Small-Angle Scattering from Confined and Interfacial Fluids

Applications to Energy Storage and Environmental Science
Author: Yuri B. Melnichenko
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319011049
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 314
View: 9670

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This book examines the meso- and nanoscopic aspects of fluid adsorption in porous solids using a non-invasive method of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Starting with a brief summary of the basic assumptions and results of the theory of small-angle scattering from porous media, the author focuses on the practical aspects and methodology of the ambient and high pressure SANS and SAXS experiments and corresponding data analysis. It is illustrated with results of studies of the vapor and supercritical fluid adsorption in porous materials published during the last decade, obtained both for man-made materials (e.g. porous fractal silica, Vycor glass, activated carbon) and geological samples (e.g. sandstones, shales and coal). In order to serve the needs of broad readership, the results are presented in the relevant context (e.g. petroleum exploration, anthropogenic carbon capture and sequestration, ion adsorption in supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, etc.).

Interfacial and Confined Water

Author: Ivan Brovchenko,Alla Oleinikova
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080558172
Category: Science
Page: 320
View: 7227

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Water in the proximity of a surface (interfacial water) is abundant on the earth. It is involved in various physical and chemical processes and crucial for biological function. Despite numerous studies of interfacial water, systematic analysis of its properties is missing in scientific literature. This book is a first comprehensive review of experimental and simulation studies of water in various confining environments, such as hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, surfaces of biomolecules, porous media, etc. Systematic analysis of interfacial and confined water is based on the firm physical ground, which accounts for variety of the thermodynamic states of water near the surface, surface phase transitions, surface critical behaviour, effect of confinement on the bulk and surface phase transitions of water, clustering and formation of a spanning hydrogen-bonded water network via percolation transition. This allows distinguishing between universal features, common for all fluids, and some specific water properties, related to intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Special attention is paid to the properties of hydration water, which covers biomolecules and enables their biological activity. This book provides readers with basic information on interfacial and confined water, which will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the fields of bioscienses, nanociences and nanotechnologies. * Comprehensive review and analysis of interfacial and confined water * Updates and informs practitioners and students on all the latest developments in the field * Written by leading scholars and industry experts

Basic Concepts for Simple and Complex Liquids

Author: Jean-Louis Barrat,Jean-Pierre Hansen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521789530
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 8340

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Important graduate textbook in condensed matter physics and physical chemistry.

Neutron Scattering in Earth Sciences

Author: Hans Rudolf Wenk
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 1501509446
Category: Science
Page: 491
View: 4728

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Volume 63 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry provides an introduction for those not yet familiar with neutrons by describing basic features of neutrons and their interaction with matter as well illustrating important applications. The volume is divided into 17 Chapters. The first two chapters introduce properties of neutrons and neutron facilities, setting the stage for applications. Some applications rely on single crystals (Chapter 3) but mostly powders (Chapters 4-5) and bulk polycrystals (Chapters 15-16) are analyzed, at ambient conditions as well as low and high temperature and high pressure (Chapters 7-9). Characterization of magnetic structures remains a core application of neutron scattering (Chapter 6). The analysis of neutron data is not trivial and crystallographic methods have been modified to take account of the complexities, such as the Rietveld technique (Chapter 4) and the pair distribution function (Chapter 11). Information is not only obtained about solids but about liquids, melts and aqueous solutions as well (Chapters 11-13). In fact this field, approached with inelastic scattering (Chapter 10) and small angle scattering (Chapter 13) is opening unprecedented opportunities for earth sciences. Small angle scattering also contributes information about microstructures (Chapter 14). Neutron diffraction has become a favorite method to quantify residual stresses in deformed materials (Chapter 16) as well as preferred orientation patterns (Chapter 15). The volume concludes with a short introduction into neutron tomography and radiography that may well emerge as a principal application of neutron scattering in the future (Chapter 17).

Supramolecular Structure in Confined Geometries

Author: Srinivas Manne,Gregory G. Warr
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
Category: Science
Page: 278
View: 9329

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The effects of confinement on the surfaces of aggregates in 100-1000 � size range is an emerging field in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Much of the research focuses on how the surfaces of aggregates change when they encounter a confining surface such as a pore in a catalyst. The field is new and could have important implications for the design of rational processes. This volume collects work from a range of scientists who are studying the same general kinds of molecular behavior and seeks to draw connections between different approaches.

Dynamics in Small Confining Systems V:

Author: J. M. Drake
Publisher: Materials Research Society
Category: Science
Page: 334
View: 6988

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The MRS Symposium Proceeding series is an internationally recognised reference suitable for researchers and practitioners.

