Skyrmions in Magnetic Materials


Author: Shinichiro Seki,Masahito Mochizuki
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319246518
Category: Computers
Page: 69
View: 6364

Continue Reading →

This brief reviews current research on magnetic skyrmions, with emphasis on formation mechanisms, observation techniques, and materials design strategies. The response of skyrmions, both static and dynamical, to various electromagnetic fields is also covered in detail. Recent progress in magnetic imaging techniques has enabled the observation of skyrmions in real space, as well as the analysis of their ordering manner and the details of their internal structure. In metallic systems, conduction electrons moving through the skyrmion spin texture gain a nontrivial quantum Berry phase, which provides topological force to the underlying spin texture and enables the current-induced manipulation of magnetic skyrmions. On the other hand, skyrmions in an insulator can induce electric polarization through relativistic spin-orbit interaction, paving the way for the control of skyrmions by an external electric field without loss of Joule heating. Because of its nanometric scale, particle nature, and electric controllability, skyrmions are considered as potential candidates for new information carriers in the next generation of spintronics devices.

A Primer on Quantum Fluids


Author: Carlo F. Barenghi,Nick G. Parker
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319424769
Category: Science
Page: 119
View: 1342

Continue Reading →

The aim of this primer is to cover the essential theoretical information, quickly and concisely, in order to enable senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to tackle projects in topical research areas of quantum fluids, for example, solitons, vortices and collective modes. The selection of the material, both regarding the content and level of presentation, draws on the authors analysis of the success of relevant research projects with newcomers to the field, as well as of the students feedback from many taught and self-study courses on the subject matter. Starting with a brief historical overview, this text covers particle statistics, weakly interacting condensates and their dynamics and finally superfluid helium and quantum turbulence. At the end of each chapter (apart from the first) there will be some exercises. Detailed solutions can be made available to instructors upon request to the authors.

UV-VIS and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy for Nanomaterials Characterization


Author: Challa S.S.R. Kumar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364227594X
Category: Science
Page: 599
View: 2447

Continue Reading →

Second volume of a 40-volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy for the characterization of nanomaterials. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry in the related fields.

The Selected Models of the Mesostructure of Composites

Percolation, Clusters, and Force Fields
Author: Alexander Herega
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319897047
Category: Science
Page: 107
View: 4116

Continue Reading →

This book presents the role of mesostructure on the properties of composite materials. A complex percolation model is developed for the material structure containing percolation clusters of phases and interior boundaries. Modeling of technological cracks and the percolation in the Sierpinski carpet are described. The interaction of mesoscopic interior boundaries of the material, including the fractal nature of interior boundaries, the oscillatory nature of it interaction and also the stochastic model of the interior boundaries’ interaction, the genesis, structure, and properties are discussed. One of part of the book introduces the percolation model of the long-range effect which is based on the notion on the multifractal clusters with transforming elements, and the theorem on the field interaction of multifractals is described. In addition small clusters, their characteristic properties and the criterion of stability are presented.

The Shadow of Black Holes

An Analytic Description
Author: Arne Grenzebach
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319300660
Category: Science
Page: 94
View: 8203

Continue Reading →

This book introduces an analytic method to describe the shadow of black holes. As an introduction, it presents a survey of the attempts to observe the shadow of galactic black holes. Based on a detailed discussion of the Plebański–Demiański class of space-times, the book derives analytical formulas for the photon regions and for the boundary curve of the shadow as seen by an observer in the domain of outer communication. It also analyzes how the shadow depends on the motion of the observer. For all cases, the photon regions and shadows are visualized for various values of the parameters. Finally, it considers how the analytical formulas can be used for calculating the horizontal and vertical angular diameters of the shadow, and estimates values for the black holes at the centers of our Galaxy near Sgr A* and of the neighboring galaxy M87.

Fibre Bragg Grating and No-Core Fibre Sensors


Author: Suzairi Daud,Jalil Ali
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319904639
Category: Science
Page: 82
View: 7712

Continue Reading →

This book focuses on the development and set-up of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and no-core fibre (NCF) sensors. It discusses the properties of the sensors and modelling of the resulting devices, which include electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and spintronic devices. In addition to providing detailed explanations of the properties of FBG and NCF sensors, it features a wealth of instructive illustrations and tables, helping to visualize the respective devices’ functions.

