Sedimentary Organic Matter

Organic facies and palynofacies
Author: R. Tyson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401107394
Category: Science
Page: 615
View: 356

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A sound understanding of the global carbon cycle requires an appreciation of the various physico-chemical and biological processes that determine the production, distribution, deposition and diagenesis of organic matter in the natural environment. This book is a comprehensive interdisciplinary synthesis of this information, coupled with an organic facies approach based on data from both microscopy and bulk organic geochemistry.

Mud and Mudstones

Introduction and Overview
Author: Paul E. Potter,J. B. Maynard,Pedro J. Depetris
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540270825
Category: Science
Page: 297
View: 805

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Clear writing and analysis of the broad spectrum of processes that produce shale are coupled with well-captioned 150 illustrations, 40 tables, boxed technical details, glossary and appendices. Recounts the step-by-step evolution and stages of shal, enabling readers to master the basics and to dig yet deeper into their origin, practical implications and relationship to earth history. Background information appears in appendices (Clay Mineralogy, Isotopes, Petrology, etc.); technicial details in high-lighted boxes, and definitions of 300+ terms in the Glossary.

Petroleum Formation and Occurrence


Author: B.P. Tissot,D.H. Welte
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364287813X
Category: Science
Page: 702
View: 5944

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Current and authoritative with many advanced concepts for petroleum geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, or engineers engaged in the search for or production of crude oil and natural gas, or interested in their habitats and the factors that control them, this book is an excellent reference. It is recommended without reservation. AAPG Bulletin.

Paleopalynology

Second Edition
Author: Alfred Traverse
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402056109
Category: Science
Page: 813
View: 2726

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This book provides complete coverage of all aspects of the study of all fossil palynomorphs yet studied. It is a profusely illustrated treatment. The book serves both as a student text and general reference work. Palynomorphs yield information about age, geological and biological environment, climate during deposition, and other significant factors about the enclosing rocks. Extant spores and pollen are treated first, preparing the student for more difficult work with fossil sporomorphs and other kinds of palynomorphs. An appendix describes laboratory methods. The glossary, bibliographies and index are useful tools for study of the literature.

Use of Proxies in Paleoceanography

Examples from the South Atlantic
Author: Gerhard Fischer,Gerold Wefer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642586465
Category: Science
Page: 735
View: 4198

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Paleoceanographic proxies provide infonnation for reconstructions of the past, including climate changes, global and regional oceanography, and the cycles of biochemical components in the ocean. These prox ies are measurable descriptors for desired but unobservable environmental variables such as tempera ture, salinity, primary productivity, nutrient content, or surface-water carbon dioxide concentrations. The proxies are employed in a manner analogous to oceanographic methods. The water masses are first characterized according to their specific physical and chemical properties, and then related to particular assemblages of certain organisms or to particular element or isotope distributions. We have a long-standing series of proven proxies available. Marine microfossil assemblages, for instance, are employed to reconstruct surface-water temperatures. The calcareous shells of planktonic and benthic microorgan isms contain a wealth of paleoceanographic information in their isotopic and elemental compositions. Stable oxygen isotope measurements are used to detennine ice volume, and MglCa ratios are related to water temperatures, to cite a few examples. Organic material may also provide valuable infonnation, e. g. , about past productivity conditions. Studying the stable carbon isotope composition of bulk organic matter or individual marine organic components may provide a measure of past surface-water CO 2 conditions within the bounds of certain assumptions. Within the scope of paleoceanographic investigations, the existing proxies are continuously evolving and improving, while new proxies are being studied and developed. The methodology is improved by analysis of samples from the water column and surface sediments, and through laboratory experiments.

Black shales


Author: P. B. Wignall
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198540380
Category: Nature
Page: 127
View: 9021

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Black shales provides the first comprehensive synthesis of the diverse research regarding the origin of petroleum source rocks. The book offers in-depth reviews from the fields sedimentology, palaeoecology, and geochemistry, and particularly focuses on the influence of palaeo-oxygen levels. Current debates--including the one over the influence of sedimentation rate, productivity, and enhanced preservation on the burial efficiency of organic carbon--receive a lively discussion. In addition, the importance of newly defined concepts of sequence stratigraphy to models of the formation of black shales receives an in-depth treatment for the first time. The book will be of interest to all geologists investigating palaeoenvironments, particularly those engaged in the search for hydrocarbons.

