Small-Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids

Applications to Energy Storage and Environmental Science
Author: Yuri B. Melnichenko
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319011049
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 314
View: 4996

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This book examines the meso- and nanoscopic aspects of fluid adsorption in porous solids using a non-invasive method of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Starting with a brief summary of the basic assumptions and results of the theory of small-angle scattering from porous media, the author focuses on the practical aspects and methodology of the ambient and high pressure SANS and SAXS experiments and corresponding data analysis. It is illustrated with results of studies of the vapor and supercritical fluid adsorption in porous materials published during the last decade, obtained both for man-made materials (e.g. porous fractal silica, Vycor glass, activated carbon) and geological samples (e.g. sandstones, shales and coal). In order to serve the needs of broad readership, the results are presented in the relevant context (e.g. petroleum exploration, anthropogenic carbon capture and sequestration, ion adsorption in supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, etc.).

Interfacial and Confined Water


Author: Ivan Brovchenko,Alla Oleinikova
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080558172
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 473

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Water in the proximity of a surface (interfacial water) is abundant on the earth. It is involved in various physical and chemical processes and crucial for biological function. Despite numerous studies of interfacial water, systematic analysis of its properties is missing in scientific literature. This book is a first comprehensive review of experimental and simulation studies of water in various confining environments, such as hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, surfaces of biomolecules, porous media, etc. Systematic analysis of interfacial and confined water is based on the firm physical ground, which accounts for variety of the thermodynamic states of water near the surface, surface phase transitions, surface critical behaviour, effect of confinement on the bulk and surface phase transitions of water, clustering and formation of a spanning hydrogen-bonded water network via percolation transition. This allows distinguishing between universal features, common for all fluids, and some specific water properties, related to intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Special attention is paid to the properties of hydration water, which covers biomolecules and enables their biological activity. This book provides readers with basic information on interfacial and confined water, which will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the fields of bioscienses, nanociences and nanotechnologies. * Comprehensive review and analysis of interfacial and confined water * Updates and informs practitioners and students on all the latest developments in the field * Written by leading scholars and industry experts

Basic Concepts for Simple and Complex Liquids


Author: Jean-Louis Barrat,Jean-Pierre Hansen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521789530
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 6876

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Important graduate textbook in condensed matter physics and physical chemistry.

Interfacial Properties on the Submicrometer Scale


Author: Jane Frommer,René M. Overney
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 343
View: 5016

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This book deals with the increasingly 'diminishing' interfaces that are resulting as device dimensions scale down. Chapter topics include nanomechanicals properties and structures of thin films in contrast to their bulk counterparts, from both experimental and theoretical perspectives; viscoelasticity, microroughness, and friction, particularly in polymers; advances in instrumentation such as scanning probes, x-ray scattering, sum frequency generation spectroscopy and nanorheometers; the origin of film properties via tailored molecular modification of film components; molecular dynamics simulations and modeling of interfaces.

Neutron Scattering in Earth Sciences


Author: Hans Rudolf Wenk
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 1501509446
Category: Science
Page: 491
View: 4931

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Volume 63 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry provides an introduction for those not yet familiar with neutrons by describing basic features of neutrons and their interaction with matter as well illustrating important applications. The volume is divided into 17 Chapters. The first two chapters introduce properties of neutrons and neutron facilities, setting the stage for applications. Some applications rely on single crystals (Chapter 3) but mostly powders (Chapters 4-5) and bulk polycrystals (Chapters 15-16) are analyzed, at ambient conditions as well as low and high temperature and high pressure (Chapters 7-9). Characterization of magnetic structures remains a core application of neutron scattering (Chapter 6). The analysis of neutron data is not trivial and crystallographic methods have been modified to take account of the complexities, such as the Rietveld technique (Chapter 4) and the pair distribution function (Chapter 11). Information is not only obtained about solids but about liquids, melts and aqueous solutions as well (Chapters 11-13). In fact this field, approached with inelastic scattering (Chapter 10) and small angle scattering (Chapter 13) is opening unprecedented opportunities for earth sciences. Small angle scattering also contributes information about microstructures (Chapter 14). Neutron diffraction has become a favorite method to quantify residual stresses in deformed materials (Chapter 16) as well as preferred orientation patterns (Chapter 15). The volume concludes with a short introduction into neutron tomography and radiography that may well emerge as a principal application of neutron scattering in the future (Chapter 17).

