Set Theory

With an Introduction to Real Point Sets
Author: Abhijit Dasgupta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461488540
Category: Mathematics
Page: 444
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What is a number? What is infinity? What is continuity? What is order? Answers to these fundamental questions obtained by late nineteenth-century mathematicians such as Dedekind and Cantor gave birth to set theory. This textbook presents classical set theory in an intuitive but concrete manner. To allow flexibility of topic selection in courses, the book is organized into four relatively independent parts with distinct mathematical flavors. Part I begins with the Dedekind–Peano axioms and ends with the construction of the real numbers. The core Cantor–Dedekind theory of cardinals, orders, and ordinals appears in Part II. Part III focuses on the real continuum. Finally, foundational issues and formal axioms are introduced in Part IV. Each part ends with a postscript chapter discussing topics beyond the scope of the main text, ranging from philosophical remarks to glimpses into landmark results of modern set theory such as the resolution of Lusin's problems on projective sets using determinacy of infinite games and large cardinals. Separating the metamathematical issues into an optional fourth part at the end makes this textbook suitable for students interested in any field of mathematics, not just for those planning to specialize in logic or foundations. There is enough material in the text for a year-long course at the upper-undergraduate level. For shorter one-semester or one-quarter courses, a variety of arrangements of topics are possible. The book will be a useful resource for both experts working in a relevant or adjacent area and beginners wanting to learn set theory via self-study.

The Real Numbers

An Introduction to Set Theory and Analysis
Author: John Stillwell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 331901577X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 244
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While most texts on real analysis are content to assume the real numbers, or to treat them only briefly, this text makes a serious study of the real number system and the issues it brings to light. Analysis needs the real numbers to model the line, and to support the concepts of continuity and measure. But these seemingly simple requirements lead to deep issues of set theory—uncountability, the axiom of choice, and large cardinals. In fact, virtually all the concepts of infinite set theory are needed for a proper understanding of the real numbers, and hence of analysis itself. By focusing on the set-theoretic aspects of analysis, this text makes the best of two worlds: it combines a down-to-earth introduction to set theory with an exposition of the essence of analysis—the study of infinite processes on the real numbers. It is intended for senior undergraduates, but it will also be attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians who, until now, have been content to "assume" the real numbers. Its prerequisites are calculus and basic mathematics. Mathematical history is woven into the text, explaining how the concepts of real number and infinity developed to meet the needs of analysis from ancient times to the late twentieth century. This rich presentation of history, along with a background of proofs, examples, exercises, and explanatory remarks, will help motivate the reader. The material covered includes classic topics from both set theory and real analysis courses, such as countable and uncountable sets, countable ordinals, the continuum problem, the Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein theorem, continuous functions, uniform convergence, Zorn's lemma, Borel sets, Baire functions, Lebesgue measure, and Riemann integrable functions.

Introduction to the Theory of Sets


Author: Joseph Breuer
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486154874
Category: Mathematics
Page: 128
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This undergraduate text develops its subject through observations of the physical world, covering finite sets, cardinal numbers, infinite cardinals, and ordinals. Includes exercises with answers. 1958 edition.

Principia Mathematica.


Author: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical
Page: 167
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An Introduction to Fuzzy Sets

Analysis and Design
Author: Witold Pedrycz,Fernando Gomide
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262161718
Category: Computers
Page: 465
View: 6147

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"The Pedrycz and Gomide text is superb in all respects. Its exposition of fuzzy-neural networks and fuzzy-genetic systems adds much to its value as a textbook" -- Lotfi A. Zadeh, University of California, Berkeley. The concept of fuzzy sets is one of the most fundamental and influential tools in computational intelligence. Fuzzy sets can provide solutions to a broad range of problems of control, pattern classification, reasoning, planning, and computer vision. This book bridges the gap that has developed between theory and practice. The authors explain what fuzzy sets are, why they work, when they should be used (and when they shouldn't), and how to design systems using them. The authors take an unusual top-down approach to the design of detailed algorithms. They begin with illustrative examples, explain the fundamental theory and design methodologies, and then present more advanced case studies dealing with practical tasks. While they use mathematics to introduce concepts, they ground them in examples of real-world problems that can be solved through fuzzy set technology. The only mathematics prerequisites are a basic knowledge of introductory calculus and linear algebra.

