution, in particular when they cannot be crystallized. A further advantage of the technique is that it can easily be combined with standard perturbation methods such as temperature and pressure jumps and stopped flow mixing thus offering useful information complementary to spectroscopic methods. The book describes all aspects of the technique: instrumentation, sample requirements, data interpretation and modelling methods in a comprehensive way and gives examples of applications in various fields of biophysics and biochemistry. Appendices describe the mathematical background and additional resources relevant to the method.