Applications of Paleoenvironmental Techniques in Estuarine Studies


Author: Kaarina Weckström,Krystyna M. Saunders,Peter A. Gell,C. Gregory Skilbeck
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9402409904
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 700
View: 9354

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The aim of this edited volume is to introduce the scientific community to paleoenvironmental studies of estuaries, to highlight the types of information that can be obtained from such studies, and to promote the use of paleoenvironmental studies in estuarine management. Readers will learn about the the application of different paleoecological approaches used in estuaries that develop our understanding of their response to natural and human influences. Particular attention is given to the essential steps required for undertaking a paleoecological study, in particular with regard to site selection, core extraction and chronological techniques, followed by the range of indicators that can be used. A series of case studies are discussed in the book to demonstrate how paleoecological studies can be used to address key questions, and to sustainably manage these important coastal environments in the future. This book will appeal to professional scientists interested in estuarine studies and/or paleoenvironmental research, as well as estuarine managers who are interested in the incorporation of paleoenvironmental research into their management programs.

The Vegetation of Antarctica Through Geological Time


Author: David J. Cantrill,Imogen Poole
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521855985
Category: Science
Page: 480
View: 1477

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Looks at the fossil plant history of Antarctica and its relationship to the global record of environmental and climate change.

Abrupt Climatic Change

Evidence and Implications
Author: W.H. Berger,L.D. Labeyrie
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027726049
Category: Science
Page: 425
View: 957

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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, St. Hugues de Biviers, France, October 16-22, 1985

Sedimentation of Organic Particles


Author: Alfred Traverse
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521675505
Category: Science
Page: 560
View: 6671

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Microscopic organic-walled fossils are found in most sedimentary rocks. The organic particles - spores, pollens and other land and marine derived microfossils, representing animals, plants, fungi and protists - can be extracted and used to date the rock, reveal details of the original sedimentary environment and provide information on the climate of the time. The mix within a sediment of whole organic particles - palynomorphs - and organic fragments - palynodebris - form palynofacies. This book presents research work on the sedimentation of components of palynofacies and details their importance for sequence stratigraphy and the interpretation of ancient biologic and geologic environments. A comprehensive introduction to the subject is presented in the first chapter. Palynosedimentation in modern environments, the reconstruction of terrestrial vegetation and the application of the data to sequence stratigraphy are then considered. Later chapters detail various quantitative methods and their specific applications in the subject. This is a valuable reference work for palynologists and sedimentologists and also for paleobiologists, and for professionals working in the hydrocarbons industries.

Advances in Stromatolite Geobiology


Author: Joachim Reitner,Nadia-Valérie Quéric,Gernot Arp
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642104150
Category: Science
Page: 560
View: 2121

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Stromatolites are the most intriguing geobiological structures of the entire earth history since the beginning of the fossil record in the Archaean. Stromatolites and microbialites are interpreted as biosedimentological remains of biofilms and microbial mats. These structures are important environmental and evolutionary archives which give us information about ancient habitats, biodiversity, and evolution of complex benthic ecosystems. However, many geobiological aspects of these structures are still unknown or only poorly understood. The present proceedings highlight the new ideas and information on the formation and environmental setting of stromatolites presented at the occasion of the Kalkowsky Symposium 2008, held in Göttingen, Germany.

STRATI 2013

First International Congress on Stratigraphy At the Cutting Edge of Stratigraphy
Author: Rogerio Rocha,Joao Pais,Jose Carlos Kullberg,Stanley Finney
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319043641
Category: Science
Page: 1335
View: 3714

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The 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy (STRATI 2013), hold in Lisbon, 1–7 July 2013, follows the decision to internationalize the conferences previously organized by the French Committee of Stratigraphy (STRATI), the last one of which was held in Paris in 2010. Thus, the congress possesses both the momentum gained from an established conference event and the excitement of being the first International Congress on Stratigraphy. It is held under the auspices of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (IUGS) and it is envisaged that this first congress will lead to others being held in the future. This book includes all papers accepted for oral or poster presentation at the 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy. Papers include a short abstract, main text, figures, tables and references. Each paper has been reviewed by two internationally renowned scientists.