Indentation Testing of Biological Materials


Author: Ivan Argatov,Gennady Mishuris
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319785338
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 376
View: 8895

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This book presents a comprehensive and unifying approach to analytical identification of material properties of biological materials. Focusing on depth-sensing indentation testing, pipette aspiration testing, and torsion of soft tissues, it discusses the following important aspects in detail: damping, adhesion, thickness effect, substrate effect, elastic inhomogeneity effect, and biphasic effect. This book is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, researchers in the area of biomechanics as well as for biomedical engineers interested in contact problems and involved in inverse materials parameters prediction analysis.

Theory of Simple Liquids


Author: Jean-Pierre Hansen,I.R. McDonald
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080455075
Category: Science
Page: 428
View: 2166

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The third edition of Theory of Simple Liquids is an updated, advanced, but self-contained introduction to the principles of liquid-state theory. It presents the modern, molecular theory of the structural, thermodynamic interfacial and dynamical properties of the liquid phase of materials constituted of atoms, small molecules or ions. This book leans on concepts and methods form classical Statistical Mechanics in which theoretical predictions are systematically compared with experimental data and results from numerical simulations. The overall layout of the book is similar to that of the previous two editions however, there are considerable changes in emphasis and several key additions including: •up-to-date presentation of modern theories of liquid-vapour coexistence and criticality •areas of considerable present and future interest such as super-cooled liquids and the glass transition •the area of liquid metals, which has grown into a mature subject area, now presented as part of the chapter ionic liquids •Provides cutting-edge research in the principles of liquid-state theory •Includes frequent comparisons of theoretical predictions with experimental and simulation data •Suitable for researchers and post-graduates in the field of condensed matter science (Physics, Chemistry, Material Science), biophysics as well as those in the oil industry

Supramolecular Structure in Confined Geometries


Author: Srinivas Manne,Gregory G. Warr
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 278
View: 7552

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The effects of confinement on the surfaces of aggregates in 100-1000 � size range is an emerging field in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Much of the research focuses on how the surfaces of aggregates change when they encounter a confining surface such as a pore in a catalyst. The field is new and could have important implications for the design of rational processes. This volume collects work from a range of scientists who are studying the same general kinds of molecular behavior and seeks to draw connections between different approaches.

Polymers, Liquids and Colloids in Electric Fields

Interfacial Instabilities, Orientation and Phase Transitions
Author: Yoav Tsori
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814271691
Category: Science
Page: 281
View: 3542

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This unique book aims to expose the reader to a wide range of phenomena occurring when soft matter systems are put under the influence of an external electric field. The book shows how an electric field can be used to affect objects at the submicron scale, and how it controls the phase behavior of liquids and polymers. The main focus is on the basic underlying mechanisms. Some technological applications are dealt with as well. Book chapters are arranged in a logical order, from OC simpleOCO systems to more complicated ones. In addition, each topic is covered by the mixed bag of theory, experiment and simulation; and this will give the reader a broad perspective of the underlying physical phenomena."

Neutron Scattering for Materials Science:


Author: S. M. Shapiro,J. D. Jorgensen
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 499
View: 8043

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The MRS Symposium Proceeding series is an internationally recognised reference suitable for researchers and practitioners.

Neutrons in Soft Matter


Author: Toyoko Imae,Toshiji Kanaya,Michihiro Furusaka,Naoya Torikai
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118002186
Category: Science
Page: 664
View: 2923

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Neutron and synchrotron facilities, which are beyond the scale of the laboratory, and supported on a national level in countries throughout the world. These tools for probing micro- and nano-structure research and on fast dynamics research of atomic location in materials have been key in the development of new polymer-based materials. Different from several existing professional books on neutron science, this book focuses on theory, instrumentation, an applications. The book is divided into five parts: Part 1 describes the underlying theory of neutron scattering. Part 2 describes the various instruments that exist and the various techniques used to achieve neutron scattering or bombardment. Part 3 discusses data treatment and simulation methods as well as how to assess the environment of the sample (temperature, pressure, shear, and external fields). Part 4 addresses the myriad applications of small and large molecules, biomolecules, and gels. Part 5 describes the various global neutron sources that exist and provides an overview of the different reactors.

Elementary Scattering Theory

For X-ray and Neutron Users
Author: D.S. Sivia
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199228671
Category: Science
Page: 201
View: 6304

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This book provides the basic theoretical background for X-ray and neutron scattering experiments. Since these techniques are increasingly being used by biologists and chemists, as well as physicists, the book is intended to be accessible to a broad spectrum of scientists.