An Introduction to Random Sets


Author: Hung T. Nguyen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420010619
Category: Mathematics
Page: 272
View: 9968

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The study of random sets is a large and rapidly growing area with connections to many areas of mathematics and applications in widely varying disciplines, from economics and decision theory to biostatistics and image analysis. The drawback to such diversity is that the research reports are scattered throughout the literature, with the result that in science and engineering, and even in the statistics community, the topic is not well known and much of the enormous potential of random sets remains untapped. An Introduction to Random Sets provides a friendly but solid initiation into the theory of random sets. It builds the foundation for studying random set data, which, viewed as imprecise or incomplete observations, are ubiquitous in today's technological society. The author, widely known for his best-selling A First Course in Fuzzy Logic text as well as his pioneering work in random sets, explores motivations, such as coarse data analysis and uncertainty analysis in intelligent systems, for studying random sets as stochastic models. Other topics include random closed sets, related uncertainty measures, the Choquet integral, the convergence of capacity functionals, and the statistical framework for set-valued observations. An abundance of examples and exercises reinforce the concepts discussed. Designed as a textbook for a course at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, this book will serve equally well for self-study and as a reference for researchers in fields such as statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science.

An Introduction to Relativistic Quantum Field Theory


Author: Silvan S. Schweber
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486139603
Category: Science
Page: 944
View: 831

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In a relatively simple presentation that remains close to familiar concepts, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students introduces modern developments of quantum field theory. "Combines thorough knowledge with a high degree of didactic ability and a delightful style." — Mathematical Reviews. 1961 edition.

Set Theory


Author: Felix Hausdorff
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821838358
Category: Mathematics
Page: 352
View: 737

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In the early twentieth century, Hausdorff developed an axiomatic approach to topology, which continues to be the foundation of modern topology. The present book, the English translation of the third edition of Hausdorff's Mengenlehre, is a thorough introduction to his theory of point-set topology. The treatment begins with topics in the foundations of mathematics, including the basics of abstract set theory, sums and products of sets, cardinal and ordinal numbers, and Hausdorff's well-ordering theorem. The exposition then specializes to point sets, where major topics such as Borel systems, first and second category, and connectedness are considered in detail. Next, mappings between spaces are introduced. This leads naturally to a discussion of topological spaces and continuous mappings between them. Finally, the theory is applied to the study of real functions and their properties. The book does not presuppose any mathematical knowledge beyond calculus, but it does require a certain maturity in abstract reasoning; qualified college seniors and first-year graduate students should have no difficulty in making the material their own.

Introduction to Complex Analysis

Functions of Several Variables
Author: Boris Vladimirovich Shabat
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821819755
Category: Functions of complex variables
Page: 371
View: 497

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Since the 1960s, there has been a flowering in higher-dimensional complex analysis. Both classical and new results in this area have found numerous applications in analysis, differential and algebraic geometry, and, in particular, contemporary mathematical physics. In many areas of modern mathematics, the mastery of the foundations of higher-dimensional complex analysis has become necessary for any specialist. Intended as a first study of higher-dimensional complex analysis, this book covers the theory of holomorphic functions of several complex variables, holomorphic mappings, and submanifolds of complex Euclidean space.

An Introduction to Statistical Signal Processing


Author: Robert M. Gray,Lee D. Davisson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139456289
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: N.A
View: 4976

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This book describes the essential tools and techniques of statistical signal processing. At every stage theoretical ideas are linked to specific applications in communications and signal processing using a range of carefully chosen examples. The book begins with a development of basic probability, random objects, expectation, and second order moment theory followed by a wide variety of examples of the most popular random process models and their basic uses and properties. Specific applications to the analysis of random signals and systems for communicating, estimating, detecting, modulating, and other processing of signals are interspersed throughout the book. Hundreds of homework problems are included and the book is ideal for graduate students of electrical engineering and applied mathematics. It is also a useful reference for researchers in signal processing and communications.