Dynamics in Small Confining Systems:

Author: J. M. Drake,J. Klafter,R. Kopelman,S. M. Troian
Publisher: Materials Research Society
ISBN: 9781558992672
Category: Science
Page: 466
View: 4553

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Interfacial science has rapidly expanded beyond the original realm of chemistry to include physics, mechanical and chemical engineering, biology, materials science, and other specialized sub-fields. All of these scientific disciplines come together in this book to share viewpoints and bridge gaps among the different approaches and methods presented. Discussions focus on how ultrasmall geometries can force a system to behave in ways significantly different than it behaves in bulk, how this difference affects molecular properties, and how it is probed. Topics include: probing confined systems; structure and dynamics of thin films; nanorheology; diffusion in porous systems; adsorption and phase transitions; and reaction dynamics.

Amorphous Insulators and Semiconductors

Author: M.F. Thorpe,M.I. Mitkova
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792344049
Category: Science
Page: 524
View: 6223

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The aim of this NATO ASI has been to present an up-to-date overview of current areas of interest in amorphous materials. In order to limit the material to a manageable amount, the meeting was concerned exclusively with insulating and semiconducting materials. The lectures and seminars fill the gap between graduate courses and research seminars. The lecturers and seminar speakers were chosen as experts in their respective areas and the lectures and seminars that were given are presented in this volume. During the first week of the meeting. an emphasis was placed on introductory lectures, mainly associated with questions relating to the glass-formation and the structure of glasses. The second week focused more on research seminars. Each day of the meeting. about four posters were presented during the coffee breaks, and these formed an important focus for discussions. The posters are not reproduced in this volume as the editors wanted to have only larger contributions to make this volume more coherent. This volume is organized into four sections, starting with general considerations of the glass forming ability and techniques for the preparation of different kinds of glasses.

Neutron Scattering for Materials Science:

Author: S. M. Shapiro,J. D. Jorgensen
Publisher: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 499
View: 7531

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The MRS Symposium Proceeding series is an internationally recognised reference suitable for researchers and practitioners.

Functional Polymer Films, 2 Volume Set

Author: Wolfgang Knoll,Rigoberto C. Advincula
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527638490
Category: Science
Page: 1128
View: 7021

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Very thin film materials have emerged as a highly interesting and useful quasi 2D-state functionality. They have given rise to numerous applications ranging from protective and smart coatings to electronics, sensors and display technology as well as serving biological, analytical and medical purposes. The tailoring of polymer film properties and functions has become a major research field. As opposed to the traditional treatise on polymer and resin-based coatings, this one-stop reference is the first to give readers a comprehensive view of the latest macromolecular and supramolecular film-based nanotechnology. Bringing together all the important facets and state-of-the-art research, the two well-structured volumes cover film assembly and depostion, functionality and patterning, and analysis and characterization. The result is an in-depth understanding of the phenomena, ordering, scale effects, fabrication, and analysis of polymer ultrathin films. This book will be a valuable addition for Materials Scientists, Polymer Chemists, Surface Scientists, Bioengineers, Coatings Specialists, Chemical Engineers, and Scientists working in this important research field and industry.

Strömungsmechanik nichtnewtonscher Fluide

Author: Gert Böhme
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3322801403
Category: Science
Page: 352
View: 5633

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Die Grundlagen und Methoden, die zur theoretischen Modellierung und zur Analyse von Strömungsvorgängen mit nicht-newtonschen Fluiden erforderlich sind, werden in diesem Lehrbuch vorgestellt. Zunächst werden die kinematischen, die kontinuumsmechanischen und die stofflichen Grundlagen ausführlich erläutert. Die Anwendung des Basiswissens erfolgt exemplarisch anhand ausgewählter Strömungsvorgänge, die maßgeblich von den nichtlinearen Fließeigenschaften, von den Normalspannungsdifferenzen oder vom Gedächtnis der Flüssigkeiten beeinflusst werden. Dabei haben sich die Inhalte, die Schwerpunkte und die Beispiele gegenüber der ersten Auflage wesentlich geändert. Erstmalig in einem deutschsprachigen Lehrbuch werden auch die Grundzüge einer numerischen Strömungssimulation unter Berücksichtigung komplexer rheologischer Stoffmodelle behandelt.

Science Abstracts

Author: American Institute of Physics
Publisher: N.A
Category: Physics
Page: N.A
View: 3091

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Structured Fluids

Polymers, Colloids, Surfactants
Author: Thomas A. Witten,T. Witten,P. A. Pincus,P. Pincus
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780198526889
Category: Science
Page: 216
View: 6032

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Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view, showing the far-reaching effects of thermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest explanations that account for the distinctive scaling properties of these fluids. An example is the growth of viscosity of a polymer solution as the cube of the molecular weight of the constituent polymers. Another is the hydrodynamic radius of a colloidal aggregate, which remains comparable to its geometrical radius even though the density of particles in the aggregate becomes arbitrarily small. The book aims for a simplicity, unity and depth not found in previous treatments. The text is supplemented by numerous figures, tables and problems to aid the student.