Sedimentary Organic Matter

Organic facies and palynofacies
Author: R. Tyson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401107394
Category: Science
Page: 615
View: 5995

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A sound understanding of the global carbon cycle requires an appreciation of the various physico-chemical and biological processes that determine the production, distribution, deposition and diagenesis of organic matter in the natural environment. This book is a comprehensive interdisciplinary synthesis of this information, coupled with an organic facies approach based on data from both microscopy and bulk organic geochemistry.

Mud and Mudstones

Introduction and Overview
Author: Paul E. Potter,J. B. Maynard,Pedro J. Depetris
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540270825
Category: Science
Page: 297
View: 5359

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Clear writing and analysis of the broad spectrum of processes that produce shale are coupled with well-captioned 150 illustrations, 40 tables, boxed technical details, glossary and appendices. Recounts the step-by-step evolution and stages of shal, enabling readers to master the basics and to dig yet deeper into their origin, practical implications and relationship to earth history. Background information appears in appendices (Clay Mineralogy, Isotopes, Petrology, etc.); technicial details in high-lighted boxes, and definitions of 300+ terms in the Glossary.


Second Edition
Author: Alfred Traverse
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402056109
Category: Science
Page: 813
View: 6254

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This book provides complete coverage of all aspects of the study of all fossil palynomorphs yet studied. It is a profusely illustrated treatment. The book serves both as a student text and general reference work. Palynomorphs yield information about age, geological and biological environment, climate during deposition, and other significant factors about the enclosing rocks. Extant spores and pollen are treated first, preparing the student for more difficult work with fossil sporomorphs and other kinds of palynomorphs. An appendix describes laboratory methods. The glossary, bibliographies and index are useful tools for study of the literature.

Use of Proxies in Paleoceanography

Examples from the South Atlantic
Author: Gerhard Fischer,Gerold Wefer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642586465
Category: Science
Page: 735
View: 7686

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Paleoceanographic proxies provide infonnation for reconstructions of the past, including climate changes, global and regional oceanography, and the cycles of biochemical components in the ocean. These prox ies are measurable descriptors for desired but unobservable environmental variables such as tempera ture, salinity, primary productivity, nutrient content, or surface-water carbon dioxide concentrations. The proxies are employed in a manner analogous to oceanographic methods. The water masses are first characterized according to their specific physical and chemical properties, and then related to particular assemblages of certain organisms or to particular element or isotope distributions. We have a long-standing series of proven proxies available. Marine microfossil assemblages, for instance, are employed to reconstruct surface-water temperatures. The calcareous shells of planktonic and benthic microorgan isms contain a wealth of paleoceanographic information in their isotopic and elemental compositions. Stable oxygen isotope measurements are used to detennine ice volume, and MglCa ratios are related to water temperatures, to cite a few examples. Organic material may also provide valuable infonnation, e. g. , about past productivity conditions. Studying the stable carbon isotope composition of bulk organic matter or individual marine organic components may provide a measure of past surface-water CO 2 conditions within the bounds of certain assumptions. Within the scope of paleoceanographic investigations, the existing proxies are continuously evolving and improving, while new proxies are being studied and developed. The methodology is improved by analysis of samples from the water column and surface sediments, and through laboratory experiments.

Petroleum Formation and Occurrence

Author: B.P. Tissot,D.H. Welte
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364287813X
Category: Science
Page: 702
View: 5065

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Current and authoritative with many advanced concepts for petroleum geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, or engineers engaged in the search for or production of crude oil and natural gas, or interested in their habitats and the factors that control them, this book is an excellent reference. It is recommended without reservation. AAPG Bulletin.

Black shales

Author: P. B. Wignall
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198540380
Category: Nature
Page: 127
View: 3802

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Black shales provides the first comprehensive synthesis of the diverse research regarding the origin of petroleum source rocks. The book offers in-depth reviews from the fields sedimentology, palaeoecology, and geochemistry, and particularly focuses on the influence of palaeo-oxygen levels. Current debates--including the one over the influence of sedimentation rate, productivity, and enhanced preservation on the burial efficiency of organic carbon--receive a lively discussion. In addition, the importance of newly defined concepts of sequence stratigraphy to models of the formation of black shales receives an in-depth treatment for the first time. The book will be of interest to all geologists investigating palaeoenvironments, particularly those engaged in the search for hydrocarbons.