Real Analysis

An Introduction to the Theory of Real Functions and Integration
Author: Jewgeni H. Dshalalow
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420036890
Category: Mathematics
Page: 584
View: 4075

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Designed for use in a two-semester course on abstract analysis, REAL ANALYSIS: An Introduction to the Theory of Real Functions and Integration illuminates the principle topics that constitute real analysis. Self-contained, with coverage of topology, measure theory, and integration, it offers a thorough elaboration of major theorems, notions, and constructions needed not only by mathematics students but also by students of statistics and probability, operations research, physics, and engineering. Structured logically and flexibly through the author's many years of teaching experience, the material is presented in three main sections: Part 1, chapters 1through 3, covers the preliminaries of set theory and the fundamentals of metric spaces and topology. This section can also serves as a text for first courses in topology. Part II, chapter 4 through 7, details the basics of measure and integration and stands independently for use in a separate measure theory course. Part III addresses more advanced topics, including elaborated and abstract versions of measure and integration along with their applications to functional analysis, probability theory, and conventional analysis on the real line. Analysis lies at the core of all mathematical disciplines, and as such, students need and deserve a careful, rigorous presentation of the material. REAL ANALYSIS: An Introduction to the Theory of Real Functions and Integration offers the perfect vehicle for building the foundation students need for more advanced studies.

Finsler Set Theory

Platonism and Circularity; Translations of Paul Finsler's Papers on Set Theory with Introductory Comments
Author: Paul Finsler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764354008
Category: Mathematics
Page: 278
View: 3874

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This English translation of Paul Finsler's papers on set theory reflects the central concerns of his investigations, namely the philosophical, foundational, and combinatorial approaches. Each section contains an introduction to the field by the editors, and a technical background is not necessary.

An Introduction to Abstract Mathematics


Author: Robert J. Bond,William J. Keane
Publisher: Waveland Press
ISBN: 1478608056
Category: Mathematics
Page: 323
View: 8388

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Bond and Keane explicate the elements of logical, mathematical argument to elucidate the meaning and importance of mathematical rigor. With definitions of concepts at their disposal, students learn the rules of logical inference, read and understand proofs of theorems, and write their own proofs all while becoming familiar with the grammar of mathematics and its style. In addition, they will develop an appreciation of the different methods of proof (contradiction, induction), the value of a proof, and the beauty of an elegant argument. The authors emphasize that mathematics is an ongoing, vibrant disciplineits long, fascinating history continually intersects with territory still uncharted and questions still in need of answers. The authors extensive background in teaching mathematics shines through in this balanced, explicit, and engaging text, designed as a primer for higher- level mathematics courses. They elegantly demonstrate process and application and recognize the byproducts of both the achievements and the missteps of past thinkers. Chapters 1-5 introduce the fundamentals of abstract mathematics and chapters 6-8 apply the ideas and techniques, placing the earlier material in a real context. Readers interest is continually piqued by the use of clear explanations, practical examples, discussion and discovery exercises, and historical comments.

An Introduction to Real Analysis

The Commonwealth and International Library: Mathematical Topics
Author: Derek G. Ball
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483158969
Category: Mathematics
Page: 324
View: 7973

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An Introduction to Real Analysis presents the concepts of real analysis and highlights the problems which necessitate the introduction of these concepts. Topics range from sets, relations, and functions to numbers, sequences, series, derivatives, and the Riemann integral. This volume begins with an introduction to some of the problems which are met in the use of numbers for measuring, and which provide motivation for the creation of real analysis. Attention then turns to real numbers that are built up from natural numbers, with emphasis on integers, rationals, and irrationals. The chapters that follow explore the conditions under which sequences have limits and derive the limits of many important sequences, along with functions of a real variable, Rolle's theorem and the nature of the derivative, and the theory of infinite series and how the concepts may be applied to decimal representation. The book also discusses some important functions and expansions before concluding with a chapter on the Riemann integral and the problem of area and its measurement. Throughout the text the stress has been upon concepts and interesting results rather than upon techniques. Each chapter contains exercises meant to facilitate understanding of the subject matter. This book is intended for students in colleges of education and others with similar needs.

An Introduction to Analysis


Author: Arlen Brown,Carl Pearcy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387943695
Category: Mathematics
Page: 300
View: 9038

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As its title indicates, this book is intended to serve as a textbook for an introductory course in mathematical analysis. In preliminary form the book has been used in this way at the University of Michigan, Indiana University, and Texas A&M University, and has proved serviceable. In addition to its primary purpose as a textbook for a formal course, however, it is the authors' hope that this book will also prove of value to readers interested in studying mathematical analysis on their own. Indeed, we believe the wealth and variety of examples and exercises will be especially conducive to this end. A word on prerequisites. With what mathematical background might a prospective reader hope to profit from the study of this book? Our con scious intent in writing it was to address the needs of a beginning graduate student in mathematics, or, to put matters slightly differently, a student who has completed an undergraduate program with a mathematics ma jor. On the other hand, the book is very largely self-contained and should therefore be accessible to a lower classman whose interest in mathematical analysis has already been awakened.