Introduction to Organic Geochemistry


Author: Stephen D. Killops,Vanessa J. Killops
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118697200
Category: Science
Page: 408
View: 4102

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An Introduction to Organic Geochemistry explores the fate of organic matter of all types, biogenic and man-made, in the Earth System. investigates the variety of pathways and biogeochemical transformations that carbon compounds can experience over a range of time scales and in different environments scope widened to provide a broad and up-to-date background - structured to accommodate readers with varied scientific backgrounds essential terminology is defined fully and boxes are used to explain concepts introduced from other disciplines further study aided by the incorporation of carefully selected literature references It investigates the variety of pathways and biogeochemical transformations that carbon compounds can experience over a range of time scales and in different environments.

Wind Energy Handbook


Author: Tony Burton,Nick Jenkins,David Sharpe,Ervin Bossanyi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119993926
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 780
View: 5860

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Named as one of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles of 2012 Every year, Choice subject editors recognise the most significant print and electronic works reviewed in Choice during the previous calendar year. Appearing annually in Choice's January issue, this prestigious list of publications reflects the best in scholarly titles and attracts extraordinary attention from the academic library community. The authoritative reference on wind energy, now fully revised and updated to include offshore wind power A decade on from its first release, the Wind Energy Handbook, Second Edition, reflects the advances in technology underpinning the continued expansion of the global wind power sector. Harnessing their collective industrial and academic expertise, the authors provide a comprehensive introduction to wind turbine design and wind farm planning for onshore and offshore wind-powered electricity generation. The major change since the first edition is the addition of a new chapter on offshore wind turbines and offshore wind farm development. Opening with a survey of the present state of offshore wind farm development, the chapter goes on to consider resource assessment and array losses. Then wave loading on support structures is examined in depth, including wind and wave load combinations and descriptions of applicable wave theories. After sections covering optimum machine size and offshore turbine reliability, the different types of support structure deployed to date are described in turn, with emphasis on monopiles, including fatigue analysis in the frequency domain. Final sections examine the assessment of environmental impacts and the design of the power collection and transmission cable network. New coverage features: turbulence models updated to reflect the latest design standards, including an introduction to the Mann turbulence model extended treatment of horizontal axis wind turbines aerodynamics, now including a survey of wind turbine aerofoils, dynamic stall and computational fluid dynamics developments in turbine design codes techniques for extrapolating extreme loads from simulation results an introduction to the NREL cost model comparison of options for variable speed operation in-depth treatment of individual blade pitch control grid code requirements and the principles governing the connection of large wind farms to transmission networks four pages of full-colour pictures that illustrate blade manufacture, turbine construction and offshore support structure installation Firmly established as an essential reference, Wind Energy Handbook, Second Edition will prove a real asset to engineers, turbine designers and wind energy consultants both in industry and research. Advanced engineering students and new entrants to the wind energy sector will also find it an invaluable resource.

Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs


Author: P.O. Roehl,P.W. Choquette
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461250404
Category: Science
Page: 622
View: 920

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The case history approach has an impressive record of success in a variety of disciplines. Collections of case histories, casebooks, are now widely used in all sorts of specialties other than in their familiar application to law and medicine. The case method had its formal beginning at Harvard in 1871 when Christopher Lagdell developed it as a means of teaching. It was so successful in teaching law that it was soon adopted in medical education, and the col lection of cases provided the raw material for research on various diseases. Subsequently, the case history approach spread to such varied fields as busi ness, psychology, management, and economics, and there are over 100 books in print that use this approach. The idea for a series of Casebooks in Earth Sciences grew from my ex perience in organizing and editing a collection of examples of one variety of sedimentary deposits. The project began as an effort to bring some order to a large number of descriptions of these deposits that were so varied in pre sentation and terminology that even specialists found them difficult to compare and analyze. Thus, from the beginning, it was evident that something more than a simple collection of papers was needed. Accordingly, the nearly fifty contributors worked together with George de Vries Klein and me to establish a standard format for presenting the case histories.

Kerogen

Insoluble Organic Matter from Sedimentary Rocks
Author: Bernard Durand
Publisher: Editions TECHNIP
ISBN: 9782710803713
Category: Science
Page: 519
View: 300

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