De Sitter Projective Relativity


Author: Ignazio Licata,Leonardo Chiatti,Elmo Benedetto
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331952271X
Category: Science
Page: 108
View: 6330

Continue Reading →

This book presents the Projective approach to de Sitter Relativity. It traces the development of renewed interest in models of the universe at constant positive curvature such as "vacuum" geometry. The De Sitter Theory of Relativity, formulated in 1917 with Willem De Sitter's solution of the Einstein equations, was used in different fields during the 1950s and 1960s, in the work of H. Bacry, J.M. LevyLeblond and F.Gursey, to name some important contributors. From the 1960s to 1980s, L. Fantappié and G. Arcidiacono provided an elegant group approach to the De Sitter universe putting the basis for special and general projective relativity. Today such suggestions flow into a unitary scenario, and this way the De Sitter Relativity is no more a "missing opportunity" (F. Dyson, 1972), but has a central role in theoretical physics. In this volume a systematic presentation is given of the De Sitter Projective relativity, with the recent developments in projective general relativity and quantum cosmology.

Coherent Structures in Granular Crystals

From Experiment and Modelling to Computation and Mathematical Analysis
Author: Christopher Chong,Panayotis G. Kevrekidis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319778846
Category: Science
Page: 94
View: 7124

Continue Reading →

This book summarizes a number of fundamental developments at the interface of granular crystals and the mathematical and computational analysis of some of their key localized nonlinear wave solutions. The subject presents a blend of the appeal of granular crystals as a prototypical engineering tested for a variety of diverse applications, the novelty in the nonlinear physics of its coherent structures, and the tractability of a series of mathematical and computational techniques to analyse them. While the focus is on principal one-dimensional solutions such as shock waves, traveling waves, and discrete breathers, numerous extensions of the discussed patterns, e.g., in two dimensions, chains with defects, heterogeneous settings, and other recent developments are discussed. The emphasis on the subject was motivated by models in condensed matter physics, ferroelectrics, high energy physics, and statistical mechanics, leading to developments in mathematical analysis, numerical computation and insights on the physical aspects of the model. The book appeals to researchers in the field, as well as for graduate and advanced undergraduate students. It will be of interest to mathematicians, physicists and engineers alike.

Magnetic Domain Walls in Bubble Materials

Advances in Materials and Device Research
Author: A. P. Malozemoff,J. C. Slonczewski
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483214761
Category: Science
Page: 334
View: 1097

Continue Reading →

Magnetic Domain Walls in Bubble Materials covers the physics of domain walls in bubble domain materials. The book describes the microscopic origins and characteristics of the material parameters; the principles of domain statics and the Landau-Lifshitz equation, which is the basic equation of magnetization dynamics; and its physical significance. The text then discusses the experimental techniques, both static and dynamic, used in studying domain walls; the static internal structure of bubble-domain walls; the Bloch-wall dynamics based on one-dimensional solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation; and the wall-motion theory. The theory to low velocity phenomena in domain walls containing vertical Bloch; high-velocity radial and quasi-planar wall motions; and nonlinear bubble translation including the implications of the theory for bubble motion in devices, are also considered. The book further surveys special phenomena involving vibrations and wave motions of walls, and the effects of microwave-frequency fields on walls. Engineers and materials researchers involved in the development of practical bubble devices will find the book invaluable.

Computational Atmospheric Acoustics


Author: E.M. Salomons
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401006601
Category: Science
Page: 335
View: 2452

Continue Reading →

Noise from cars, trains, and aeroplanes can be heard at large distances from the source. Accurate predictions of the loudness of the noise require accurate computations of sound propagation in the atmosphere. This book describes models that can be used for these computations. The models take into account complex effects of the atmosphere and the ground surface on sound waves, including the effects of wind and temperature distributions, atmospheric turbulence, irregular terrain, and noise barriers. The main text of the book focuses on physical effects in atmospheric acoustics. The effects are illustrated by many numerical examples. The main text requires a very limited mathematical background from the reader; detailed mathematical descriptions of the models, developed from the basic principles of acoustics, are presented in appendices. Models for moving media are compared with models that are based on the effective sound speed approach. Both two-dimensional models and three-dimensional models are presented. As meteorological effects play an important role in atmospheric acoustics, selected topics from boundary layer meteorology and the theory of turbulence are also presented.