An Introduction to Linear Programming and the Theory of Games


Author: Abraham M. Glicksman
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486417103
Category: Mathematics
Page: 131
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Simple exposition of linear programming and matrix games covers convex sets in the Cartesian plane and the fundamental extreme point theorem for convex polygons; the simplex method in linear programming; the fundamental duality theorem and its corollary, von Neumann's minimax theorem; more. Easily understood problems and illustrative exercises. 1963 edition.

Introduction to Probability with Mathematica


Author: Kevin J. Hastings
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781584881094
Category: Mathematics
Page: 400
View: 6453

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Newcomers to the world of probability face several potential stumbling blocks. They often struggle with key concepts-sample space, random variable, distribution, and expectation; they must regularly confront integration, infrequently mastered in calculus classes; and they must labor over lengthy, cumbersome calculations. Introduction to Probability with Mathematica is a groundbreaking text that uses a powerful computer algebra system as a pedagogical tool for learning and using probability. Its clever use of simulation to illustrate concepts and motivate important theorems gives it an important and unique place in the library of probability theory. The author smoothly integrates the technology with the traditional approach and subject matter, thereby augmenting rather than overpowering it. This book lives and breathes in the sense that not only can it be read and studied in an armchair, but each section also exists as a fully executable Mathematica® notebook on the CRC Web site. Students will find Introduction to Probability with Mathematica an engaging, accessible, yet challenging way to venture into the fascinating subject of probability.

Real Analysis with Economic Applications


Author: Efe A. Ok
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400840899
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 832
View: 3089

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There are many mathematics textbooks on real analysis, but they focus on topics not readily helpful for studying economic theory or they are inaccessible to most graduate students of economics. Real Analysis with Economic Applications aims to fill this gap by providing an ideal textbook and reference on real analysis tailored specifically to the concerns of such students. The emphasis throughout is on topics directly relevant to economic theory. In addition to addressing the usual topics of real analysis, this book discusses the elements of order theory, convex analysis, optimization, correspondences, linear and nonlinear functional analysis, fixed-point theory, dynamic programming, and calculus of variations. Efe Ok complements the mathematical development with applications that provide concise introductions to various topics from economic theory, including individual decision theory and games, welfare economics, information theory, general equilibrium and finance, and intertemporal economics. Moreover, apart from direct applications to economic theory, his book includes numerous fixed point theorems and applications to functional equations and optimization theory. The book is rigorous, but accessible to those who are relatively new to the ways of real analysis. The formal exposition is accompanied by discussions that describe the basic ideas in relatively heuristic terms, and by more than 1,000 exercises of varying difficulty. This book will be an indispensable resource in courses on mathematics for economists and as a reference for graduate students working on economic theory.

The Philosophy of Set Theory

An Historical Introduction to Cantor's Paradise
Author: Mary Tiles
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486435206
Category: Mathematics
Page: 239
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A century ago, Georg Cantor demonstrated the possibility of a series of transfinite infinite numbers. His methods, unorthodox for the time, enabled him to derive theorems that established a mathematical reality for a hierarchy of infinities. Cantor's innovation was opposed, and ignored, by the establishment; years later, the value of his work was recognized and appreciated as a landmark in mathematical thought, forming the beginning of set theory and the foundation for most of contemporary mathematics. As Cantor's sometime collaborator, David Hilbert, remarked, "No one will drive us from the paradise that Cantor has created." This volume offers a guided tour of modern mathematics' Garden of Eden, beginning with perspectives on the finite universe and classes and Aristotelian logic. Author Mary Tiles further examines permutations, combinations, and infinite cardinalities; numbering the continuum; Cantor's transfinite paradise; axiomatic set theory; logical objects and logical types; and independence results and the universe of sets. She concludes with views of the constructs and reality of mathematical structure. Philosophers with only a basic grounding in mathematics, as well as mathematicians who have taken only an introductory course in philosophy, will find an abundance of intriguing topics in this text, which is appropriate for undergraduate-and graduate-level courses.

Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers

Definitions, Theorems, and Formulas for Reference and Review
Author: Granino A. Korn,Theresa M. Korn
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486320235
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 1152
View: 5163

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Convenient access to information from every area of mathematics: Fourier transforms, Z transforms, linear and nonlinear programming, calculus of variations, random-process theory, special functions, combinatorial analysis, game theory, much more.