Rheology of Complex Fluids


Author: Abhijit P. Deshpande,J. Murali Krishnan,Sunil Kumar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441964946
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 258
View: 9287

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The aim of the School on Rheology of Complex fluids is to bring together young researchers and teachers from educational and R&D institutions, and expose them to the basic concepts and research techniques used in the study of rheological behavior of complex fluids. The lectures will be delivered by well-recognized experts. The book contents will be based on the lecture notes of the school.

Dynamics in Small Confining Systems V:


Author: J. M. Drake
Publisher: Materials Research Society
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 334
View: 1540

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The MRS Symposium Proceeding series is an internationally recognised reference suitable for researchers and practitioners.

Analytical Imaging Techniques for Soft Matter Characterization


Author: Vikas Mittal,Nadejda B. Matsko
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642304001
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 200
View: 8274

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The book aims to describe the microscopic characterization of the soft matter in the light of new advances acquired in the science of microscopy techniques like AFM; SEM; TEM etc. It does not focus on the traditional information on the microscopy methods as well as systems already present in different books, but intends to answer more fundamental questions associated with commercially important systems by using new advances in microscopy. Such questions are generally not answered by other techniques. The contents of the book also reflect this as the chapters are not based on describing only material systems, but are based on the answering the problems or questions arising in their characterization. Both qualitative as well as quantitative analysis using such microscopic techniques is discussed. Moreover, efforts have been made to provide a broader reach as discussions on both polymers as well as biological matter have been included as different sections. Such a text with comprehensive overview of the various characterization possibilities using microscopy methods can serve as a valuable reference for microscopy experts as well as non-experts alike

Nanocolloids

A Meeting Point for Scientists and Technologists
Author: Margarita Sanchez-Dominguez,Carlos Rodriguez-Abreu
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128017589
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 536
View: 5538

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Nanocolloids: A Meeting Point for Scientists and Technologists presents an easy-to-read approach to current trends in nanoscale colloid chemistry, which offers relatively simple and economically feasible ways to produce nanomaterials. Nanocolloids have been the subjects of major development in modern technology, with many current and future applications. The book helps scientists and technologists to understand the different aspects of modern nanocolloid science. It outlines the underlying fundamental principles of nanocolloid science and covers applications ranging from emulsions to dispersions and suspensions. You will find details on experimental techniques and methods for the synthesis and characterization of nanocolloids, including the latest developments in nanoemulsions and nanoparticles. Edited by leading academics with over 10 years’ experience in the field of colloid and surfactant science. Each chapter is authored by recognized experts in the field. Outlines the underlying fundamental science behind nanocolloids. Provides comprehensive coverage of current topics and potential applications in nanocolloid science. Presents a multidisciplinary approach to help chemical engineers, chemists, physicists, materials scientists and pharmacologists, form an in-depth understanding of nanocolloid science.

Soft-Matter Characterization


Author: Redouane Borsali,Robert Pecora
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140204464X
Category: Science
Page: 1452
View: 9420

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This 2-volume set includes extensive discussions of scattering techniques (light, neutron and X-ray) and related fluctuation and grating techniques that are at the forefront of this field. Most of the scattering techniques are Fourier space techniques. Recent advances have seen the development of powerful direct imaging methods such as atomic force microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. In addition, techniques that can be used to manipulate soft matter on the nanometer scale are also in rapid development. These include the scanning probe microscopy technique mentioned above as well as optical and magnetic tweezers.

Membrane Characterization


Author: Nidal Hilal,Ahmad Fauzi Ismail,Takeshi Matsuura,Darren Oatley-Radcliffe
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444637915
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 458
View: 8714

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Membrane Characterization provides a valuable source of information on how membranes are characterized, an extremely limited field that is confined to only brief descriptions in various technical papers available online. For the first time, readers will be able to understand the importance of membrane characterization, the techniques required, and the fundamental theory behind them. This book focuses on characterization techniques that are normally used for membranes prepared from polymeric, ceramic, and composite materials. Features specific details on many membrane characterization techniques for various membrane materials of industrial and academic interest Contains examples of international best practice techniques for the evaluation of several membrane parameters, including pore size, charge, and fouling Discusses various membrane models more suitable to a specific application Provides examples of ab initio calculations for the design, optimization, and scale-up of processes based on characterization data