Skyrmions

Topological Structures, Properties, and Applications
Author: J. Ping Liu,Zhidong Zhang,Guoping Zhao
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315284154
Category: Science
Page: 482
View: 9595

Continue Reading →

"The book reviews all the aspects of recent developments in research on skyrmions, from the presentation of the observation and characterization techniques to the description of physical properties and expected applications. It will be of great use for all scientists working in this field." – Albert Fert, 2007 Nobel Laureate in Physics (from the Foreword) A skyrmion is a tiny region of reversed magnetization – quasiparticles since they are not present except in a magnetic state, and also give rise to physics that cannot be described by Maxwell’s equations. These particles are fascinating subjects for theoretical and experimental studies. Moreover, as a new type of magnetic domain structure with special topological structures, skyrmions feature outstanding magnetic and transport properties and may well have applications in data storage and other advanced spintronic devices, as readers will see in this book. Chapters address the relationships between physical properties of condensed matter, such as the AB effect, Berry phase effect, quantum Hall effect, and topological insulators. Overall, it provides a timely introduction to the fundamental aspects and possible applications of magnetic skyrmions to an interdisciplinary audience from condensed matter physics, chemistry, and materials science.

Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: Reinhard Noll
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642206689
Category: Science
Page: 544
View: 2894

Continue Reading →

This book is a comprehensive source of the fundamentals, process parameters, instrumental components and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The effect of multiple pulses on material ablation, plasma dynamics and plasma emission is presented. A heuristic plasma modeling allows to simulate complex experimental plasma spectra. These methods and findings form the basis for a variety of applications to perform quantitative multi-element analysis with LIBS. These application potentials of LIBS have really boosted in the last years ranging from bulk analysis of metallic alloys and non-conducting materials, via spatially resolved analysis and depth profiling covering measuring objects in all physical states: gaseous, liquid and solid. Dedicated chapters present LIBS investigations for these tasks with special emphasis on the methodical and instrumental concepts as well as the optimization strategies for a quantitative analysis. Requirements, concepts, design and characteristic features of LIBS instruments are described covering laboratory systems, inspections systems for in-line process control, mobile systems and remote systems. State-of-the-art industrial applications of LIBS systems are presented demonstrating the benefits of inline process control for improved process guiding and quality assurance purposes.

Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials


Author: K.H.J Buschow,F.R. de Boer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306484080
Category: Science
Page: 182
View: 579

Continue Reading →

In this book, the fundamentals of magnetism are treated, starting at an introductory level. The origin of magnetic moments, the response to an applied magnetic field, and the various interactions giving rise to different types of magnetic ordering in solids are presented and many examples are given. Crystalline-electric-field effects are treated at a level that is sufficient to provide the basic knowledge necessary in understanding the properties of materials in which these effects play a role. Itinerant-electron magnetism is presented on a similar basis. Particular attention has been given to magnetocrystalline magnetic anisotropy and the magnetocaloric effect. Also, the usual techniques for magnetic measurements are presented. About half of the book is devoted to magnetic materials and the properties that make them suitable for numerous applications. The state of the art is presented of permanent magnets, high-density recording materials, soft-magnetic materials, Invar alloys and magnetostrictive materials. Many references are given.

Arnold Sommerfeld

Science, Life and Turbulent Times 1868-1951
Author: Michael Eckert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461474612
Category: Science
Page: 471
View: 9261

Continue Reading →

The subject of the book is a biography of the theoretical physicist Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951). Although Sommerfeld is famous as a quantum theorist for the elaboration of the semi-classical atomic theory (Bohr-Sommerfeld model, Sommerfeld's fine-structure constant), his role in the history of modern physics is not confined to atoms and quanta. Sommerfeld left his mark in the history of mathematics, fluid mechanics, a number of physical subdisciplines and, in particular, as founder of a most productive "school" (Peter Debye, Wolfgang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg, Linus Pauling and Hans Bethe were his pupils, to name only the Nobel laureates among them). This biography is to a large extent based on primary source material (correspondence, diaries, unpublished manuscripts). It should be of particular interest to students who are keen to know more about the historical roots of modern science. Sommerfeld lived through turbulent times of German history (Wilhelmian Empire, Weimar Republic, Nazi period). His life, therefore, illustrates how science and scientists perform in changing social environments. From this perspective, the biography should also attract readers with a general interest in the history of science and technology.

Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems


Author: Mehmet Kanoğlu,Yunus A. Çengel,Ibrahim Dincer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461422426
Category: Science
Page: 170
View: 6345

Continue Reading →

Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding of second law (exergy) efficiencies for various systems. It may serve as a reference book to the researchers in energy field. The definitions and concepts developed in the book will be explained through illustrative examples.