Applications of Paleoenvironmental Techniques in Estuarine Studies

Author: Kaarina Weckström,Krystyna M. Saunders,Peter A. Gell,C. Gregory Skilbeck
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9402409904
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 700
View: 424

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The aim of this edited volume is to introduce the scientific community to paleoenvironmental studies of estuaries, to highlight the types of information that can be obtained from such studies, and to promote the use of paleoenvironmental studies in estuarine management. Readers will learn about the the application of different paleoecological approaches used in estuaries that develop our understanding of their response to natural and human influences. Particular attention is given to the essential steps required for undertaking a paleoecological study, in particular with regard to site selection, core extraction and chronological techniques, followed by the range of indicators that can be used. A series of case studies are discussed in the book to demonstrate how paleoecological studies can be used to address key questions, and to sustainably manage these important coastal environments in the future. This book will appeal to professional scientists interested in estuarine studies and/or paleoenvironmental research, as well as estuarine managers who are interested in the incorporation of paleoenvironmental research into their management programs.

The Vegetation of Antarctica Through Geological Time

Author: David J. Cantrill,Imogen Poole
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521855985
Category: Science
Page: 480
View: 554

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Looks at the fossil plant history of Antarctica and its relationship to the global record of environmental and climate change.


Middle East Petroleum Geosciences
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
Category: Petroleum
Page: N.A
View: 2111

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Insoluble Organic Matter from Sedimentary Rocks
Author: Bernard Durand
Publisher: Editions TECHNIP
ISBN: 9782710803713
Category: Science
Page: 519
View: 5878

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Abrupt Climatic Change

Evidence and Implications
Author: W.H. Berger,L.D. Labeyrie
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027726049
Category: Science
Page: 425
View: 4523

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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, St. Hugues de Biviers, France, October 16-22, 1985

Applied Stratigraphy

Author: Eduardo A.M. Koutsoukos
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402026324
Category: Science
Page: 488
View: 5745

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Stratigraphy has come to be indispensable to nearly all branches of the earth sciences, assisting such endeavors as charting the course of evolution, understanding ancient ecosystems, and furnishing data pivotal to finding strategic mineral resources. This book focuses on traditional and innovative stratigraphy techniques and how these can be used to reconstruct the geological history of sedimentary basins and in solving manifold geological problems and phenomena.


First International Congress on Stratigraphy At the Cutting Edge of Stratigraphy
Author: Rogerio Rocha,Joao Pais,Jose Carlos Kullberg,Stanley Finney
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319043641
Category: Science
Page: 1335
View: 5181

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The 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy (STRATI 2013), hold in Lisbon, 1–7 July 2013, follows the decision to internationalize the conferences previously organized by the French Committee of Stratigraphy (STRATI), the last one of which was held in Paris in 2010. Thus, the congress possesses both the momentum gained from an established conference event and the excitement of being the first International Congress on Stratigraphy. It is held under the auspices of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (IUGS) and it is envisaged that this first congress will lead to others being held in the future. This book includes all papers accepted for oral or poster presentation at the 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy. Papers include a short abstract, main text, figures, tables and references. Each paper has been reviewed by two internationally renowned scientists.

Organic Geochemistry

Principles and Applications
Author: Michael Engel,Stephen A. Macko
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461528909
Category: Science
Page: 861
View: 2019

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As this is the first general textbook for the field published in over twenty years, the editors have taken great care to make sure coverage is comprehensive. Diagenesis of organic matter, kerogens, exploration for fossil fuels, and many other subjects are discussed in detail to provide faculty and students with a thorough introduction to organic geochemistry.

Introduction to Organic Geochemistry

Author: Stephen D. Killops,Vanessa J. Killops
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118697200
Category: Science
Page: 408
View: 5569

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An Introduction to Organic Geochemistry explores the fate of organic matter of all types, biogenic and man-made, in the Earth System. investigates the variety of pathways and biogeochemical transformations that carbon compounds can experience over a range of time scales and in different environments scope widened to provide a broad and up-to-date background - structured to accommodate readers with varied scientific backgrounds essential terminology is defined fully and boxes are used to explain concepts introduced from other disciplines further study aided by the incorporation of carefully selected literature references It investigates the variety of pathways and biogeochemical transformations that carbon compounds can experience over a range of time scales and in different environments.


Author: Howard Armstrong,Martin Brasier
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118685458
Category: Science
Page: 304
View: 647

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This is a new and completely rewritten edition of the well-known text Microfossils (first published in 1980) covering all the major microfossil groups, with information on taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology and palaeoecology. particular attention is given to the uses of microfossils in environmental reconstruction and biostratigraphy numerous line and half-tone illustrations emphasis on practical applications of micropalaeontology only student-friendly micropaleontology text available