Transport and Fluctuations in Granular Fluids

From Boltzmann Equation to Hydrodynamics, Diffusion and Motor Effects
Author: Andrea Puglisi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319102869
Category: Science
Page: 118
View: 3392

Continue Reading →

This brief offers a concise presentation of granular fluids from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical physics. The emphasis is on fluctuations, which can be large in granular fluids due to the small system size (the number of grains is many orders of magnitude smaller than in molecular fluids). Firstly, readers will be introduced to the most intriguing experiments on fluidized granular fluids. Then granular fluid theory, which goes through increasing levels of coarse-graining and emerging collective phenomena, is described. Problems and questions are initially posed at the level of kinetic theory, which describes particle densities in full or reduced phase-space. Some answers become clear through hydrodynamics, which describes the evolution of slowly evolving fields. Granular fluctuating hydrodynamics, which builds a bridge to the most recent results in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, is also introduced. Further and more interesting answers come when the dynamics of a massive intruder are discussed. Such non-equilibrium stochastic process offers a more precise and compact picture of the features foreseen at the more detailed levels of description. The dynamics of an intruder diffusing in a granular fluid reveal the clearest connection with recent theories on stochastic energetics and stochastic thermodynamics.

Cavity Optomechanics

Nano- and Micromechanical Resonators Interacting with Light
Author: Markus Aspelmeyer,Tobias J. Kippenberg,Florian Marquardt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642553125
Category: Science
Page: 357
View: 5996

Continue Reading →

During the last few years cavity-optomechanics has emerged as a new field of research. This highly interdisciplinary field studies the interaction between micro and nano mechanical systems and light. Possible applications range from novel high-bandwidth mechanical sensing devices through the generation of squeezed optical or mechanical states to even tests of quantum theory itself. This is one of the first books in this relatively young field. It is aimed at scientists, engineers and students who want to obtain a concise introduction to the state of the art in the field of cavity optomechanics. It is valuable to researchers in nano science, quantum optics, quantum information, gravitational wave detection and other cutting edge fields. Possible applications include biological sensing, frequency comb applications, silicon photonics etc. The technical content will be accessible to those who have familiarity with basic undergraduate physics.

Introduction to Quantum Metrology

Quantum Standards and Instrumentation
Author: Waldemar Nawrocki
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319156691
Category: Science
Page: 279
View: 5457

Continue Reading →

This book presents the theory of quantum effects used in metrology and results of the author’s own research in the field of quantum electronics. The book provides also quantum measurement standards used in many branches of metrology for electrical quantities, mass, length, time and frequency. This book represents the first comprehensive survey of quantum metrology problems. As a scientific survey, it propagates a new approach to metrology with more emphasis on its connection with physics. This is of importance for the constantly developing technologies and nanotechnologies in particular. Providing a presentation of practical applications of the effects used in quantum metrology for the construction of quantum standards and sensitive electronic components, the book is useful for a wide audience of physicists and metrologists in the broad sense of both terms. In 2014 a new system of units, the so called Quantum SI, is introduced. This book helps to understand and approve the new system to both technology and academic community.

Spectra and Dynamics of Small Molecules

Alexander von Humboldt Lectures
Author: Robert W. Field
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319159585
Category: Science
Page: 153
View: 2451

Continue Reading →

These seven lectures are intended to serve as an introduction for beginning graduate students to the spectra of small molecules. The author succeeds in illustrating the concepts by using language and metaphors that capture and elegantly convey simple insights into dynamics that lie beyond archival molecular constants. The lectures can simultaneously be viewed as a collection of interlocking special topics that have fascinated the author and his students over the years. Though neither a textbook nor a scholarly monograph, the book provides an illuminating perspective that will benefit students and researchers alike.

Physical Test Methods for Elastomers


Author: Roger Brown
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319667270
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 387
View: 8782

Continue Reading →

This book provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of physical testing of elastomers (rubbers and thermoplastic elastomers) including mechanical, electrical, thermal and all aspects of durability. Elastomers are an important class of materials used in such products as tyres, seals and hose which have markedly different properties to other materials. The importance of testing of elastomers means that a comprehensive text on the subject is essential. The advantage over general materials testing books is being more specific while the advantage over general rubber technology books is that testing is dealt with in depth.